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BX 9743 .B6 B6 v.l 

Booth Tucker, Frederick St. 

George de Lautour, 1853- 
The life of Catherine Booth 












30 Union Square, East. 148-150 Madison Street. 

Pultlishers of Evangelical Literature. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year iSga, by 


in the office of the Librarian at Washington. 


My task is completed. Imperfectly? Alas, none 
could be more conscious of that fact than myself ! I 
have longed unspeakably for inspiration 's pen to write 
the record of a life inspired, no matter whose the 
hand that held the pen ! I have wept with disappoint- 
ment as I have struggled to describe the indescrib- 
able ! A thousand times, in the lonely solitude of my 
room, I have turned from pen to prayer, and then 
again from prayer to pen. My whole soul has 
yearned unspeakably to enshrine our Army Mother's 
memory fittingly, and to enable her in these pages 
to live her life again. 

I have not criticised? No! I could not, for I loved. 
With the love of a son — the respect, the admiration, 
the enthusiasm of a disciple. For critical biography 
I have neither time nor taste. 

/ Jiave exaggerated ? No ! Inquire from those who 
knew her best — her family, her friends, the Army. 
I have sought to tell "the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth ; " to let facts and letters speak 
for themselves, and to surround the picture with but 
a framework of such explanations as have seemed 
necessary for the occasion. 

/ claim for Mrs. Booth infallibility ? No ! Only 


sanctified common sense. "Jesus Christ made unto 
her wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemp- 

She made mistakes ? Undoubtedly ! But I have not 
found many to record. As a Mother — her family 
speak for her in the gates. As a Wife — her husband 
lives and testifies. As an Apostle — thousands of her 
spiritual children are scattered through the world. 

/ have been too laudatory ? Nay, verily ! Press and 
pulpit have combined to set their seal on every word, 
and the highest praise proceeds from other lips. My 
own opinion eight years' intimacy has entitled me to 
express. Of the General and the living members of 
the family I have left unsaid the appreciation and 
admiration which my heart has felt ; but of the subject 
of these memoirs I have claimed the liberty to say that 
which I feel, and to testify that which I know. Sen- 
sitive to a fault of what the public might think, the 
General would have preferred that I should imderdxsw 
rather than overdirsLW her character. He would have 
been even willing that I should sprinkle a few blots — 
I wdll not say of my own manufacture — over the can- 
vas, lest any should charge me with claiming perfec- 
tion for the picture. I have asserted — may I call it 
the artistic privilege? — of dispensing with the blots 
which my imagination refused to invent or my re- 
searches to discover. I have assumed the editorial 
responsibility of saying what I think, of saying it in 
the way that I desire, and of distributing my adjec- 
tives where they seemed most to be required, and I 


certainly must have declined the task had I not been 
allowed this, in my estimation, legitimate freedom. 

Are tJicrc no shadozvs, then ? Oh, yes! Alas, almost 
too many ! Victory shadowed by defeat, joy by sor- 
row, strength by weakness, warfare by suffering, life 
by death. A mighty intellect, an iron will, an ocean 
soul, encased in an " earthen vessel " so frail that a 
touch seemed sufficient to shatter it. A barque tossed 
upon the waves of a perpetual tempest of opposition, 
persecution, criticism, from the day when it was 
launched on its perilous life-voyage to the day when 
it cast anchor in the eternal Haven. 

But the sources of my information ? The entire 
private correspondence of Mrs. Booth from 1847 on- 
wards has been placed at my disposal. Never has 
biographer been more privileged to peer with prying 
eye behind the scenes and ransack the minutest de- 
tails of a life. Litera scripta nianet. The written 
records have spoken for themselves, and on their 
silent testimony, more than on the memories of living 
witnesses, this Life is based. The facts have been 
carefully corrected by the General ; for the opinions, 
where they are not those of Mrs. Booth, I assume the 
entire responsibility. 

/ have been helped? Yes, by my dear wife, Mrs. 
Booth's second daughter, Emma. [She does not 
think I have spoken too highly of her mother, and 
verily she ought to know. Nevertheless, the opinions 
are inijie, not hers.'] Piles of hurriedly-written, ill- 
digested manuscripts, which but for her I would fain 


have hurled impatiently at the printer's head, or have 
consigned to the depths of the waste-paper basket, 
have been dissected page by page, sentence by sen- 
tence, almost word by word. Dissectcd^^—yes, that is 
the word ; dissected at home till I almost feel criticism- 
proof abroad ! 

I have taken a long time ? Not very. I received 
my material the end of July, 1891. I sit writing 
these lines on the 2d of the same month, barely 
eleven months afterwards. The life of a Salvationist 
is a life of interruption. Wherever he goes there are 
" lions in the way. " Telegrams and letters follow him 
to every retreat. Seclusion, privacy, and the quietude 
supposed to be necessary for literary enterprise — the 
words have been obliterated from his dictionary, 
the very ideas have almost faded from his mind. His 
table is a keg of spiritual gunpowder, his seat a can- 
non-ball; and he writes as best he may amid the whiz 
and crash of flying shot and shell, the rush and ex- 
citement of a never-ending battle, in which peace and 
truce are words unknown, and rest, in the ordinary 
sense of the word, is relegated to heaven. 

Again, it has not been like zvriting a novel, where 
the author can give the heroine free scope to say 
and do as she pleases, or, rather, as he may please. 
A biography has meant a history of facts, and those 
facts have had to be verified and arranged. Thou- 
sands of letters, articles, speeches, and reports have 
required to be studied, till my head has fairly reeled 
and my eyes have ached. 


But I said, / Jia%'c been helped. Yes, I have been 
helped by God — helped by the remembrance that she 
of whom I wrote was indeed a prophet of the Most 
High, and that it could not but please Him that the 
messages which had been uttered through her lips 
and life should be repeated through the medium of 
these pages ; helped by the thought that it would be a 
comfort to her family, and an inspiration to our Army, 
and to tens of thousands outside our ranks, to read a 
record of such devoted service. 

It has been a labor of love. I undertook it with re- 
luctance, owing to a deep sense of my insufficiency. 
I conclude it with regret, realising how greatly God 
has blest it to my soul. I send it forth with the sin- 
cere prayer that it may be made an equal blessing to 
all who read, and that they may be enabled to re-live, 
at least in miniature, the life of Catherine Booth. 

F. DE L. Booth-Tucker. 

loi Queen Victoria St., London, E. C. , 
2d July, 1892. 



Shadowland. 1820-1829. 


Future greatness foreshadowed. — A modern pilgrimage. — Mrs. 
Booth's mother. — A tragic loye-story. — "I believe in the 
forgiveness of sins." — The Siren's melody. — A remarkable 
conversion. — Divinely healed. — "This way to the pit." 
— Mrs. Booth's grandfather. — A stormy scene. — John Mum- 
ford. ^Turned out of home. — Sarah Milward's marriage. — 
A touching reconciliation. — The grandfather's death. — "Be- 
yond the river," ......... i 


Childhood. 1829-1834. 

Mrs. Booth's birth-place. — A death-bed scene. — A wise 
mother. — About nurseries. — And playmates. — A mother's 
girl. — Sensitive conscience. — The weeping child. — Brothers 
gone before. — Eschewing French. — Jeanne d'Arc. — Bible 
studies. — The doll family. — A dark shadow. — Restoration, 13 


Early Days. 1834-1841. 

Removal to Boston. — The child politician and temperance sec- 
retary. — Contributing to magazine. — Catholic emancipation 
question. — Sense of responsibility. — Sympathetic charac- 
ter. — The child and the criminal. — First open-air pro- 
cession. — Death of favourite dog. — Love for dumb ani- 
mals. — Kindness to donkeys. — Feeding horses by night. — 
Saving a donkey from ill-treatment. — Love for religious 
meetings. — "Over the Bible to Hell." — Love of Method- 
ism. — Self-sacrifice. — Collecting for missions, . . .22 


School Life. 1841-1843. 


Modern system of education. — Its evils. — Mrs. Booth's views. — 
"One language enough for the devil." — Mrs. Booth at 
school. — Character for truthfulness. — Appointed monitor. — 
Helping others with their studies. — Estimate of Napoleon 
and Caesar. — Spinal complaint. — Knowledge of church his- 
tor5^ — Notes on Butler's "Analogy." — "Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress. " — In the wilderness, . . . ... . -33 


Youth. 1844-1847. 

A love episode. — Removal to London. — The Metropolis. — Car- 
riage accident. — Mrs. Booth's conversion. — Joins the Wes- 
leyan Church. — Indefinite preaching. — Praying in the class- 
meeting. — Mechanical testimonies. — Class-leader's daugh- 
ter. — Worldly conformity, ....... 42 


Her Diary. 1847-1848. 

Serious illness. — Visit to Brighton. — Letter to mother. — Praying 
for her father. — Early correspondence. — Visiting the sick. — 
Sunday-school.^ — A tragic incident. — Inward struggles. — 
Perfect love. — Trusting, . . . . . . -53 


The Refor.mers. 1844-1852. 

Reform agitation. — Wesley's successors. — The Legal Hun- 
dred. — The Fly Sheets. — The men in masks. — The brotherly 
question. — The Wesleyan Tt'incs. — Acrimonious disputes. — 
Caughey's banishment. — Wanted, an Elisha. — Miss Mum- 
ford a radical. — Her sympathy with the Reformers. — Retal- 
iatory measures. — Miss Miimford expelled from the Wesley- 
an Church. — Joins the Reformers. — Becomes a class-lead- 
er. — Disappointed with the Reformers, . . . .63 


William Booth. 1829-1852. 

Born in Nottingham loth April, 1829. — His mother. — His 
father. — Converted at fifteen. — His friend Sansom. — Cottage 
meetings. — Processions and open-airs. — Please go to the 



back-door. — Sunday toil. — A local preacher at seventeen. — 
Called to the ministry at nineteen.— The doctor's objec- 
tion. — Worshipped John Wesley. — Goes to London in 1849. — 
"The only son of my mother." — His earliest extant letters 
to John Savage. — Not a single "Amen."— His plan of cam- 
paign. — "A ministry of the talents." — Too much of the 
shroud. — A stirring letter. — Preachers are not wanted. — 
No interest in the Reformers. — Resigns his local preacher- 
ship. — His ticket of membership withheld. — A heresy-hunt- 
ing superintendent.— Joins the Reformers. — His friend Mr. 
Rabbi tts.—Binfield House.— Meets Miss Mumford.— The 
best sermon yet.— Meeting at Mr. Rabbitts'.— "The Grog- 
sellers' Dream." — Water was the favoured drink, . . 72 

The Engagement. 1852. 
loth April, 1852. — Mr. Booth becomes a minister. — Passing rich 
on fifty pounds a year. — Democratic tyranny. — The party 
of reconciliation. — Mrs. Booth's love-letters. — "I will tram- 
ple on the desolations of my own heart." — 15th of May. — 
A memorable engagement. — An eloquent betrothal letter. 
—"Don't sit up singing till midnight. "—The Ganges and 
the Jumna, ........•• 


The Congregationalists. 1852. 
Mr. Booth tired of debates. — Proposes to join the Congregation- 
alists.— Calls on Dr. Campbell.— Offers for Cotton End.— 
Studies the "Reign of Grace" with Miss Mumford. — Cannot 
swallow Calvinism. — Declines a call to Ryde. — Gives his last 
sixpence to a dying girl, ....... 98 


London and Spalding. 1852. 
Mr. Booth rejoins the Reformers.— Spalding Circuit.— Engage- 
ment letters.— Admirable advice.— Fear of man. — Prayer. 
—Ambition.— Study.— Teetotalisrft.—" Spalding will not be 
your final destination," ........ 107 


Woman. 1S53. 

Preparation for future duties. — Woman's sphere.— A parlour 

skirmish. — Letter to Dr. Thomas on woman's equality. — 

Scriptural evidence. — Intellectual and moral heroines. — 



"Those who rock the cradle rule the world." — Woman and 
the press. — Mrs. Booth converted to woman's right to 
preach. — Ministers' wives. — Tattle and tea-parties. — "Light 
reading." — Novels, . . . . . . . .116 

Views on Courtship and Marriage. 1853. 
Mrs. Booth's originality. — A good hater. — Broken vows. — The 
evils of hurry. — No doubts. — Act on princi^ple. — Congeni- 
ality of temperament. — Friend and counsellor rather than 
breadwinner and housekeeper. — Refinement linked to drudg- 
ery. — Truly converted. — An indispensable qualification. — 
The root of three-fourths of matrimonial misery. — Lordship 
lost in love. — No physical repugnance. — Natural instinct 
too strong for reason. — Mere physical attractions useless. — 
A teetotaller from conviction. — Preferences of taste. — Rules 
for married life. — No secrets. — One purse. — Unity of 
thought and action. — No controversy before the children, . 130 


Methodist New Connexion. 1854. 
The first Salvation Army Captain. — Mr. Booth's popularity. — 
His first journal. — Swineshead Bridge revival. — Caistor re- 
vival. — The Methodist New Connexion. — Their origin. — 
Alexander Kilham. — Mr. Booth urges the Reformers to join 
them. — Abortive negotiations. — Correspondence with Dr. 
Cooke. — The Spalding Circuit will not join. — An evangel- 
istic career opens out. — Joins the New Connexion, . . 139 


Correspondence and Conflicts. 1854. 
Conflicting views. — Sacrificing a present for a future good. — No 
friends to martial law.— These Jehus were Jehus still. — The 
course of genius never did run smooth. — Manufacturing an 
aggressive force inside the church. — A fossilised past. — The 
Caesars of the past the MoJtkes of the present. — The spirit 
of the times 152 


London. 1854. 
Mr. Booth's reception by Dr. Cooke. — Studying for the min- 
istry. — A revival in the East End. — Unanimously accepted 
by the Conference. — Letter from Miss Mumford. — Caistor 



revisited. — Sermon sketches by Miss Mumford. — She visits 
Burnham. — Some beautiful letters. — An Irvingite Chapel. — 
No hobbies. — Nor fanaticism. — A beautiful scene, . . 162 

Mrs. Booth's First Published Article. 1S54. 
How to take care of new converts. — A simple analogy. — Con- 
genial food. — A pure and invigorating atmosphere. — A cold 
church. — Cleansing of impurities. — Freedom from undue 
restraint. — Dangers of inactivity. — Serving God by proxy. 
— Women's work. — Talents are meant to be used, . . 171 

First Evan&elistic Tour. 1854-1855. 
London as a field for work. — Hard soil. — Conditions of life. — 
Poverty and wealth. — London successes. — Guernsey revival. 
— An unpromising beginning. — A grand finish. — Two hun- 
dred and sixty conversions. — Longton and Hanley revi- 
vals. — Four hundred and sixty penitents. — A touching letter 
from Miss Mumford. — No fear of loving too much, . .178 

The Wedding. 1855. 
A striking contrast. — A great opportunity. — A quiet ceremony. 
— i6th June, 1855. — Married by Dr. Thomas. — A congrega- 
tionless chapel. — Craving for privacy. — Talent-hiding ten- 
dencies. — The pictureless frame, and the frameless picture. 
— A brief honeymoon. — Guernsey again. — The old auto- 
graphs, 190 


Revivals and Correspondence. 1855. 

One thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine penitents seek sal- 
vation. — Jersey visited. — The first separation. — Letters. — 
Mr. Booth at York. — Rejoined I9y Mrs. Booth at Hull. — 
The Hull revival. — Caistor revisited. — A country scene. — 
The taking of Sebastopol, .198 

Sheffield. Chatsworth. Correspondence. 1855. 
Six hundred and sixty-three conversions in a month. — The prog- 
ress of the work described by Mrs. Booth in letters to her 



mother.— The General's mother.— A remarkable love-feast. 
— A forest of heads. — Seventy-six penitents. — "Do not 
worry." — Luke Tyerman. — Visit to Chatsworth. — Her na- 
tive county. — Romantic scenery. — The rocks of Middleton 
Dale. — Mark Firth. — The designer of the Crystal Palace, . 206 


Deavsbury. 1855. 
Mrs. Booth seriously ill. — Studies homoeopathy. — Revival in 
Dewsbury. — Four hundred and forty converts. — The Wes- 
ley an Times. — Helping the penitents. — Letters to mother. — 
The Pilot. — A triumphant farewell. — The Wesleyans wel- 
come Mr. Booth, 218 


Leeds. 1855-1856. 
A Christless Christmas. — The Hunslet revival. — Mrs. Booth de- 
scribes the work. — Singing like larks. — Pretty sermons. — 
Getting the truth home to the heart. — A bazaar.— Refusal 
to visit. — A watch-night service. — A councillor converted. 
— Ebenezer chapel. — Eight hundred penitents. — A curtain 
lecture, ........... 226 


Halifax. Macclesfield. Yarmouth. 1856. 
Dr. Stacey reports six hundred and forty-one conversions at 
Halifax. — Three thousand persons spiritually awakened in 
seven months. — Mr. Booth's capacity for hard work. — Sub- 
jugating mankind's Niagaras. — The dangers of lack- 
leaderism contrasted with the tyrannies of unsanctified 
genius. — Birth of Bramwell Booth. — A Bible for the baby. 

— Mrs. Booth on sudden conversions. — "There go 's 

mushrooms." — The devil's toadstools. — Thirty babies bap- 
tised with her son Bramwell. — A holiness preacher. — Re- 
newal of Mr. Booth's evangelistic commission by the Con- 
ference. — Yarmouth. — Mrs. Booth on spiritual children, . 241 


Sheffield. 1856. 

Sheffield characteristics. — National and provincial peculiarities. 

— Good and bad soil. — Tendency of civilisation to neglect the 

heart for the head. — Restoration of heart pulsation needed. 

—The intellectual hero of the day.— Mrs. Booth's quarrel 



with modern education. — A warm welcome. — Six hundred 
and forty-six names taken. — Keeping the converts. — Why 
the Salvation Army was started. — The farewell tea. — A 
proud position. — The lithographic portrait of Mr. Booth. — 
The presentation meeting. — The labourer not worthy of 
his hire. — Why testimonials were abolished, . . .251 

Birmingham. Nottingh.^m. Chester. 1856-1857. 
The Birmingham campaign. — Mrs. Booth on religious excite- 
ment. — The meetings in Nottingham. — Seven hundred and 
forty conversions. — The chapel filled. — Every sitting let. — 
Mr. Wright's opposition. — Mr. Booth's diary. — Mrs. Booth 
proceeds to London while Mr. Booth goes to Chester. — 
Newspaper opposition. — First signs of row^dyism. — "The 
words seemed like jagged daggers." — "What must I do to 
be damned?" — Icy-hearted, all-brained people. — Mr. Regi- 
nald Radcliffe at an execution. — Makes Mr. Booth an offer. 
— The country people. — A poacher converted. — Correspond- 
ence. — Mr. Booth on homoeopathy. — Not a congenial soul, 
except the disembodied one's that dwell in books, . . 262 

Bristol. Truro. St. Agnes, 1857. 
Mr. and Mrs. Booth meet in London. — Start for Bristol. — A 
hard struggle. — Thwarted by circumstances. — The mys- 
terious element of liberty in public speaking. — Advantages 
of the pulpit over the political platform and the stage. — 
Mrs. Booth's influence on an audience. — Oblivious to time. 
— Musical cadences of her voice. — First visit to Cornwall. — 
A land of chapels. — Difficult to be moved. — Pure children 
of emotion. — A hurricane of excitement. — St. Agnes. — 
"Going olf. " — The woman who jumped. — Decency and or- 
der. — Mrs. Booth on manifestation of feeling. — Afraid of a 
kind-hearted grandmother. — Ominous rumours, . . . 275 


The Conference of 1857. 
Mr. and Mrs. Booth at Stafford. — The nest and the beetle. — Is 
it an omen? — The Conference stop the evangelistic work 
by a majority of four, after a five-hour debate. — Mr. Wright 
leads the opposition. — Mr. Booth asks for an explanation. 
— Mrs. Booth indignant. — The expenses guaranteed. — A 



jealous clique. — Mrs. Booth would have resigned. — But 
Mr. Booth loves the Connexion. — And agrees to take a 
circuit. — A characteristic letter from another evangelist. — "I 
could wish to be your shoeblack." — "You're as square as a 
brick." — The value of organisation. — Mrs. Booth more of a 
free-lance Whitefield than an organising Wesley. — A happy 
design of Providence, ........ 287 


Brighouse. 1857. 

A sad year. — A difficult cause. — But many are converted. — And 
her son Ballington is born. — The embryo of the Salvation 
Army within the four corners of a fainily. — General Booth's 
first recruits. — He wishes there had been eighty instead of 
eight. — Israel a family affair. — The mysteries of criticism. — 
" I will not have a wicked child. " — Paganini and the violin. 
— Putting the children into the movement. — Mrs. Booth 
leads a class. — Her first public effort. — She addresses the 
Band of Hope. — Proposes to give temperance lectures. — 
But is prevented by illness. — A letter, .... 298 


Brighouse. 1858. 

Serious illness of Mrs. Booth. — Her son Ballington is baptised by 
Mr. Caughey. — Mrs. Booth on factory legislation. — The 
annual conference at Hull. — Mr. Booth is ordained at the 
end of his four years' probation. — Winning golden opinions 
by keeping quiet. — Continued opposition to the evangelistic 
work. — A compromise proposed. — Mr. Booth consents to 
take Gateshead circuit, ........ 308 


Gateshead, the Converting Shop. 1858-1859. 

The circuit in a low state. — But a large chapel. — The members 
warm-hearted. — The best appointment. — The minister's 
wife leads off in prayer. — The attendance increases. — Many 
are converted. — The chapel crowded. — The converting 
shop. — Popular nomenclature. — Taproom phraseology. — A 
Gelavoonkaraya. — The Ratchagar caste. — Pedantic phrase- 
ology. — Theology wedded to the language of bygone days. 
— Christopher Columbus and the greyhounds of the At- 



lantic. — Birth of La Marechale. — A powerful revival. — 
Three hundred converts. — The town stirred. — Another ba- 
zaar. — Mrs. Booth on church bazaars, 317 

Gateshead. 1858-1859. 
A narrow escape. — No distinctions, such as forty kisses for Willie 
and twenty for the baby. — No coat of many colours. — Mrs. 
Mumford's needle-work. — Mrs. Booth on dress. — Not only 
l>6' separate, but appear so. — A lesson in generosity. — 
Visiting the poor. — Work among drunkards. — An interest- 
ing scrap of autobiography. — "Have you ever tried lard 
isted o' booter?" — Washing the twins in a pie-dish, . . 327 


Gateshead. Mrs. Booth's First Pamphlet. 1859. 
The Annual Conference meets at Manchester. — Mr. Booth re- 
appointed to Gateshead. — Mr. Booth attends the Confer- 
ence. — He proposes a resolution in favour of teetotalism. — 
But is defeated. — Dissatisfaction with conferences. — Ad- 
vantages of military organisation. — Mrs. Booth writes her 
pamphlet on Female Ministry in defence of Mrs. Phoebe 
Palmer. — The value of women's work to the church. — Per- 
fection not necessary, ........ 339 


Gateshead, i860. 
Necessity for conflict. — Impossible to improve the future with- 
out disturbing the present. — A life-long warfare on behalf 
of women. — A skirmish with Dr. Stacey. — A grievous 
wrong inflicted on spirit-baptised disciples. — Mrs. Booth 
opened the door for thousands, 350 

Gateshead. Mrs. Booth Commences Preaching, i860. 
The birth of Emma.— A call to public work.— Whit-Sunday at 
the Converting Shop. — Mrs. Booth breaks the ice.— Mr 
Booth announces her for the night meeting. — The servant 
dances round the kitchen table. — An enthusiastic reception 
at night.— "Be filled with the Spirit. "—Invitation from 
Newcastle.— The Annual Conference.— Mr. Booth consents 
to remain at Gateshead for another year.— His illness.— Mrs. 
Booth supplies his place nine weeks.— Some autobiograph- 



ical letters. — Harmony among the officials. — Mrs. Booth's 
administrative ability. — The iron hand in the velvet glove. — 
A headless community like a riderless horse. — The govern- 
ment of the best. — The rule of all is the rule of none. — 
Ability recognised, not deified. — Knowledge subordinated 
to holiness and power sanctified by love, . . . -357 


Gateshead. 1860-1861. 
Mr. Booth's illness. — The children ill with whooping-cough. — 
The frock is too smart. — Capacity for dealing with trivial- 
ities of life. — Mrs. Booth in the nursery. — Preparing ser- 
mons under difficulties. — '''We lacked a General." — A 
unanimous resolution. — Mr. Booth returns from his fur- 
lough. — Careful, but not mean. — Financial struggles, . 371 


Gateshead. Mrs. Booth on Holiness. 1861. 
A believer's privilege. — Wesley's teaching. — Theory and prac- 
tice. — Mrs. Booth preaches on Holiness. — Seeks the bless- 
ing. — The question of the evangelistic work. — The contro- 
versy settled. — A beautiful experience. — The twin pillars, 
Jachin and Boaz. — "How much like God can we be?" — 
Purity the central idea of the Gospel. — Do not measure 
others' privilege by your faith, 381 


Gateshead. "Just Before the Battle." 1861. 
A turning-point. — The Cross the shibboleth of the hypo- 
crite. — Mr. and Mrs. Booth appeal to the Conference for the 
fulfilment of their pledges regaiding the evangelistic 
sphere. — The Annual Committee send a cool reply. — Pre- 
paring for the worst. — A revival in Gateshead. — Two hun- 
dred names taken. — The district meeting memorialise the 
Conference in favour of the evangelistic work. — Mr. Joseph 
Love, the millionaire, supports the proposal. — Promises 
to answer for all expenses. — Mrs. Booth visits Hartlepool. — 
Extraordinary revival. — Two hundred and fifty penitents 
in ten days. — Letter to her mother, ..... 390 

The Resignation. 1S61. 
The Conference meets in Liverpool. — Mr. and Mrs. Booth at- 
tend it together. — They anticipate some sharp fighting. — Mr. 



Rabbitts supports them. — Mrs. Booth disappointed with 
the Conference. — Fatal mistake in church government. — 
The rule of books. — Dr. Cooke. — Cowardice a prevailing sin. 
Dr. Crofts becomes President. — Rev. P. J. Wright again 
heads the opposition. — A remarkable debate. — A compro- 
mise proposed. — Mrs. Booth protests from the gallery. — 
"Order ! order !" — A thrilling scene. — Mr. and Mrs. Booth 
leave the Conference. — The ark is launched, . . . 405 


The Resignation. 1861. 

Dr. Cooke and the compromise. — The Newcastle circuit. — A 
gloomy Sunday. — The last sitting of the Conference. — 
" Without a friend and without a farthing. " — The ultimatum 
rejected. — A last attempt to come to terms. — The Circuit 
willing. — But the President objects. — Alnwick. — Mr. Booth 
starts for London, ......... 414 


The Resignation. i86r. 

Mr. Booth in London. — Measuring accomplishments by pos- 
sibilities. — Letters from London.— Mr. Hammond. — Mr. 
Pearse. — The Garrick Theatre. — LTndenominational mis- 
sions. — Dr. Forbes Winslow. — William Carter. — Mr. and 
Mrs. Booth at Nottingham. — The letter from Dr. Crofts. — 
The last link severed. — Resignation placed in the hands of 
the President. — Mrs. Booth returns to London. — Mr. Booth 
brings the children by sea from Newcastle. — A new depar- 
ture. — Waiting for the moving of the fiery pillar, . . 422 


The Cornish Campaign. 

Reviving the Churches. — Reaching the masses via the Chris- 
tians. — The "regions beyond." — The Cornish plan of cam- 
paign. — How to "seat" a congregation. — A glorious 
commencement. — With the Wesleyans again. — An emotion- 
al people. — "Decently and in order." — A remarkable 
manifestation. — Salvation the universal theme. — Monster 
tea-meeting on the Towans. — A touching farewell, . . 433 



The Cornish Campaign. 1862. 


St. Ives and its pilchards. — A temperance movement. — The 
churches and teetotalism. — Mrs. Booth on the liquor 
traffic. — Letter from Mrs. Palmer. — The revival in St. 
Ives. — More than a thousand conversions. — Public-houses 
deserted. — "Is there mercy for sirch a wretch?" — Conver- 
sions noisy and quiet. — Do they stand? .... 449 


The Cornish Campaign. 1862. 

St. Just. — Rev. Robert Aitken of Pendeen. — Charles Wesley 
and the country squire. — The penitent-form controversy. — 
An unfinished sermon. — Glorious irregularity. — Miners 
leaving their work to get saved. — The Police Inspector's 
testimon}'. — A sacred corner, ...... 461 


The Cornish Campaign. 1862. 

Mrs. Booth's first service for women. — Her views on fashion. — 
On orphanages. — On timidity. — The king of the Wesley- 
ans. — His opinion of Mrs. Booth. — Mrs. Booth at home. — 
The Wesleyan Chapel. — "What about the revival?" — The 
volunteers leave their drill. — The suspension of business. — 
"One and all." — The Lelant church and its legend. — The 
angel-visits. — Sailing under black colors 473 


The Three Conferences. 1862. 

The Methodists New Connection accept Mr. Booth's resignation. 
— Without a "thank you." — Not a "split." — The Cornish 
Wesleyans. — An increase of 4,247. — Their Conference. — 
"The perambulations of the male and female." — Boycotted 
again. — A pitiful apology. — The Primitive Methodists fol- 
low suit. — Conflict between pastoral and evangelistic 
agencies. — Raising of the blockade. — An Australian tri- 
umph 485 


Good-bye to Cornwall. 1862. 

Mousehole. — Penzance. — Birth of Herbert Booth. — The sweet 
psalmist and musician. — "Dod b'ess de lady and make her 



berydood. " — "Me not 'peakin' to oo. " — Redruth. — Putting 
up the barriers. — 7,500 conversions in eighteen months, . 493 


Cardiff. 1863. 

Undenominational effort. — Mrs. Booth's first meetings in a 
circus. — Her views on the state of the world. — A physician 
and his wife. — No faith without obedience. — Mr. Booth at 
Pontypridd. — Five hundred conversions. — Messrs. John and 
Richard Cory.— The S. S. William Booth.— How to deal 
with cavil, .......... 503 


The Provinces. 1863. 

Newport. — Mr. and Mrs. Billups. — An intimate friendship. — 
Walsall. — Upsetting the meetings. — The prize-fighter, 
the horse-racer, and the thief. — "I linked my arm in that 
of a navvy with a white slop on." — The saved chim- 
ney-sweep. — A monster camp-meeting. — The HaUelujah 
Band. — The future foreshadowed, . . . . -513 


The Provinces. 1863-1864. 

The General meets with an accident. — Mr. Bramwell Booth's 
conversion. — Mrs. Booth leads the meetings. — Hydrop- 
athy. — Birmingham. — Old Hill. — Hasbury. — Mrs. Booth at 
the Lye. — "I never saw so much weeping." — An outside 
testimony. — Leeds. — Lady Lane. — Meadow Lane. — Gates- 
head. — Birth of Miss Marian Booth. — A letter from 
Caughey. — Mrs. Booth atBatley; Pudsey and Woodhouse 
Carr. — Five hundred conversions. — "We can't get at the 
masses in the chapels," 527 


London. 1865. 

The metropolis and the provinces. — Mrs. Booth's first meet- 
ings in London. — Rotherhithe. — "Come and hear a woman 
preach." — The daughters of the landlord of the Europa. — 
Mr. and Mrs. Booth settle in Hammersmith. — Mr. Morgan 
questions female ministry. — But is convinced. — The CJiris- 
tian. — A letter regarding Holiness. — Bermondsey. — The 



Gospel Gtiide describes Mrs. Booth. — The Midnight 
movement, . ......... 538 


Foundation of the Salvation Army. 1865. 

The Quaker Burial Ground in Whitechapel. — A valley of dry- 
bones. — The East End Bethlehem. — The meetings in the 
tent. — The formation of th.e '' Christian Revival Associa- 
tion." — The lowest level of the social strata. — Mr. Booth 
and Feargus O'Connor. — "My arms are not long enough." — 
Mrs. Booth and the upper classes. — The syrup without 
the sulphur. — His Grace the Duke of Rackrent. — Mrs. Booth 
denounces the cruelty of hunting. — On War. — Poverty and 
vulgarity synonymous with sin. — Miss Booth visiting the 
prison. — "She's all there." — The criminal classes. — Mr. 
Moneymaker. — Mrs. Booth on "sweating." — Mrs. Booth in 
the kitchen. — Among the wealthy, ..... 548 


Mr. Morley and the East London Mission. 

Mrs. Booth at Deptford. — Her first West End Campaign. — The 
Polytechnic. — Kensington Assembly Rooms. — Islington. — 
Removal of home from Hammersmith to Hackney. — The 
tent blown down. — The East End heathen. — Another new 
departure. — "We have trusted the Lord once and we can 
trust him again." — Mr. Samuel Morley. — The meeting of 
the Stanley and the Livingstone of Darkest England. — A 
sleeping partner. — Some letters from Mr. Morley. — A gene- 
rous donation. — The dancing-saloon. — Some early con- 
verts, ........... 561 


The East London Mission. 1866. 

Birth of Miss Eva Booth. — Walking the waters. — The spirit of 
Calvary. — Beating the Good Samaritan. — Mrs. Booth at 
Peckham. — A severe illness. — Mr. Henry Reed of Dunor- 
lan. — Mrs. Booth at Dunorlan. — Makes Mr. Reed her time- 
keeper. — "Never mind the time! Go on." — Nervous col- 
lapse. — Heaven's gifts in strange wrappers. — A lifelong 
martyrdom. — The family homes. — Each room an office. — 
A latter-day Bethel, 573 



Mak(;ate. 1867. 


St. John's Wood. — The Eyre Arms Assembly Rooms. — Mrs. 
Newenham. — A remarkable offer. — Larger than Spurgeon's 
Tabernacle. — Birth of Miss Lucy Booth. — Musical ability. — 
A visit to Ramsgate. — The Royal Assembly Rooms, Mar- 
gate. — A successful campaign. — Mr. and Mrs. Freeman. — 
Miss Billups. — Mr. Knight, the publisher, offers to report 
Mrs. Booth's sermons. — Her plan of preaching. — A false 
and a real love. — With Jesus in the mud, .... 584 


Behind the Pigeon Shop. 1866-67. 

Early struggles in the East End. — Holywell Mount. — The stable 
and the sparring-club. — The carpenter's shop and pig- 
styes. — The skittle-alley. — Behind the pigeon shop. — The 
East End Thermopylae. — The Hare Street bird market. — 
A strange contrast. — Muggins and the linnet. — "A finch 
wot'll peg." — Two early converts now in heaven. — Jack 
Price. — Carry Berry. — Unexpected help. — The Effingham 
Theatre. — The Eastern Star. — Finst headquarters of the 
Salvation Army, ......... 593 


Plymouth Brethrenism. 

The five leading doctrines of the Brethren. — Mrs. Booth joins 
issue on four of them. — Declines controversy regarding 
the Second Coming. — "Free from the Law." — The two na- 
tures. — One soul in hell and another in heaven. — Regenera- 
tion. — A doctrinal hodge-podge. — Imputed righteous- 
ness. — Standing in Christ. — A substitutionary Saviour. — 
Christ a deliverer from sin, not a protection in sin. — Only- 
believism. — Right opinions do not make right hearts. — Com- 
plete in Christ. — A mock salvation, ..... 606 


The Progress of the Mission. 1868. 

Mrs. Booth in Norwood. — Little Missions. — Neither exogen, 
endogen, nor acrogen. — Isolated efforts. — One-idea'd- 
ness. — Self-invited defeat. — The first balance-sheet. — The 
Mission Council. — 4,000 penitents during the year. — 



Launching of the first magazine. — The East London Eva7i- 
gelist. — Mrs. Booth's articles. — The spiritual armada. — 
Joel's vision, 6i6 


Correspondence. 1868. 

Mrs. Booth on vaccination. — The "immortal Jenner. " — Deception 
the great /"icr/d' of the devil. — Faith and unbelief. — "On the 
incline as a nation." — Illness and depression. — Lying 
wounded in the camp. — "The Booths will be difficult to 
hold, but they are worth the trouble." — Mr. Reed proposes 
to build a hall. — The offer falls through. — The first great 
anniversary celebration. — 1,420 Missioners visit Dunor- 
lan. — Hearty reception by Mr. Reed, 629 


Croydon, Edinburgh, Brighton. 1869. 

Mrs. Booth at Croydon. — David and Jonathan. — An invitation 
from Edinburgh. — The amalgamation ceremony. — Mrs. 
Booth's reception by the Scotch. — Prejudices vanish. — A 
Covenanter in the land of Covenanters. — A woman- Wal- 
lace. — A powerful meeting. — Mrs. Booth at Brighton. — The 
Dome. — Father Ignatius, ....... 642 


The Christian Mission. 1869-1870. 

Death of Mrs. Booth's mother. — Her countenance illumined. — 
The East London Mission takes the name of the Christian 
Mission. — Purchase of the People's Market, Whitechapel. — 
All-Nights of prayer. — The first experiments in the Social 
Scheme. — Now a food and shelter depot. — The East End 
Shiloh and the London Zions.— A second trip to Dunorlan, 652 



SHADOWLAND. 1 820-1 829. 

'' Coim'jig events east their shadows before." 

The early days of those who have achieved great- Foreshad- 
ness, and who have left their mark, either for good o/T^e^ 
or evil, upon the world, constitute a sort of shadow- f'^^'^^^- 
land, which possesses a peculiar fascination of its 
own. The arrival of a new actor upon the world's 
vast stage is not always heralded, it is true, by blast 
of trumpet and beat of drum, however important may 
be the part that is about to be enacted. The sur- 
roundings and circumstances are often surprisingly 
trivial and contemptuously commonplace. As with 
the equinoctial gales, such lives frequently come in 
like a lamb, although they are destined to go out like 
a lion. x\nd yet there is a something — Siself-asscriive- 
ncss, shall we call it? — about true genius, which en- 
forces recognition and extorts admiration, so that, 
even in the undeveloped bud of early life, we find 
ourselves involuntarily exclaiming : The child is verit- 
ably father to the man ! 

True, at the time, few eyes are keen enough to dis- Retro- 

. , spections. 

cern the substance, of which these shadows are but 
the type and promise. The great To Be is still 
enveloped in the mists of futurity. Its shadow falls 


for a moment with startling distinctness across our 
path, only to disappear with equal suddenness from 
our sight. And yet, viewed in the light of retro- 
spect, much that was once obscure and difficult be- 
comes luminously plain. Shadows are converted into 
substance, possibilities into actualities, fugitive ex- 
pectations into sober accomplishment. To look for- 
ward and anticipate the future requires a prophet, to 
look back and appreciate the past is possible to all, 
so that even he who runs may read. And thus we are 
impelled to explore every nook and cranny of the 
child-life, confident that it contains abundant prom- 
ise of the great hereafter. The little cloudlet, no 
bigger than a man's hand, assumes a new interest, 
above and beyond the many others that we have seen, 
because we know that it betokens coming showers 
and a sound of abundance of rain for the parched and 
famine-stricken earth. 

Inklings. And yet the search is often a very disappointing 
one. The facts on which we can rely are few and far 
between. The witnesses are mostly gone to their 
reward, or can remember scarcely anything beyond 
the ordinary humdrum of life. There is frequently 
little, or nothing in the shape of written record to 
which we may turn, and the meagre items we are 
able to gather are just enough to make us wish for 
more. In short, we can obtain but tantalizing 
glimpses, when what our heart would crave is a long 
satisfying look. 

Mountain We are told there is a mountain peak in Africa, 
towering high above the rest, which forms the most 
conspicuous landmark for scores of miles ; and yet so 
perpetually is it hidden in mists and clouds, that 
explorers have been within a few miles without so 
much as discovering its existence. Indeed, the same 


traveller, who has at one time passed the spot and 
noted nothing remarkable, has been surprised when, 
on a later occasion, the clouds have suddenly un- 
folded, the sun shone forth, and a snowy summit of 
surprising height and surpassing grandeur has dis- 
closed itself to view. For a time it seems so near 
and so real that he is astonished at his own previous 
obtuseness. And then the wind changes, the mist 
rolls swiftly down the mountain-side, and he is 
tempted to wonder whether, after all, the bewitching 
vision he has just gazed upon may not have been some 
fancy of his mind, similar to the water-mirage of the 
desert or the deceitful will-o'-the-wisp of the fens. 

Just so with this shadowland of life. The glimpses 
we obtain are so scanty and brief, that we are bound 
in some measure to be disappointed. And yet their 
very fewness and fleetingness perhaps add something 
to their attraction, while the distance through which 
we are obliged to gaze only serves to " lend enchant- 
ment to the view," and what we do see stands out in 
vivid distinctness, like the peaks of some mountain 
range against the background of the sky. 

For those who stood in the valley of childhood, the 
horizon was so limited that they could see but little 
beyond their own immediate surroundings. To us, 
who have climbed the mountain-side of life, it is 
different. We are able to look down upon the land- 
scape. Every turn in the road, every inch of up- 
ward ascent, brings some fresh surprise. Here is a 
tiny cascade leaping down the rocks, little more than 
a silver thread amongst the surrounding foliage of 
the forest. Yonder flows a stately river that sweeps 
for hundreds of miles through the plains, and bears 
on its bosom the largest ocean-going craft. It is 
difficult to realise, as we stand beside the one, that it 

4 - MJiS. BOOTH. 

will ever develop to the size and power of the other. 
And yet we cannot doubt the evidence of our senses. 
The impossible has already come to pass before our 

And so we turn to explore the shadowland of a life 
of which each type has been realised, and every 
promise fulfilled. Thousands and tens of thousands 
to whom the stream has borne its rich merchandise 
of spiritual blessing will desire, no doubt, to trace 
the river to its rise. Like Hindoo pilgrims, not con- 
tent with bathing in the portion of the stream that 
happens to flow past their dwelling, they will be eager 
to follow its course from the spot where their sky- 
born Ganges descends from the heavens to the broad- 
ening of its waters in the trackless ocean of Eternity. 
Mrs. At a very early age flashes of the spirituality, genius, 

mother, and energy, that were destined to make so indelible 
a mark upon the world, surprised and gladdened 
Catherine's mother, as she watched with tender care, 
and reared with difficulty, the fragile girl who be- 
came, almost from infancy, her chief companion and 
comforter. Mrs. Mumford was herself a remarkable 
woman, and some of the leading traits in the daugh- 
ter's character were no doubt inherited from the in- 
tensely practical and courageous mother. 

A painful At the very threshold of her life, an event occurred 
which serves to illustrate the high principle by which 
Mrs. Mumford was ever actuated. She had become 
engaged to a gentleman of good position. Her 
mother had died some years previously. Her father 
was one who felt that his duty to his daughter had 
ended in supplying her temporal needs. The aunt, 
who kept house for him, was a being of harsh, un- 
sympathetic material. No doubt these loveless sur- 
roundings helped Miss Milward to think the more of 


her choice, and she fancied herself upon the eve of 
life-long felicity. To her friends the match seemed 
a desirable one, and had met with their unhesitating- 
approbation. The prospects were brilliant, and the 
wedding day had been fixed, when, on the very eve 
of the marriage, certain circumstances came to her 
knowledge which proved conclusively that her lover 
was not the high-souled, noble character she had 
supposed him to be, indeed that he was unworthy 
of the womanly love and confidence she had so un- 
reservedly reposed in him. With the same prompt- 
ness and decision which afterward characterised her 
daughter, Miss Milward's mind was made up, and the 
engagement was immediately broken off. 

It was in vain that day after day her lover called 
at the house, in the hope that he might persuade her 
to relent. She dared not trust herself even to see 
him, lest she should fall beneath the still keenly 
realised temptation, and lest her heart should get the 
better of her judgment. At length, seized with de- 
spair, he turned his horse's head from the door and 
galloped away, he knew not, cared not, whither — 
galloped till his horse was covered with foam — gal- 
loped till it staggered and fell, dying, beneath him, 
while he rose to his feet a hopeless maniac! The 
anxiety had been too much for his brain ; and the 
next news that Miss Milward received was that he 
had been taken to an asylum, where he would prob- 
ably spend the rest of his days. 

The shock was a terrible one I Not that she ever Miss MU- 
allowed herself to regret for a moment, either then niness. 
or subsequently, the step that she had taken. Her 
sense of the claims of righteousness prevented this. 
Nevertheless, she had not anticipated, far less desired, 
that so swift and terrible a retribution should over- 


take him. She was overwhelmed by the catastrophe, 
and, shutting herself into her room, lay for sixteen 
weeks hovering between life and death. 

Her extremity was God's opportunity. Whatever 
man might think of her action in the matter, however 
much she might be misunderstood and misjudged by 
those around her, the bold, brave stand she had taken 
for that which was pure and good could only be viewed 
in one light by the Supreme Authorities of Heaven. 
And so it came to pass, that, following on this deluge 
of sorrow, and athwart its darkest cloud, was printed 
the rainbow promise of salvation which was to glad- 
den and console her after life, assuring her of abated 
floods, of returning sunshine, and of " joy unspeak- 
able and full of glory." 
She is un- Sickucss gave Miss Milward the opportunity to 
think, while sorrow and suffering combined to force 
her attention in the direction of those spiritual inter- 
ests which in seasons of health and vigour all are so 
prone to neglect. Cradled in the Church of England, 
at a time when vital godliness was rarer than is now 
happily the case, Miss Milward knew little or nothing 
of the plan of salvation. True, she possessed, in a 
specially vivid degree, the instinct that made her ab- 
hor that which was wrong, cruel, or cowardly. Her 
conscience, moreover, was particularly sensitive. But 
this only helped to increase the misery of her po- 
Con- sition, since it enabled her to realise more acutely 

VlYtCCCl of 

sin. ' the sins to which she might otherwise have been 
blind, and rendered impossible the false peace which 
serves as a treacherous lullaby to so many sinful 
hearts, luring them on, like the siren's melody, 
only too swiftly and surely to their doom. 

With Miss Milward this was now impossible. The 
Spirit of God had striven with her. She had listened 


to His voice. She realised her guilt and danger as a 
sinner. To be a respectable one was no longer in 
her eyes any palliation of her sin. On the contrary 
her position seemed the less excusable. Hell itself 
appeared too good for one so unworthy as she felt 
herself to be. 

She turned in her misery to her Prayer-Book. 
Opening its pages, her eyes fell upon the passage, 
"/ believe in the forgiveness of sins/' In some way or 
other these words, which had never before possessed 
any special power or meaning, now fastened them- 
selves upon her mind. Continually she heard them 
ringing in her ears, " / believe in the forgiveness of 
sins." For hours she lay with her fingers placed 
upon the line. " And yet," she would say to herself, 
" what good is this forgiveness, if I cannot obtain it 
here and now — if I have to wait, as I am told, till after 
death for the assurance. This, ah this, is just what 
my soul craves ! Alas, that it should be so far beyond 
my reach!" 

The question preyed upon her mind to such an 
extent as to render her recovery impossible. The 
doctor who had been attending her seized an oppor- 
tunity for telling Mr. Milward that some secret sor- 
row was evidently affecting his daughter, and neu- 
tralising all the efforts made for her restoration. It 
was important, he added, that the difficulty should be 
discovered, and if possible removed. 

Naturally enough her father ascribed everything 
to the unhappy occurrences which had been the orig- 
inal cause of her illness, little thinking that the 
grounds for her mental anxiety had undergone so 
radical a change. Desiring to comfort her, he mani- 
fested a tenderness and solicitude to which the 
motherless girl had hitherto been a stransfer. And 

Turns to 




Hears of 
the Meth- 

Her con- 

yet to unburden her heart to him would, she knew, be 
useless. Although a regular church-goer, her father 
could not understand the experiences through which 
she was passing. 

By a remarkable coincidence, which was surely 
more than accidental, the Methodists had at this 
time commenced to hold meetings in the town, buy- 
ing from Mr. Milward a piece of land on which to 
erect their chape'l. The news that many had received 
the very forgiveness for which she had been so eagerly 
seeking, soon reached Miss Milward. Oh ! how she 
wished that she had been well enough to attend the 
services! Nothing should have withheld her! But 
this was impossible, as she was unable to rise, and 
there seemed little prospect of her recovery. En- 
couraged, however, by her father's kindness, she 
asked that the new minister might be allowed to visit 
their house, and Mr. Milward, only too pleased to 
find his daughter once more interesting herself in 
matters which had no reference to the recent sad 
event, gave his hearty consent. 

The minister gladly responded to the call. If 
ever a thirsty soul welcomed the living waters of the 
Gospel, it was surely Miss Milward. To know that 
she could be forgiven, not after death, but on the 
spot, without even waiting to attend a meeting, filled 
her with new hope and longing. The plan of salva- 
tion flashed in upon her soul in all its glorious sim- 
plicity. The same Holy Spirit, Who had previously 
convicted her so deeply in regard to her sinfulness, 
now revealed to her the immediate and all-prevailing 
efficacy of the blood shed, not merely for the salva- 
tion of the world, but for her own individual soul. 

For a time it seemed too good to be true. Her sins 
were too many and great, her heart too hard and cold, 


for the guilt of a life to be blotted out in a moment. 
The preacher's recipe, " repentance toward God and 
faith in our Lord Jesus Christ," was almost too simple 
to be trusted. It appeared at first incredible. But 
at length she grasped the truth. It was too precious, 
too potent, too necessary to be doubted or denied. 
With all her heart she embraced it, and was able to 
realise during that first interview that her sins were 

Wonderful to relate, scarcely had the minister left, Healed in 

• 1 11 body. 

when Miss Milward was able to rise, dress, and leave 
her room, healed in body as well as in soul. 

With Miss Milward the change was not one of mere tms tvay 
creed or sentiment. It penetrated every fibre of her ^ ^^ ^^ " 
being. It shone through her every capacity. It 
revolutionised her life, and marked indelibly her 
whole career. Amid the worldly amusements and 
fashionable follies to which she had been accustomed, 
she had often heard the warning voice of God. While 
playing cards or joining in the giddy dance, her mirth 
had been continually damped by thoughts of death 
and a sense of condemnation. Frequently as she 
went to the theatre of her native town, when her 
eyes fell upon the words "This way to the pit," con- 
science had shuddered. But now such pleasures were 
forever abandoned, and from, that moment she never 
cast upon them a single backward glance. 

Even to the details of her dress was the change a thor- 

1 r • -\ i- ough 

manifest. Her hat was stripped of its adornments change. 
and made to resemble, as closely as possible, that of 
some pious Methodist dame, whose godliness and self- 
denial she had learned to admire . Her wayward locks 
of hair were plastered into similar soberness. Her 
relentless scissors made havoc of ball-dresses, the 
remnants of which in after years served to furnish 


frocks for lier daughter's dolls! With heart and soul 
she set to work to please God in everything, embrac- 
ing the cross of an out-and-out Methodist, and this 
at a time when it meant very much what it now 
means to become a Salvationist. The consciousness 
that she was doing right, together with the realised 
smile of God, enabled her to face unflinchingly the 
contempt and opposition of those who would have 
held her back. 

For some time Mr. Milward humoured what he 
looked upon as the fanciful caprices of his daughter. 
He even went so far as to accompany her to some of 
the meetings, though he had but little sympathy with 
what he considered to be the eccentricities and noisy 
performances of the revivalists. Occasionally Miss 
Milward even succeeded in cajoling her aunt to en- 
dure the familiar vulgarities and loud Amens, with 
which the proceedings of Methodism were in its early 
days commonly enlivened. 

From time to time special preachers came to con- 
to Mr. duct the services. One of the most popular of these 
was John Mumford. Even the Gorgonian aunt was 
constrained to appreciate him, and was heard to de- 
clare in an unguarded moment that he was certainly 
the finest young man in the town. For a time all 
went well. But dire was the wrath, and boundless 
the indignation of Mr. Milward, when he learned 
that John Mumford had dared to aspire to the hand 
of his daughter. Not only was the young preacher 
ordered out of the house, but, as the door slammed 
behind him, Mr. Milward with his own hand turned 
the key in the lock, as though to make his return 
doubly impossible. 
Homeless! He then sternly called upon his daughter to choose 
between her lover and her home. Either the proposed 




Mr. Mum- 

The re- 

engagement must be forever abandoned, or she must 
leave at once her father's roof, and face the conse- 
quences, be they what they might. The ordeal was 
a trying one, but her courage did not waver. 

True to his word, and urged on by the aunt, Mr. 
Milward at length commanded his daughter to leave 
the house. She went forth penniless, without so much 
as a change of clothing, sacrificing every worldly pro- 
spect. Few would have had on the one hand the cour- 
age to stand firm, or on the other hand the patience and 
faith to wait till the barriers should be swept away, 
not by her own, but by a Higher Power. Her confi- 
dence in God was rewarded, and within a few months 
she was married to John Mumford with her father's 
full consent and blessing. 

On his dying bed Mr. Milward sent for John to pray 
with him. "Let us pra)' with you," volunteered a 
relative, who was in the room. " No, you are not com- 
petent," replied the dying man. "Fetch me John." 
And so the Methodist son-in-law was brought. What 
a contrast was there between this visit and the previ- 
ous one, when he had been driven ignominiously from 
the house, with no apparent likelihood of ever being 
able to return! Death, the universal leveller, had 
opened the door, which Mr. Milward thought he had 
forever closed. And so, with a heart overflowing with 
gratitude, the once exiled daughter watched her hus- 
band kneel beside her dying father's bed and point 
him to the " Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin 
of the world." And how triumphant must have been 
the final reunion, when, some fifty years later, father 
and dauofhter met 

" Beyond the river, 
Where the surges cease to roll." 

CHILDHOOD. 1 829-1 834. 

Catherine Mumford, or, as she is more familiarly Mrs. 
known, Catherine Booth, was born at Ashbourne in bfrthpiace 
Derbyshire on the 17th January, 1829. She was the 
only daughter in a family of five. Of her brothers 
the youngest, John, alone survived, the three elder 
having died during infancy. 

"One of the earliest recollections of my life, in fact Herearii- 

€St V&COh" 

the earliest," says Mrs. Booth, "is that of being taken iccUon. 
into a room by my mother, to see the body of a little 
brother who had just died. I must have been very 
young at the time, scarcely more than two years old. 
But I can remember, to this day, the feelings of awe 
and solemnity with which the sight of death impressed 
my baby-mind. Indeed, the effect produced on that 
occasion has lasted to this very hour. I am sure that 
many parents enormously under-estimate the capacity 
of children to retain impressions made upon them in 
early days." 

Mrs. Mumford was a wise mother. She realised -^n im- 

, 1 . 1 . , . , . - 1 pressmn- 

that it was during the tender years of life that the able age. 
human clay would respond most readily to the mould- 
ing hand of the maternal potter. The damp and 
impressionable material could be shaped almost ab- 
solutely according to the mother's will, whereas, once 
baked and hardened at the furnace fires of sin and 
worldliness, it would defy the most powerful influ- 



1831, ences that could be brought to bear upon it, or shiver 

^^ * in pieces beneath severities which timely firmness 

would have rendered unnecessary, and which were of 

no avail, because applied too late. 

Nursery Nor was Kate relegated to the dull monotony of a 

monotony ■' 

mere nursery existence. Mrs. Mumford felt instinc- 
tively that the moral germ could no more dispense 
with light and air than could the bud of any tree or 
plant. While on the one hand it must be guarded 
from those outward storms of temptation and worldly 
companionship which have, alas, wrecked so many, 
yet to place it in the dark, with little or no chance 
for heart-expansion and mind-development, would 
"be to stunt its growth, and to j^roduce a sickly weak- 
ling, incapable of dealing with the momentous re- 
sponsibilities and opportunities of life. Just as the 
same bud would under one set of influences expand 
and fructify, while under another it would droop and 
die, so the same character might be made or marred 
according to the treatment it received. 
Its fatal Who can estimate how many beautiful blossoms 
are blighted, how many noble natures spoiled, by 
being abandoned to a ceaseless association with un- 
suitable or careless inferiors? In what a multiplicity 
of cases are the lambs left to the hireling, while the 
one whom God intended to play the part of the 
shepherd is busying herself with a thousand trivial- 
ities, such as will matter little enough when she stands 
with her flock to give an account of her stewardship 
before the Throne! In later life Mrs. Booth em- 
phatically declared her conviction that, however 
devoted or clever a nurse might be, she could not 
take the place of the mother, and that nothing could 
compensate for the loss of the companionship, train- 
ing, and care of the latter. Speaking on this subject 



with all the advantages of her matured experience, 1831, 
Mrs. Booth says : ^^^ ^' 

" Confining children strictly to the nursery is, I ^ fjreat 

1.1 -1 <^ 1 1 • inistake. 

think, a great mistake. God has set us m families, 
and intercourse with their elders over the ordinary 
affairs of life must be improving to the young. In 
fact, topics of general conversation, providing they 
be largfe and elevating, constitute an education such -^ S'off' 

*=> *^ education 

as no books can supply. In my own family, of 

course, the conversation was always such as had to 

do with the salvation of the world. Nevertheless, I 

have been present at many dinner tables where Tabie- 

ennobling subjects were never mentioned, and the 

veriest trifles occupied tongue and thought. Perhaps 

it is best for children to be kept from such." 

From an incredibly early age, Catherine, or Kate, Hermoth- 
as she was usually called, became her mother's com- ji^nion. 
panion and confidante. With the exception of her 
brother, who went to America when only sixteen, she 
had no playmates. Children, as a rule, were so badly ^•opiay- 
brought up, that Mrs. Mumford dreaded their con- 
taminating influence upon her daughter. To some 
this may appear too harsh a rule, but it was one which 
Mrs. Booth herself adopted in bringing up her fam- 
ily, and the result has surely justified its wisdom. 
On one of the few occasions when she allowed two of 
her children to visit the house of a particular friend, 
they returned expressing their astonishment that 
fathers and mothers could disagree and that brothers 
and sisters could quarrel, or be jealous of each other. 

But what Kate lacked in outside companionship was a careful 
abundantly compensated by the close and intimate '«""'^s|- 
ties which linked mother and daughter in bonds that 
grew stronger year by year, and that death itself could 
but for the moment sever. The sapling, which was 



Age 4. 

A tender 


My moth- 
er''s char- 

The real- 
ity of 

one day to outstrip and overshadow the parent tree, 
throve well those early years under the sheltering 
foliage of a mother's love, and abundantly rewarded 
the ceaseless solicitude and unwearying care of which 
it was the object. The conscience, which might have 
been blunted by undue and premature familiarity with 
evil, appealed to and cultivated became keenly sen- 
sitive, responding like an aeolian harp to the slightest 
whisperings of the Spirit. 

Catherine was but four years old, when Mrs. Mum- 
ford heard her crying bitterly after being tucked up 
for the night in her little crib. With sobs and tears 
she poured forth into her mother's sympathetic ear 
the confession of some falsehood, which had so trou- 
bled her conscience as to render sleep impossible. 
Mrs. Mumford did not attempt to excuse the fault, 
or to reason the impression away, but talked and 
prayed with her, not leaving her until she felt herself 
forgiven. Then conscience satisfied, the tired curly 
head quickly nestled on its pillow, and little Kate was 
soon asleep. 

"The longer I live," Mrs. Booth writes, "the more 
I appreciate my mother's character. She was one 
of the Puritan type. I have often heard my husband 
remark that she was a woman of the sternest principle 
he had ever met, and yet the very embodiment of 
tenderness. To her right was right, no matter what 
it might entail. She could not endure works of 
fiction. *Is it true?' she would ask, refusing to waste 
her time or sympathies upon anything of an imag- 
inary character, however excellent the moral intended 
to be drawn. She had an intense realisation of spirit- 
ual things. Heaven seemed quite near, instead of 
being, as with so many, a far-off unreality. It was a 
positive joy to her that her three eldest children were 


there. I never heard her thank the Lord for any- 1833, 
thing so fervently as for this, although they were fine ^^ '^' 
promising boys. ' Ah, Kate, ' she used to say, ' I would 
not have them back for anything! ' " 

The stirring example of such a life, and the per- 
petual influence of such deep spirituality, could not 
but produce a profound impression upon Catherine. 
"I cannot remember the time," she tells us, "when 
I had not intense yearnings after God." 

While, however, the soul had the first place in Mrs. Mental 

^ aevelop- 

Mumford's consideration, this did not prevent her »ient. 
commencing in good time to develop her daughter's 
mental powers. It was true she had her own ideas 
in regard to education. French she abominated, and ^^ 
she would not allow Kate to study a language which ^^'^^(^f^- 
she argued would open the door to the infidel and 
impure novelistic literature with which she knew it 
to abound, and which she regarded with peculiar hor- 
ror. Little did she think that her granddaughter 
was destined not only to master the language, but to 
take France upon her heart, and to go forth to its 
people as its Marechale and spiritual "Jeanne d' Arc." 
Strange, too, that the nation which had burned the 
ancient championess should have sent for the service 
of their old antagonist one who laid claim to similar 
divine inspiration, though striving to liberate her 
adopted people from the thraldom of sin and Satan, 
instead of from that of a foreign yoke. 

In each case the instinct of humanity, so similar the 
world over, recognises the Spirit of the Supreme, al- 
though, as in so many remarkable instances, the mani- 
festation is through a woman rather than a man ! 

Referring in later years to her mother's ideas with a mis- 
regard to French, Mrs. Booth remarks: "I cannot 
but think that on this point my dear mother was mis- 


Age 4. 




Bible les- 




taken, and that she might have allowed me the oppor- 
tunity of acquiring the language, while guarding me 
from the evils she so dreaded. I have found this to 
be possible in the case of my own children, having 
taken every care that they should read no French 
books concerning the purity and safety of which 1 
was not perfectly satisfied. At the same time I be- 
lieve that thousands have indirectly been ruined, 
both for this world and the next, owing to the use in 
schools and academies of the works of Voltaire, and 
other brilliant but ungodly French writers." 

If, however, Mrs. Mumford's prejudices obliged 
Kate to eschew French, she at least made an early 
beginning with her English education. " My mother 
has told me," she says, "that I not only knew my let- 
ters, but could read short w^ords very soon after I was 
three. I cannot myself remember a time when I did 
not find pleasure and consolation in reading, or hear- 
ing others read, either the Bible, or some religious 
book. I was a very highly nervous and delicate 
child from the beginning, and the fact that I was not 
strong enough to occupy my energies and time like 
other children doubtless had something to do with 
this rather unusual precocity. 

Especially w^as Mrs. Mumford anxious to encourage 
her daughter in the study of the Book which she 
looked upon as the supreme fountain of wisdom. It 
was from the Bible that Kate received her earliest 
lessons. Many a time would she stand on a foot- 
stool at her mother's side, when but a child of five, 
reading to her from its pages. Before she w^as 
twelve years old she had read the sacred Book from 
cover to cover eight times through, thus laying the 
foundation of that intimate knowledge and excep- 
tional familiarity with the divine revelation which 


made so profound an impression upon all who knew 1833, 
her. "-^^ '■ 

Thirty years later the position was reversed, and Thirty 

i/en rs 

the weeping mother sat in a densely crowded chapel, 'later. 
listening- for the first time to her daughter, as with 
power and demonstration of the Spirit she expounded 
from the pulpit to her eagerly listening audience 
those same Scriptures which she had studied at her 
mother's knee, and which had become indeed, when 
breathed from her lips, "quick and powerful, and 
sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even 
to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of 
the joints and marrow, a discerner of the thoughts 
and intents of the heart." "Was it for t/a's that I 
nursed her?" exclaimed Mrs. Mumford, amid her 
tears, as she grasped the hand of a lady who had ac- 
companied her to the meeting. 

To the end of life, Catherine maintained this in- Her last 


tense love and reverence for the Scriptures, and her 
last and most valued gift to each member of her 
family, from the very banks of the Jordan, w^as that 
of a Bible, into which, with the greatest pain and 
difficulty, she traced her name, as "the last token of 
a mother's love." 

And yet Kate was not unchildlike. True, she was Partiality 

- • -, 1 . . . for dolls. 

prevented by her delicate health from engagmg m 
active sports. But her humanity and naturalness 
manifested itself in a thousand ways, especially in 
her extreme partiality for dolls. Indeed so devoted 
was she to her miniature family, and in so practical 
a manner did she labor for them, that with her it al- 
most ceased to be play, and rather became a pleasing 
education for the heavy and responsible maternal 
duties which fell to her lot in after life. She must practical. 
feed them, dress them, put them to bed, and even 


1833, pray with them, before her mother-heart could be 
satisfied. And in her spare moments she might be 
seen, with earnest face and bended back, eagerly 
plying needle and thread, thus accquiring a skill which 
she turned to such good account in after life, that 
ladies in admiring her handiwork would beg to be 
told the name of her tailor, in order that they might 
go to the same place for their children's clothes. 

^cioud ■'-^ ^^^ during Kate's early childhood, in fact while 

she was but three or four years old, that a dark cloud 
overshadowed the little home. Mr. Mumford was no 
longer the earnest preacher he had once been. His 
love for God and souls grew cold. He lost the old 
fire. He had never joined the regular ministry of 
the Wesleyan body, although for years he had been 
an accredited and successful lay preacher. He was 
a coach builder by profession, and as an unpaid honor- 
ary official he earned his support from his business, 
devoting his spare time to fulfilling such preaching 
engagements as were marked out for him by his min- 
ister. Mr. Mumford ought, without doubt, to have 

Owjht to been a minister. His remarkable eloquence, repro- 

hace been ^ ^ 

aminister duccd in liis daughter, his spiritual power, his popu- 
larity as a preacher, his natural predilections, and the 
happy possession of a partner in life thoroughly like- 
minded with himself , all pointed in the one direction. 
Repeatedly, as he afterward acknowledged, the Spirit 
of God strove with him on the subject. But he re- 
sisted. The beacon-light of conscience was quenched. 
Little by little, almost insensibly at first, and after- 
wards with more rapid strides, he turned toward the 
world, and at length gave up even the profession of 
religion . 

Mrs. Mumford was filled with grief, but with her 
wonted tenacity of purpose she held on, refusing to 



despair. Long into the nights she would pray for 
her husband, and indeed made it the goal of her ex- 
istence to win him back to the blessed experiences 
of the past. 

At length, after a season of sorrow which left its 
life-mark upon her, prayer was, in measure, an- 
swered, and Mr. Mumford turned from the pursuits 
and pleasures of the world to find his satisfaction in 
higher things. True, he was not what he had been 
when Sarah Milward first met him, the fiery enthusi- 
astic preacher of salvation, with whom she had fallen 
so spontaneously in love. Nevertheless, the change 
was great and was hailed with joy. 

Thirty years later, in one of Mrs. Booth's first pub- 
lic meetings, she had the exceptional happiness of 
leading her father back to the full enjoyment of God's 

It was a beautiful sight, in after-years, to watch 
the fine, venerable, white-haired old man in his 
daughter's meetings, as with the humility and sim- 
plicity of a child he assisted her in the management 
of the services, held up his watch to remind her of 
the too often forgotten time, or prayed with a fervency 
and unction that few could surpass. 


A pray- 
in(j wife. 


Full con- 




EARLY DAYS. 1 834-1 841. 

S^Bo^m '^^^ family removed in 1834 to Boston, in Lincoln- 
shire, Mr. Mumford's native town. During his stay 
here he commenced to take an active part in the Tem- 
perance movement, his home becoming a centre round 
which many of the leading Temperance luminaries 
revolved. Catherine, with her curly locks and flashing 
black eyes, together with her brilliant conversational 
powers, was before long one of the most interesting 
features of her father's table, taking her share in the 
parlor debates, which were to prove So valuable a 
training for her future career. 

Her early She could do nothing by halves. Eagerly she de- 
voured all the Total Abstinence publications of the 
day, familiarising herself , by the time she was twelve, 
with every detail of the question. When evening 
came she would lock herself into her bedroom, and 
by the light of her candle would pour out her heart 
upon paper, writing letters to the various magazines 
to which her father subscribed. In doing this she 
was careful to conceal her identity beneath soraenom- 
de-phimc, giving her manuscripts to a friend to be 
copied and sent to the editor with his card, lest they 
should be rejected if it were known they had been 
written by so mere a child. Little did she then think 
that the day was coming when newspaper reporters 
would attend her meetings, the general public hang 
upon her lips, and her writings be circulated through- 




out the world. Nor was Kate content with merely 
speaking and writing. The wonderful after-activities 
of life were foreshadowed in the twelve-year-old 
secretary of a Juvenile Temperance Society, who 
arranged meetings, raised subscriptions, and with all 
her might pushed forward the interests of the cause. 


ance sec- 

Catherine at the Side (.e the Drunkard. 

" If I were asked for the main characteristics that Her sense 

of respon- 

have helped me through life, I should give a high siMUty. 
place among them to the sense of responsibility 
which I have felt from my earliest days in regard to 
everybody who came in any way under my influence. 
The fact that I was not /ar/d responsible was no relief 


1838. at all. 'Why trouble? It is not your affair ! ' friends 
constantly say to me even now. But how can I help 
troubling, I reply, when I see people going wrong? 
I must tell the poor things how to manage!" 

An early illustration of this trait in Catherine's 
character was one day manifested. 
Her sym- While running along the road with hoop and stick, 
ivith a she saw a prisoner being dragged to the lock-up by a 

prisoner. ... , - . , ^ 

constable. A jeering mob was hootmg the unfortu- 
nate culprit. His utter loneliness appealed power- 
fully to her. It seemed that he had not a friend in 
the world. Quick as lightning Catherine sprang to his 
side, and marched down the street with him, deter- 
mined that he should feel that there was at least one 
Stands by heart that sympathised with him, whether it might 
be for his fault or his misfortune that he was suffer- 
ing. The knight-errant spirit which Kate manifested, 
when, as a mere child, she threw down the gauntlet 
to the mocking crowd, and dared to take the part of 
the lonely hustled criminal, was peculiarly typical of 
the woman who afterward stood by the side of her 
husband and General, helping him to face the scorn 
of his day and generation, until unitedly, with char- 
acter vindicated and name be-blessed, they had 
climbed to a position of successful achievement, 
unique in the history of the world. 
Her first It was Catherine's first open-air procession; indeed, 
^sion^' may we not legitimately call it the first ever held by 
the Salvation Army? But it was destined to be multi- 
plied a million-fold all over the world, and she was to 
have the joy of sweeping the slums of every consider- 
able city in the United Kingdom, not alone, but at 
the head of devoted and well-disciplined bands of- 
Salvation warriors, till at length the glorious past was 
focussed in the mammoth funeral march which stirred 


Christendom to its centre, when the very harlots 1839, 
hushed each other in the streets, and the rough un- ^^ ^°' 
accustomed cheeks of the poorest and most depraved 
were wet with tears, as they watched the speechless, 
yet eloquently silent body pass by of the woman wdio 
from her very childhood had held their cause first at 
heart, and who had so unwearyingly fought their bat- 
tles. We scarce know which touches our hearts the 
more deeply, the cloudless sunrise of the child-cham- 
pion, or the glowing sunset of the soldier-saint. 

One form of sensitiveness which manifested itself Her sym- 
in Kate's childhood, and which caused her the keenest ^animals!" 
pain to the very end of life, was her intense and un- 
usual sympathy with the sufferings of the brute cre- 
ation. She could not endure to see animals ill-treated 
without expostulating and doing her utmost to stop jj ^ ^ f 
the cruelt3\ Many a time she would run out into the cruelty. 
street, heedless of every personal risk, to plead with 
or threaten the perpetrator of some cruel act. On one 
occasion, when but a little girl, the sight of the cruel 
goading of some sheep so filled her soul with indig- 
nation and anguish, that she rushed home and threw 
herself on the sofa in a speechless paroxysm of grief. 

"My childish heart," she tells us, "rejoiced greatly Their pos- 
in the speculations of Wesley and Butler with regard future. 
to the possibility of a future life for animals, in which 
God might make up to them for the suffering and 
pain inflicted on them here. 

"One incident, I recollect, threw me for weeks into Her re- 
the greatest distress. We had a beautiful retriever, 
named Waterford, which was very much attached to 
me. It used to lie for hours on the rug outside my 
door, and if it heard me praying or weeping, it would 
whine and scratch to be let in, that it might in some 
way manifest its sympathy and comfort me. Where- 



Age 10, 

ever I went the dog would follow me about as my 
self-constituted protector — in fact we were insepar- 
able companions. One day Waterford had accom- 
. panied me on a message to my father's house of bus- 
iness. I closed the door, leaving the dog outside, 
when I happened to strike my foot against something, 
and cried out with the sudden pain. Waterford 
heard me, and without a moment's hesitation came 
crashing through the large glass window to my res- 
cue. My father was so vexed at the damage done 
Its death, that he caused the dog to be immediately shot. For 
months I suffered intolerably, especiall)'' in realising 
that it was in the effort to alleviate my sufferings the 
beautiful creature had lost its life. Days passed be- 
fore I could speak to my father, although he after- 
ward greatly regretted his hasty action, and strove 
to console me as best he could. The fact that I had 
no child companions doubtless made me miss my 
speechless one the more." 

Like her other benevolences, Mrs. Booth's kindness 
to animals took a practical turn. "If I were you," 
she would say to the donkey-boys at the sea-side 
resorts, where in later years she went to lecture, " I 
should like to feel, when I went to sleep at night, that 
I had done my very best for my donkey. I would 
like to know that I had been kind to it, and had given 
it the best food I could afford ; in fact, that it had had 
as jolly a day as though I had been the donkey and 
the donkey mc." And she would enforce the argu- 
ment with a threepenny or a sixpenny bit, which 
helped to make it palatable. 

Then turning to her children she would press the 
lesson home by saying, " 77m/ is how I should like to 
see my children spend their pennies, in encouraging 
the boys to be kind to their donkeys." 

The clon- 


at the 




If, in her walks or drives, Mrs. Booth happened to 
notice any horses left out to graze which looked over- 
worked and ill-fed, she would send round to the deal- 
ers for a bushel of corn, stowing it away in some 
part of the house. Then, wdien evening fell, she 
would sally forth with a child or servant carrying a 
vSupply of the food to the field in which the poor creat- 
ures had been marked, watching with the utmost 
satisfaction while they had a '"real good tuck-in." 
It is not to be wondered at that the horses were soon 
able to recognise her, and would run along the hedge 
whenever their benefactors passed by, craning their 
necks and snorting their thanks, to the surprise and 
perplexity of those who were not in the secret. 

Again and again has Mrs. Booth rushed to the win- 
dow, flung up the heavy sash, and called out to some 
tradesman who was ill-treating his animal, not resting 
till she had compelled him to desist. 

"Life is such a puzzle!" she used to say, "but we 
must leave it, leave it with God. I have suffered so 
much over what appeared to be the needless and in- 
explicable sorrows and pains of the animal creation, 
as well as over those of the rest of the world, that if 
I had not come to know God by a personal revelation 
of Him to my own soul, and to trust Him because I 
knew Him, I can hardly say into what scepticism I 
might not have fallen." 

On one occasion when driving out with a friend, 
Mrs. Booth saw a boy with a donkey a little way 
ahead of them. She noticed him pick up something 
out of the cart, and hit the donkey with it. In the 
distance it appeared like a short stick, but to her hor- 
ror she perceived, as they drove past, that it was a 
heavy-headed hammer, and that already a dreadful 
wound had been made in the poor creature's back. 

Age II. 

A good 

Life a 

a donkey. 



Age II. 

Slie seizes 
the reins. 


to conse- 

She called to the coachman to stop ; but before it was 
possible for him to do so, or for those in the carriage 
with her to guess what was the matter, she had flung 
herself at the risk of her life into the road. Her dress 
caught in the step as she sprang, and had it not been 
torn with the force of her leap, she must have been 
seriously injured if not killed. 

As it was, she fell on her face and was covered with 
the dust of the hot and sandy road. Rising to her 
feet, however, she rushed forward and seized the 
reins. The boy tried to drive on, but she clung per- 
sistently to the shaft, until her friends came to her 
assistance. After burning words of warning, fol- 
lowed by tender appeals of intercession, such as from 
even th^ hard heart of the donkey-driver would not 
easily be effaced, she at last induced him to hand 
over his hammer and succeded in obtaining his name 
and address. Then overcome with the excitement 
and exertion she fainted away, and was with difficulty 
carried home. 

To some this may appear to have been an unwise 
expenditure of a valuable life on behalf of so compar- 
atively worthless an object, but such was the effect of 
cruelty upon her whole being that Mrs. Booth became 
at times like these oblivious to consequences, and was 
often rendered for the moment speechless, being 
quite unable even to explain herself to those around 
her. Indeed, it seemed a physical impossibility, 
when her soul was thus stirred with sympathy, to 
subdue her feelings, or calmly "to pass by on the 
other side." And, after all, is not the world full of 
people who are so bent on taking care of themselves 
that they cannot be persuaded to sacrifice anything 
in the cause of humanity? If Mrs. Booth, both as 
a child and in after years, went too far, are there not 


tens of thousands who do not go far enough, and 1841. 
would not the world be the better for infinitely more 
of the same Christ-like, reckless spirit, which, in its 
anxiety to save others, cannot, even in voicing the 
groans of the dumb creation, save itself? Of her how 
truly might it have been said : 

"Let others look and linger, 
And wait for beck and nod ! 
I ever see the finger 
Of an onward-urging God!" 

But perhaps we have lingered too long in describ- A'o hohinj- 
ing this interesting feature of Catherine's child-char- 
acter and in tracing it onward through her later life. 
And yet, intensely as she felt on the subject, her sound 
judgment prevented her from making a hobby of it, 
or from developing this side of her sympathies to the 
neglect of other questions of still greater importance. 
Catherine early realised and throughout life acted 
consistently upon the principle that, even for the 
sufferings of the animal creation, the sovereign rem- 
edy was the salvation of its oppressors. She had no 
sympathy with those who hoped to accomplish the 
redemption of the world independently of the Gospel. 
"Jesus Christ and Him crucified" was her perpetual 
and untiring theme; His salvation her one great 
panacea for all the evils that exist. 

As a child Kate delighted in attending religious Her lovc 
meetings. "Be sure and wake me in good time," meetings. 
were her last words on one occasion, when her mother 
was leaving her bedroom after bidding her daughter 
an affectionate "good-night." It was the end of the 
year, and Mrs. Mumford had promised, as a special 
treat, that Kate should go with her to the watch- 
night service. But an aunt, who held different views 


1841 on the training of children, happened to step in dur- 
ing the evening, and, as Kate was soundly asleep 
when the time arrived for going to the meeting, the 
mother was persuaded into leaving her behind. " I 
cried bitterly, when I awoke the next morning," she 
tells us, "and it was a long time before I could be con- 
soled. This was the only occasion I can ever re- 
member, when my mother broke her promise, and 
the unexpected nature of the disappointment perhaps 
helped to make me feel it the more keenly." 

An intei- No doubt Katc's peculiar disposition and training 

chiid-iis- enabled her to appreciate and enjoy meetings such as, 
tener. ^^ ordinary children, would have been dull and un- 
interesting. By the time she was twelve it was quite 
usual for her to give her mother an outline of the 
sermon. The Wesle3^ans had several earnest preach- 
ers in Boston, and their child-hearer had often some 
interesting accounts to bring home regarding their 
sayings and doings. On one occasion, for instance, 

^mhie^to^ the speaker laid his Bible across the door-step of the 
^^^^- Chapel, and then, turning to address the sinners pres- 
ent, cried out in tones that thrilled the audience: 
" Now which of you have made up your minds to walk 
over that book to hell?" 
Her at- Kate and her mother were deeply attached to Meth- 

to Meth- odism. Its literature was their meat and drink; its 
history was their pride — its heroes and heroines their 
admiration. They had no other idea than to spend 
in its ranks the whole of their life, and to- devote to 
the advancement of its cause their every effort. Lit- 
tle Catherine used to watch with profound pity the 
members of other denominations who passed the 
house on the way to their various places of worship. 
She wished, from the depths of her heart, that they 
could enjoy the same happy experiences as those of 


EARL Y DA YS. 3 1 

Methodists. No higher idea of holiness and devotion 1841. 
seemed possible to her. 

A subject which deeply engaged her interest and -i»ic^. for- 
attention, and for which amongst her many self- missions. 
imposed duties she managed to find time, was that 
of foreign missions. Some of her happiest hours 
were spent in meetings organised on their behalf. 
The stories of the needs and dangers of the heathen 
world made a powerful impression upon her deep and 
impulsive heart. All her sympathies were enlisted 
on behalf of the coloured races of the earth. The 
negroes especially appealed to her, seeming to be the 
most oppressed, and the least capable of defending 

Nor could she rest satisfied with doing less than Collecting 
her small utmost to speed forward the cause. Gladly 
she renounced her sugar and in various ways stinted 
herself to help the work, and when she had practised 
all the self-denial possible, she would collect subscrip- 
tions amongst her friends, often realising, to her un- 
speakable delight, quite a surprising sum. It must 
have been difficult indeed to say "no'" to the ardent Hard to 
little enthusiast, and even those who felt but scant 
interest in the foreign field would find it hard to re- 
sist the appeal that in later years bowed the hearts of 
so many thousands. And the little girl-missionary, 
who saved and begged for the heathen, lived to see 
the institution of an annual week of self-denial 
throughout the world, singularly enough closing her 
ministry of sacrifice and love on the last day of such 
a week. A missionary, did we say? A still higher 
privilege was to be hers, as joint-founder with her 
husband of the largest missionary society in the 

The dreams of the child-politician, who so early 





fought the battles of the people across her family 
table, were to be more than realised, in the rescuing, 
during her life-time, of tens of thousands from drink, 
debauchery, poverty, and crime, and in the scheme 
of social salvation launched after her death by the 
one with whom she had proved for nearly forty years 
so able a co-worker. A scheme which has startled the 

The Wesleyan Chapel in Boston. 

civilized world — inspiring with fresh enthusiasm the 
heart of every well-wisher of mankind and with new 
hope the despairing outcasts of society ; promising at 
no distant date the peaceful solution of a problem 
that has threatened to convulse empires, and for 
which no settlement has hitherto seemed possible 
save in an ocean of blood. 

SCHOOL LIFE. 1841-1843. 

Catherine's school experiences were of compara- Hermoth- 
tively brief duration. Her mother preferred that her %ke /or 
education should be pursued at home, dreading the ^^ °°^' 
effects of unsuitable companionships. Still stronger 
were the views and more unqualified the antipathy 
with which Mrs. Booth afterward regarded the entire 
fabric of modern schooldom. 

The tendency of the age to dissolve the natural ties Shared by 
of blood, and to abolish parental responsibility, by Booth. 
herding children together under the care of those 
who are too often totally unsuited to prepare them 
for the responsibilities of life, could not be, she 
argued, in accordance with God's plan. The mental 
culture, the general information, or the social veneer 
they might thus obtain are dearly paid for by the 
sacrificial holocaust of innocence, virtue, and spirit- 
uality that this educational Taganath demands. "Let The edu- 

•' ^ o cational 

thy gifts be to thyself and give thy rewards to an- Jaganath 
other," she would say to this latter-day Moloch, who 
fattens year by year on the youth, the talent, and 
the beauty of the nation, marking out for his victims 
the choicest in the land, fascinating with his glitter- 
ing eye, and encircling within his deadly coils prince, 
prelate, and people alike, till few are left who have 
not in his honour passed through the fatal fires. 

To Mrs. Booth the great pasteboard image set up ^^^^Pf,^^' 
in the plains of Christendom by the nineteenth cen- image. 
3 33 



Age 12, 


One lan- 
for the 

A warn- 
ing to 

tury Nebuchadnezzars of her day had no attraction. 
Like the three Hebrew heroes, she stubbornly re- 
fused to bow the knee before it. "Better," she said, 
"be cast into the sevenfold-heated fires of poverty 
and worldly oblivion, than purchase the favour of 
monarchs at a cost that should imperil the soul." 

She never wearied in warning parents against a 
system, which had proved so destructive of spirituality, 
turning many of the purest and most hopeful children 
into educated fiends, whose power for evil had been 
only increased by the intellectual weapons with which 
they had been armed. "What are you going to do 
with your education?" she would ask her children in 
piercing tones. " If you mean to serve the devil with 
it, you had better let me know. One language is 
quite enough fo?' him.'' And when tempting offers 
came from rich friends to mjet the expenses of a 
college training, time after time she put from her the 
dazzling chance, and this at a period when the future 
looked particularly dark, and there was no Salvation 
Army to afford scope for the development of the 
brilliant gifts with which she realised they were by 
nature endowed. 

In one of her published addresses* she refers to this 
question as follows: "I cannot close these remarks 
without lifting up my voice against the practice now 
so prevalent amongst superior people, of sending 
children to boarding-schools before their principles 
are formed, or their characters developed. Parents 
are led away by the professedly religious character 
of the schools, forgetting that, even supposing the 
master or mistress may be all that can be desired, a 
school is a little ivorld, where all the elements of 

* Practical Religion, p. 24. 


unredeemed human nature are at work, and that 1841, 
with as great variety, subtlety, and power as in the ^^ ^^' 
larger world outside. You would shrink from ex- 
posing your child to the temptation and danger of as- 
sociation with unconverted, worldly men and xvojucn. 
Why, then, should you expose them to the influence 
of children of the same character, who are not un- 
frequently sent to these schools because they have 
become utterly vitiated and unmanageable at home? 
I have listened to many a sad story of the consequen- 
ces of these school associations, and early made up ^'''' own 

1-11 1 experi- 

my mind to keep my children under luy ozun influ- ence. 
encL\ at least until they attained such maturity in 
grace and principle, as would be an effectual safe- 
guard against ungodly companionships. To this end 
I have rejected several very inviting offers in the way 
of educational advantage, and every day I am increas- 
ingly thankful for having been enabled to do so. 
God has laid on you, as parents, the responsibility of 
training your children, and you cannot possibly dele- 
gate that responsibility to another without endanger- 
ing their highest interests for time and for eternity." 

Nor can it be denied that Mrs. Booth's own sue- ^t^sT^' 
cessful experiment in this direction has placed her in 
a position to speak with authority on the subject. As 
monuments of God's blessing on her disinterested and 
self-sacrificing efforts, her family stand round her 
and speak for her "in the gates." 

Mrs. Booth's personal school-experience was an Asy/stem 
unusually fortunate one. Her mother s influence fled in/ 
combined with her natural strength of character to "^^^^ ''^"' 
guard her against the ill-consequences from which 
she might otherwise have suffered. But even had it 
been otherwise, she argued that the system could 
not be justified by the existence of an occasional ex- 



Age 12, 

But by its 

God- made 

and man- 

waives her 




at school. 

ception, nor by the fact that some few might pass 
through the ordeal unscathed. 

It was to be judged by its general effect on persons 
of ordinary moral calibre, who were incapable of re- 
sisting the evil influences by which they found them- 
selves surrounded, rather than by its influence on 
characters of an unusual hardihood, who overcame 
their unpropitious surroundings, but were certainly 
not bettered by them. It has been said, in regard to 
the social problem, that God made the country, man 
made the town ; and it might be added, with equal 
truth, that God made the family, man made the 
school. And just as the remedy for the one evil is to 
turn the current backward from town to country, so 
Mrs. Booth was convinced that the wholesale juvenile 
immigration should be resolutely stemmed and turned 
from school to family. 

Mrs. Mumford's views were by no means so decided 
and vehement as were afterward those of her daughter. 
Nevertheless, her leanings were all in the same di- 
rection. Hence it was some time before she could 
bring herself to send Catherine to school. It hap- 
pened, however, that, amongst the members of the 
chapel in Boston to which Mrs. Mumford belonged, 
there was a lady of unusual devotion and ability. 
Acquaintance quickly ripened into friendship, and at 
length Mrs. Mumford was persuaded to overcome her 
usual scruples, and to send her daughter to the school, 
of which from all directions she received such favour- 
able reports. Certainly the children were of a supe- 
rior character. Not only was discipline observed, 
but, what she valued infinitely more, many of the 
girls gave evidence of genuine conversion. 

Catherine was twelve years old when she began to 
attend this school, and she continued her studies there 


during the next two years. She soon established 1842, 
such a character for truth, diligence, and ability, that ^^ ^^* 
she was appointed to act as a monitor, and was 
commonly appealed to for the real version of what 
had happened during the occasional absences of the 
principal and her assistants. Every one knew that 
nothing could induce her to tell a falsehood, be the 
consequences what they might. 

Her sensitive nature and intense aversion to caus- Amrse to 
ing pain made her reluctant to go above others in '^'^uon. * 
class. She preferred rather to help 'them to surpass 
herself, when her natural capacity and love of study 
would have easily enabled her to take the lead. In 
later years she was consistently opposed to the general 
idea of competition, believing that it excited a selfish 
and uncharitable spirit, and gave an undue priority to 
ability over righteousness. Her bookish and retiring 
disposition, together with the special favor manifested 
by the principal, led to her being teased at times by 
her schoolmates, and, though she was naturally good- 
tempered, she would occasionally give way to violent 
bursts of anger, for which she afterward manifested 
the deepest contrition. 

She had a keen realisation of the value of time, 
and would spend her leisure hours in pacing up and 
down a shady lane near her home poring over some 

History was one of her favorite studies. She ex- Her 
perienced special pleasure in reading about those \istory.^ 
whose great deeds had served to benefit others. 
Their moral character and achievements on behalf of 
suffering humanity attracted her attention, rather 
than their talents, wealth, or position. "Were they bonoh' 
clever? What use then had they made of their 
ability?" inquired the child-philosopher. "Was it 


1842, to aggrandise themselves, or to benefit others? Were 
^^ ^ they rich? How did they spend their money? Was 
it in idle pomp and self -gratification, or in extrava- 
gance and luxury? If so, they were too despicable 
to be admired. Their wealth perish with them, or 
go to those who would expend it on the poor!" 
Her esti- "Napolcon," she tells us, "I disliked with all my 

mate of ,,^. 

Naiioieon. heart, because he seemed to me the embodiment of 
selfish ambition. I could discover no evidence that 
he had attempted to confer any benefit upon his own 
nation, much le«s on any of the countries he had con- 
quered with his sword. Possibly this may have been 
in some measure due to the prejudice of the English 
historians whose works I studied, and who doubtless 
strove to paint his character in the darkest colors. 
Be this as it may, my dislike to him was not based on 
any national antipathy, but on what I reckoned to be 
the supremely selfish motives that actuated his life. 
Com- " I could not but contrast him with Caesar, who, 

ivith though by no means an attractive character, accord- 
"^^ ■ ing to my notions, yet appeared desirous of benefit- 
ting the people whom he conquered. His efforts for 
their civilisation, together with the laws and public 
works he introduced on their behalf, seemed to me 
to palliate the merciless slaughter of his wars, and 
the of life and property that accompanied his 
operations. He appeared to me to desire the good 
of his country, and not merely his own aggrandise- 
other Amongst other studies Catherine had, as might 

have been expected, a special aptitude for composition. 
Geography she liked, longing to be able to visit the 
countries and nations about which she had read. 
Arithmetic was her bugbear, but this she afterward 
attributed to the senseless way in which it was taught, 


since to her logical and mathematical mind figures 1843, 
had afterward a considerable attraction. ^^ ^^' 

In 1843, Catherine's school-days were brought a severe 
abruptly to a close, by a severe spinal attack which '""^-^^ 
compelled her to spend most of her time in a recum- inter- 
bent position, but even then her active nature would ^Zhllihig; 
not permit her to rest, and her time was divided be- 
tween sewing, knitting, and her beloved books. 

No doubt there was a divine purpose in this illness, 
for it was during the next few years of comparative 
retirement from the ordinary activities of life, that 
she acquired the extensive knowledge of church his- ^,j, ^j^^ 
tory and theology which proved so useful in later ^t^^dies 
years, and for the prosecution of which her multitudi- 
nous duties would otherwise have left her no time. 

Her powerful mind fairly revelled in grappling 
with the deepest theological problems, nor was she 
satisfied with a mere superficial acquaintance with 
her subject. The accompanying fac-simile of her 
notes on "Butler's Analogy," written when she was a 
girl of sixteen, will suffice to show how careful and 
thorough was her study. Wesley, Finney, Fletcher, 
Mosheim, and Neander were taken up in turn, and 
in some cases carefully epitomised. Finney's lec- 
tures on theology she specially appreciated. 

"The Pilgrim's Progress," she tells us, "I had read Pilgrim's 


with great interest long before, but even at that time 
I could not help entertaining a strong antipathy to the 
Calvinistic tendency of some of its teachings." 

"Another book which I carefully studied was New- news rr- 

. T» 1 AC • 1-1 • • i/arding 

ton on Prophecy. After notmg and vamly strivmg to prophecy. 
reconcile the various interpretations, each supported 
by quotation of chapter and verse, I can definitely re- 
member deciding, that since so many learned and 
able people differed regarding the matter, it would be 



Age 14. 

tic tram- 

ness of 

unwise for me to spend time and effort in striving to 
come to any clearer conclusion. -I believed that I 
could better please God by devoting my attention to 
preparing people for Christ's coming, than by fixing 
the date when it was to take place, and to this po- 
sition I have ever since adhered." 

It was perhaps a happy design of Providence that 
suddenly liberated the girl student from her scholas 
tic cage and left her master-mind unfettered to folio .v 
the bent of its own instinct, instead of being forced 
into the routine ruts which would undoubtedly have 
been marked out for it by others. 

How inscrutable are the ways of God ! Little did 
the lonely sufferer think, as she lay upon her couch, 
that this was her Heavenly Father's chosen training 
ground. His college, of which He was Himself to be 
the sole Principal and Professor, she the sole student. 
Often was she tempted to repine at a lot so sad and 
mysterious for one so young. Yet, to us who look 
back, it is evident that this was the best, perhaps the 
only preparation for such a life. There was no other 
wilderness for the nineteenth-century prophetess, no 
other Galilee of the Gentiles for the latter-day apostle, 
where, apart from the old-fashioned dicta of priest 
and Pharisee, the Holy Ghost could fashion His new 
material suitably to the exigencies of the time. And 
thus, that which appeared to be a terrible affliction 
is discovered in the end to be a blessing in disguise, 
and we are constrained to say: 

"Sickness, thou ante-chamber 

Of heaven — approach to God — 
Ladder by which we clamber 

From earth — Our Father's rod! 
Welcome ! Since thou dost bring me 

Sweet messengers of love, 
Angelic songs to sing me 

Fresh from my Home above. 


(Friyni a Daguei'reotype taken shortly t>efore tier marriiuje.) 


'As when the winds are shaking 1843 

The dead leaves from some tree, Age 14. 

Fresh buds and flowers are making 

More bright its greenery ; 
So thou my soul art storming, 

To make it holier still, 
My wilfulness transforming, 

Creating good from ill." 


YOUTH. 1 844- 1 847. 

An early 

A worldly 

The con- 


The Boston days closed in 1844 with an incident 
very characteristic of Catherine. Previous to their 
departure for London, Mr. and Mrs. Mumford were 
visited by some cousins from Derby. One of them, a 
young man of somewhat striking appearance, and 
with more then ordinary capacity, was deeply attached 
to Catherine. They had known each other from 
childhood, and, although she was not the most ardent 
of the two, she could not prevent her heart respond- 
ing in some measure to his love. 

But he was worldly and irreligious, and conscience 
warned her that, however kind and genial he might 
be, he would make no fit partner for her in life. 
True, he would go with her to the chapel, but while 
she v/as endeavouring to enter into the spirit of the 
service, he would be scratching pictures on the pew 
in order to divert her attention. 

For some time there was a considerable controversy 
in her mind. She felt she ought to break off all cor- 
respondence, and tell her cousin plainly that she 
could never make him the object of her affections. 
On the other hand, she dreaded to give him pain, and 
was open to the temptation that, when continually 
under her influence, he might become in spiritual 
matters all she could desire. Ultimately, however, 
she took her stand upon the verse, " Be ye not un- 
equally yoked together with unbelievers." And al- 




though, as she afterward said, " it cost me a consider- 
able effort at the time, I have far from regretted the 
step I then decided upon, and have lived to see that 
the whole course of my life might have been altered, 
had I chosen to follow the inclinations and fancies of 
my own heart rather than the express command of 
God, which so unmistakably reveals His will to us in 
this matter." 

And further she adds: "So much is lost at such 
crises through vacillation, through not acting up to the 
light as God gives it. A girl cannot easily talk about 
these things. Perhaps there is no one suitable to 
whom she can turn for advice, and so a false position 
is drifted into, which too often culminates in an un- 
happy marriage and a useless career." 

In 1844 the Mumfords removed to London, settling 
down finally in Brixton. This was Catherine's first 
visit to the great metropolis, and she was considerably 
disappointed at its appearance. Girl-like, she had 
been castle-building in her imagination, picturing to 
herself the sort of model city that this brick and mor- 
tar colossus of the universe must be, with palatial 
residences and mammoth edifices. To find it a pro- 
miscuous mass of humanity sandwiched, so to speak, 
between soot and mud, with countless acres of very 
ordinary-looking dwellings, and interminable miles 
of streets, very much resembling those to which she 
had been accustomed in Boston, was an unexpected 
termination to her dreams. She was, however, 
deeply impressed with some of its principal sights, 
such as vSt. Paul's, Westminster Abbey, and the Nat- 
ional Gallery. 

' But it was the seething cauldron of humanity 
which more and more engrossed her attention as time 
went on, leaving her but little leisure or inclination 

Age 15. 

Her auh- 



Her dis- 

years in a 



Age 15. 

A car- 
riage ac- 




to consider any other subject than how to benefit their 
condition and combat their miseries. With a few- 
inconsiderable intervals London became, during the 
next forty-six years, the principal scene of her activ- 
ities. By dint of dauntless faith in God and weight 
of worth, unaided by wealth or influence, the girl- 
listener of Exeter Hall fought her way up to be one 
of London's most popular and effective platform 
speakers, crowding the largest buildings with her 
audiences, and worthily closing her grand public 
career with a meeting in its far-famed City Temple, 
such as none who were present could ever forget. 

Yet at the very commencement of this period, an 
incident occurred, which reminds us on how slender 
a thread the most valuable of lives may hang. Mr. 
Mumford had driven his wife and children to visit a 
friend living at a village some six miles distant. On 
the way back the horse took fright and bolted. Mr. 
Mumford held on to the reins w^th all his might, but 
was unable to pull up. Catherine, who was in the 
back seat, managed to scramble out, running back to 
the village as fast as she could to obtain help. Look- 
ing over her shoulder, the last glimpse she caught of 
the scene was the horse rearing in mid-air with her 
father hanging on to its head. After running a mile, 
she became so exhausted that she fell fainting on the 
sward by the roadside, but soon recovered herself 
sufficiently to struggle on to the house of their recent 
host. Without a moment's delay the pony was put 
into their chaise, and Catherine was enabled to return 
to the scene of the accident. Great was her relief to 
find her father, mother, and brother unhurt. They 
had run into a ditch, but had miraculously escaped 
from injury, and were able to return home in safety, 
praising God for their deliverance. 



To those who have read thus far in Mrs, Booth's 
life it will probably cause no small surprise to learn 
that it was not until she was sixteen that she believed 
herself to have been truly converted. " About this 
time," she tells us, "I passed through a great contro- 
versy of soul. Although I was conscious of having 
given myself up fully to God from my earliest years, 
and although I was anxious to serve Him and often 
realised deep enjoyment in prayer, nevertheless I had 
not the positive assurance that my sins were forgiven, 
and that I had experienced the actual change of heart 
about which I had read and heard so much. I was 
determined to leave the question no longer in doubt, 
but to get it definitely settled, cost what it might. 
For six weeks I prayed arid struggled on, but ob- 
tained no satisfaction. True, my past life had been 
outwardly blameless. Both in public and private I 
had made use of the means of grace, and up to the 
very limit of my strength, and often beyond the 
bounds of discretion, my zeal had carried me. Still, 
so far as this was concerned, I realised the truth of 
the words: 

' Could my zeal no respite know. 
Could my tears forever flow — 
These for sin could not atone. ' 

I knew, moreover, that ' the heart is deceitful above 
all things and desperately wicked.' I was terribly 
afraid of being self-deceived. I remembered, too, 
the occasional outbursts of temper when I was at 
school. Neither could I call to mind any particular 
place or time when I had definitely stepped out upon 
the promises, and had claimed the immediate forgive- 
ness of my sins, receiving the witness of the Holy 
Spirit that I had become a child of God and an heir of 


Age 16. 

Her con- 

Six weeks 

4^ J//?^. BOOTH. 

184s, " It seemed to me unreasonable to suppose that I 

could be saved, and yet not know it. At any rate, I 
could not permit myself to remain longer in doubt re- 
.sKj-ance garding the matter. If in the past I had acted up to 
" tion!^ the light I had received, it was evident that I was 
now getting new light, and unless I obeyed it, I 
realised that my soul would fall into condemnation. 
Ah, how many hundreds have I since met, who have 
spent vears in doubt and perplexity, because, after 
consecrating themselves fully to God, they dared not 
venture out upon the promises and believe! 
A(jony of " I Can never forget the agony I passed through. 
I used to pace my room till two o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and when, utterly exhausted, I lay down at 
length to sleep, I would place my Bible and hymn- 
uook under my pillow, praying that I might wake up 
with the assurance of salvation. One morning as I 
opened my hymn-book, my eyes fell upon the words : 

'My God, I am Thine! 
What a comfort Divine, — 
What a blessing to know that my Jesus is mine!' 

Scores of times I had read and sung these words, but 

now they came home to my inmost soul with a force 

and illumination they had never before possessed. It 

impossi- was as impossible for me to doubt, as it had before 

doubt, been for me to exercise faith. Previously not all the 

promises in the Bible could induce me to believe, 

now not all the devils in hell could persuade me to 

doubt. I no longer hoped that I was saved, I was 

gj^^ certain of it. The assurances of my salvation seemed 

testifies, to flood and fill my soul. I jumped out of bed, and, 

without waiting to dress, ran into my mother's room 

and told her what had happened. 

" Till then I had been very backward in speaking 



even to her upon spiritual matters. I could pray be- 
fore her, and yet could not open my heart to her about 
my salvation. It is a terrible disadvantage to people 
that they are ashamed to speak freely to one another 
upon so vital a subject. Owing- to this, thousands are 
kept in bondage for years, when they might easily 
step into immediate liberty and joy. I have myself 
met hundreds of persons who have confessed to me 
that they had been church members for many years 
without knowing what a change of heart really was, 
and without having been able to escape from this 
miserable condition of doubt and uncertainty to one 
of assurance and consequent satisfaction. 

" For the next six months I was so happy that I 
felt as if I was walking on air. I used to tremble, 
and even long to die, lest I should backslide, or lose 
the consciousness of God's smile and favour." 

Catherine now joined the Wesleyan Church in 
Brixton, of which her mother had for some time been 
a member. So strict was her conscientiousness, and 
so determined had she been not to play the part of a 
hypocrite, that she would not give in her name pre- 
viously to this, although she had been one of the 
most regular attendants and earnest listeners. 

The society had in London at this time some able and 
eloquent preachers, such as Luke Tyerman, the well- 
known author of the " Life of John Wesley. " And yet 
while the sermons were often of a stirring and pointed 
character, bringing the truths of the Gospel to bear 
mightily upon the consciences of the people, they 
were unaccompanied by the signs and wonders that 
had marked the early days of Methodism. Moreover 
the members were in a much more cold, worldly, and 
backslidden condition than those at Boston. 

Both Catherine and her mother were greatly dis- 


Age 16. 

sduds iti 


Joins (he 



A cold 



184s, appointed at this. They were jealous for the honour 
^^ ^ ■ of their church, and longed for a return of its higher 
spiritual life, of its separation from the world and 
effort on behalf of souls. It was a constant source of 
grief to them that so few were being saved. And yet 
this was hardly to be wondered at, since there was 
comparatively little attention or effort bestowed upon 
the prayer-meeting which followed the sermon. 
A spirit- " At this very time," she afterward tells us, " I can 
^er meet-' remember often leaving the chapel burdened at heart 
^^^' that more had not been accomplished of a practical 
character. I could often see that a powerful impres- 
sion had been made upon the people, that their con- 
sciences had been awakened and their judgment en- 
lightened. Many of them were evidently on the verge 
of decision. And then at the critical moment, when 
it seemed to me every power should have been sum- 
Tnoned to help them, to act upon the light, and then 
to give their hearts to God, the prayer-meeting was 
either dispensed with altogether, or conducted in 
such a pointless and half-hearted style that as a rule 
the opportunity was lost, and the people streamed 
out, leaving little or no visible results to chronicle. 
Her views " J did SO long on such occasions for some means of 

on faith- ^ . ^ ^ 

fui deal- getting at the congregation m a direct and personal 
manner. I felt certain that the reason for much of 
this lack of straight dealing on the part of ministers 
sprang from a fear lest they should lose their repu- 
tation and the friendship of their hearers. And yet I 
could see that this was very short-sighted, even for 
this world, to say nothing of the world to come. For 
I was very sure then, and my subsequent experience 
has fully borne it out, that by dealing faithfully Avith 
souls, while they might have alienated some, they 
would have won a far larger number of converts, 




whose love, sympathy, and devotion would have much 1846, 

more than compensated for those they might have ^^ ^'' 

So deep and permanent was the impression produced Rer own 


upon Catherine in regard to this matter that in later m later 
years, when she herself occupied the pulpit, she lost y^"-^^- 
no opportunity for compelling her hearerS to an im- 
mediate decision, and after delivering an address that 
would occupy from one to two hours, and this with a 
passionate energy which would bathe her in perspir- 
ation from head to foot, she would step from the plat- 
form, conduct her own prayer-meeting, and person- 
ally deal with the long row of kneeling penitents, 
attending to each one's individual circumstances, 
character, and need. No matter how select or critical 
the audience might be, in faithful dealing, courage, 
and directness she was the same. Indeed, she seemed 
scarcely able to restrain herself at times, while the 
preliminaries were being gone through, perhaps by 
too prolix a chairman, so impatient would she be for 
the opportunity of pouring out upon her listeners the 
lava-like truths which seemed pent up in her volcano 

But the time for her public ministry had not come, 
and Catherine had yet much to learn by personal ex- 
perience. She now joined a Bible class which was 
conducted by the wife of a supernumerary minister of 
the circuit. This class she continued to attend for 
the next five years. " Mrs. Keay used to insist upon 
my praying," she tells us, "and would often keep the 
class five minutes upon their knees waiting for me 
to begin. When I told her one day that the excite- 
ment and exertion had made me ill, she replied, 
'Never mind! you will be of use by and by, if you 
overcome this timidity, and employ your gifts. But 

Joins a 



Age 17. 

Wesley'' s 

The insti- 

ical testi- 

if you don't, you won't.' And yet I do not suppose 
that she had for me in her mind a more extended 
sphere of usefulness than that of praying and testify- 
ing in class meetings, or at the most of leading one. 
Certainly I had no higher ambition for myself." 

The class meeting was designed by Wesley to sup- 
ply to the members of each society individual over- 
sight, together with an opportunity for mutual con- 
fession and communion. Indeed, we might almost 
describe it as the Protestant equivalent for the Roman 
Catholic confessional. The class consisted of some 
twenty or thirty persons, who met weekly under 
the direction of a lay leader. 

Mrs. Booth seems to have fully appreciated this 
institution, although she expresses disappointment in 
regard to the particular class of which she was a mem- 
ber. "I can see," she remarks, "that if our leader 
had been faithful to her duty and opportunities, most 
of her class would either have been converted, or 
would have left. As it was, the teaching they re- 
ceived was quite compatible with lives of mere self- 
indulgence. Their testimonies were mostly of a me- 
chanical stamp, one after another getting up and 
saying that they had met with great difficulties and 
trials, but that they praised God for having brought 
them through another week, without saying /low they 
had come through, whether triumphantly or other- 
wise. The exhortations of the leader were usually to 
the effect that they were to look away from them- 
selves to Christ, He being so presented in many in- 
stances as to become a minister of sin, and the chief 
design appearing to be to make them comfortable in 
their souls, although they might be living just like 
their neighbours." 

"There can be no doubt," Mrs. Booth adds, "that 

YOUTH. 5 1 

the class meeting, as originally intended by Wesley, 1846, 
was an excellent arrangement, but the mere asking ^^ ^^' 
of empty questions as to how a person is getting on, How to 
and the leaving them to answer by the platitudes ^'^^ciass- ^ 
usual on such occasions, is to daub them with untem- ""^^^"'S'- 
pered mortar, and to lead them forth in the way of 
hollow profession and uncertainty. Pointed questions some 
should be put, such as: Have you enjoyed private questions. 
prayer during the week? How far have you been 
enabled to obey the precepts of Jesus Christ in dealing 
with your family or your business? Have you main- 
tained a conscience void of offence toward men as 
well as toward God in these matters? Have you 
faithfully made use of your opportunities for doing 
good? How many have you spoken to about their 
souls? Have you succeeded in leading anybody to 
decision for salvation or consecration? Have you 
practised any self-denial in order to extend the King- 
dom of Christ? 

"Such questions pressed home with the aid of the The lead- 
Holy Spirit would compel confession, and involve a ^ome^uj) 
repentance and reconsecration productive of real re- standard. 
suits. But of course questions of this kind pre- 
suppose that those who ask them are themselves liv- 
ing up to the standard which they set before others, 
and this, alas, is too often not the case!" 

The leader of Catherine's class was an exception- -^»"s- 

■"■ Booth^s 

ally pious and devoted person. She had the oversight leader. 
of three classes, was an active visitor, and took a 
prominent part in all the work connected with the 
chapel. Yet while she herself dressed with studied 
plainness, her daughter was allowed to follow the 
fashions of the world, and to become engaged with 
her mother's approval to a young man who, though 
belonging to a Methodist family, did not even profess 


1846, conversion. Catherine could not help feeling that 
Age 17. ^j^ggg inconsistencies paralysed the power and contra- 
dicted the teachings of her leader, and that, with such 
an example before their eyes, little permanent good 
could be accomplished among the members of the 
class. For the " don't-do-as-I-do, but do-as-I-tell-you" 
kind of religion, she entertained throughout life a 
positive horror, and to find in her beloved Methodism 
such symptoms of decay caused her the deepest sor- 
row and concern. Nevertheless, sad though she 
might feel, the thought of separation from its ranks 
did not so much as suggest itself to her mind. 

HER DIARY. 1 847-1 848. 

Like too many of those, the record of whose inner Brief and 
life would be both precious and instructive, Mrs. irrepiiiar 
Booth did not keep a diary. She used afterward to 
say, that she had been too busy inakiiigh.\sioYy to find 
time in which to record it. This fact lends added 
interest to the only fragment of a journal which 

The entries are brief and irregular, dating from 
12th May, 1847, to 24th March, 1848. Intended as 
she tells us for her own eye alone, these early mus- 
ings and heart-yearnings offer a valuable index to 
her life and character. 

The diary begins with her arrival in Brighton for a visit 
a few weeks' change and rest. In the previous au- ^^^^Mon. 
tumn serious symptoms of incipient consumption had 
set in, and for six months she was almost entirely 
confined to her room with violent pains in the chest and 
back, accompanied with strong fever at night. With 
the departing winter, however, her worst symptoms 
subsided, and she was sufficiently recovered to travel, 
though still very weak. " Mr. Stevens, my new doc- 
tor," she writes, "came to see me on Tuesday last. 
He is a very nice man, and a preacher in our society. 
He sounded my chest, and thinks my left lung is 
affected, but says there is no cavity in it, and hopes 
to do me good. I hope, if it is for my God and His 


54 MJiS. BOOTH. 

1847, glory, the Lord will give His blessing to the means 
Age 18. 

we are using. 

Ill but The seriousness and severity of her illness may, 
peaceful. ^Qwever, be judged from another entry in which, 
under date 13th June, 1847, she writes: "I went to 
chapel in the morning, but felt very poorly with 
faintness and palpitation, so that I spent the after- 
noon in bed in reading and contemplation. At even- 
ing I went again and stopped to receive the sac- 
rament, but was so ill I could scarcely walk up to the 
communion rail, and was forced to hold it to keep 
myself from sinking. Mr. Heady, the minister, saw 
I was ill, and held the cup for me. I afterward came 
home, supported between Mr. Wells and another 
gentleman. The pain was so violent I had to keep 
stopping in the street. The cold sweat stood on my 
forehead. But amidst all the pain and confusion 
there was calm, peace, and joy." 

Tortured on another occasion with toothache, she 
called in at a dentist's, "but he feared I was too weak 
to undergo the operation. He said my pulse was as 
slow as an infant's, and the shock might be too much 
for me." 
Yearn- ^^^ diary is full of intense yearnings after God and 
ings after struggles to attain perfect holiness of life. 

"14th May, 1847. — This morning, while reading 
Rowe's Devout Exercises of the Heart, I was much 
blessed, and enabled to give myself afresh into the 
hands of God, to do, or to suffer, all His will. Oh, 
that I may be made useful in this family! Lord, they 
know Thee not, neither do they seek Thee! Have 
mercy upon them, and help me to set an example, at 
all times and in all places, worthy of imitation. Help 
me to adorn the Gospel of God, my Saviour, in all 


" I find much need of watchfulness and prayer, and 1847, 
1 • -■ . 1 ... Age 18. 

have this day taken up my cross m reprovmg sm. 

Lord, follow with the conviction of Thy spirit all I Eebuking 

have said." 


"I entered into fresh covenant this morning with Afresh 
my Lord to be more fully given up to Him. Oh, to 
be a Christian indeed! To love Thee with all my 
heart is my desire. I do love Thee, but I want to 
love Thee more. If Thou smile upon me, I am in- 
finitely happy, though deprived of earthly happiness 
more than usual. If Thou frown, it matters not 
what I have beside. 

'Thou art the spring of all my joys, 

The life of my delights, 
The glory of my brightest days 

And comfort of my nights. ' 

On reaching Brighton, Catherine received from her Her 
mother the following letter, which throws an inter- ^\tter. 
esting light on the close spiritual communion that 
existed between mother and daughter. After refer- 
ring to her own and Catherine's health, Mrs. Mum- 
ford says : 

" Oh, may the Lord help me to hang on His faithfulness 
alone, and when all seems gloomy without, 'still to endure as 
seeing Him who is invisible.' The enemy tempts me to 
doubt, because I do noifeel as I did before. But I say to my- 
self: ' Thou kno west 

'Other refuge have I none, 
Hangs my helpless soul on Thee!' 

May He help me to believe for a clearer manifestation of 
His love and favour! 

'I would not my soul deceive, 
Without the inward witness live ! ' 

" I am glad you are getting on so well. Live close to Jesus 



Age 18. 

extant let- 


and He will keep you to the end. Oh, may He bless you with 
all His fulness ! You say I must pray for you I Do you think 
I could approach the Throne of Grace without doing so? Oh, 
no ! You are ever in my mind as an offering to the Lord. 
May He sanctify you wholly to Himself is the prayer of 
" Your ever-loving mother, 

" Sarah Mumford." 

To this letter Catherine sent the following reply, 
which is the earliest extant autograph letter that 
exists : 

" My Dearest Mother : — I thank you very sincerely for your 
kind, nice, long letter, and especially as I know what an effort 
it is for you to write. [Mrs. Mumford's hand was crippled 
with rheumatism.] Don't fear for a moment that I should 
think you indifferent to my comfort. How could I possibly 
think it, with so many proofs to the contrary? If I ever in- 
dulged any hard thoughts, it has been my sin, for which I 
need the forgiveness of God : it has been prompted by the 
same spirit which has too often led me to 'charge God fool- 
ishly. ' But so far from this feeling being the offspring of my 
calmer moments and better judgment, it is only the effects of 
an evil heart of unbelief, an impetuous will, and a momentary 
loss of common sense, for I know and frmly believe that God 
will do all things well. Let us trust in Him. 

" I thank you for your very kind and seasonable advice. I 
do pray and read the Scriptures with Maria, and she prayed 
aloud the other day, \hQ first tiviesho. has ever done so in any- 
body's presence. I hope the work is begun; if not I tremble 
for her. But charity hopeth all things — believeth all things. 
I have had a deal of talk to her about election and Christian 
perfection, the last of which she would not admit to be possi- 
ble. I never felt clearer light on these points than now. Oh, 
the depth of the riches and the wisdom of God ! 

" If I am able I shall go next Sunday to class in the after- 
noon, and Maria is going with me to see what a class-meeting 
is like. Her church holds Calvinistic doctrines. I went to 
her chapel once, but could not receive all I heard, though I 
believe the minister was a true Christian. I am sorry she 
has received these opinions, and am endeavouring by simple 
Scripture, which is the best weapon, to show her the true ex- 



tent of the blessed Atonement. She says I have thrown much 
light upon her mind, and she desires to be led into all truth. If 
so, the Spirit will guide her. May it be so. Amen ! " 

In a subsequent letter she says: 

" I have just returned from the beach. It is a lovely morn- 
ing, but very rough and cold. The sea looks sublime. I 
never saw it so troubled. Its waters " cast up mire and dirt," 
and lash the shore with great violence. The sun shines with 
full splendour, which makes the scene truly enchanting. It 
only wants good health and plenty of strength to walk about 
and keep oneself warm, for it is too cold to sit. There is a 
meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in the Town Hall this 
evening. If I feel able, I think of going, but I shall not stop 
late. I am indignant at the Conference for their base treat- 
ment of Mr. Burnett. But I quite expected it, when he gave 
a conscientious affidavit in Mr. Hardy's case. Well, it will 
all come down on their own pates. The Lord will reward 
them according to their doings, if they only persevere a little 
longer. Reform is certain. 

" I wish I could see you, though I should be sorry to come 
home just yet. The change is most agreeable to my feelings. 
It is like a new world to me. I was heartily sick of looking at 
brick and mortar. Oh, I love the sublime in nature ! It ab- 
sorbs my whole soul. I cannot resist it, nor do I envy those 
who can. There is nothing on earth more pleasing and pro- 
fitable to me than the meditations and emotions excited by 
such scenes as I witness here. I only want those I love best 
to participate my joys, and then they would be complete. 
For though I possess a share of that monstrous ugly thing 
called selfishness in common with our fallen race, yet I ean say 
my own pleasure is always enhanced by the pleasure of others, 
and always embittered by their sorrows. Thanks be to God, 
for it is by His grace that I am what I am. Oh, for that ft:l- 
ness of love which destroys self and fills the soul with Heaven- 
born generosity ! 

" Brighton is very full of company. Many a poor invalid is 
here strolling about in search of that pearl of great price — 
health. Some, like the fortunate diver, spy the precious gem, 
and, hugging it to their bosoms, return, rejoicing in the pos- 
session of real riches. But many, alas, find it not, and return 
only to bewail their misfortune. Whichever class I may be 

Age 18. 

Her love 
of nature. 

A pleas- 



1847, amongst, I hope I shall not have cause to regret my visit. If I 

Age 18. fln(j j^Q^ health of body, I hope my soul will be strengthened 

with might, so that if the outward form should decay, the 

inward may be renewed day by day. 

The " I should like to spend another week or two here. It would 

needful, ^g delightful. One only wants the needful, and there seems 

to be plenty of it in Brighton, though I don't happen on it! 

There are bills in all directions announcing the loss of gold 

watches, seals, keys, brooches, boas, etc., and offering rewards 

according to the value of the article, but, alas, I have not 

been fortunate enough to find a mite yet ! 

Thp Exhi- " I will write again on Monday, so that you may get it be- 

hitwn. fQj-e you go to the Exhibition. Oh, I should like to see it 

again so much. It seems a pity for such magnificence to be 

disturbed. I hope the closing ceremony will be worthy of 

its history. 

" There is one thing I trust will not be forgotten, that is, to 
give God thanks for having so singularly disappointed our 
enemies and surpassed the expectations of our friends. This 
unparalleled production of art and science was born in good- 
will, has lived in universal popularity, and will, no doubt, ex- 
pire with majestic grandeur, lamented by all the nations of 
the earth. 

" Pray for me, my dear mother, and believe me with all my 
faults and besetments— 

" Your affectionate and loving child, 

" Catherine." 

Praying There IS a touching- passage in the diary with 
for her reference to her father : 


"I was much blessed in the morning at private 
prayer, particularly in commending my dear parents 
into the hands of God. I sometimes get into an 
agony of feeling while praying for my dear father. 
O my Lord, answer prayer, and bring him back to 
Thyself! Never let that tongue, which once de- 
lighted in praising Thee, and in showing others Thy 
willingness to save, be engaged in uttering the lamen- 
tations of the lost! O awful thought! Lord, have 


mercy! Save, oli, save him, in any way Thou seest 1847, 
best, though it be ever so painful. If by removing ^^ ^ 
me Thou canst do this, cut short Thy work and take 
me home. Let me be bold to speak in Thy name. 
Oh, give me true Christian courage and lively zeal, 
and when I write to him from this place, bless what 
I say to the good of his soul!" 

In a later entry she adds : 

" I received a letter from my dear father, which 
did me good telling me of some resolutions he had 
half formed. I have written a long letter to him, and 
feel much blessed in so doing. I believe I had the 
assistance of the Spirit." 

A good deal of Catherine's time was spent in writ- Personal 
ing spiritual letters to her friends and relations, and '^"' '"^• 
she found greater freedom in doing so than in the 
hand-to-hand, personal conflict in which she became 
afterward so successful. 

"I have this day seen a lady," continues the diary, 
" to whom I wrote a faithful and warning letter. I 
wonder if it made any impression on her. . . . My 
dear cousin Ann was here yesterday. I tried to im- 
press upon her the importance of giving her heart to 
God in her youth. But I feel myself most at liberty ^^^^ ^.^_ 
in writing. She promised to write and tell me the erti/jn 

^ ^ ivnfmg. 

state of her mind. Then I shall answer her. Oh, 
may the Lord bless my humble endeavours for His 
glory ! . . . One of my dear cousins is very ill ; I 
think in a deep decline. She has three little children. 
But the Lord graciously supports her, and often fills 
her with His love. I frequently write long letters to 
her on spiritual subjects, and the Lord owns my weak 
endeavours by blessing them to her good." 

The record of her first experiences in visiting the visiting 
sick is extremely interesting. "^^ ^^''^- 



Age 18, 

in class. 

Love for 


A painful 

" This has been a blessed day to my soul. In the 
morning I had much liberty in prayer. This afternoon 
for the first time in my life I visited the sick, and 
endeavoured to lead one poor young girl to Jesus. I 
think, if spared, this will be a duty I shall greatly de- 
light in. But Thy will, O Lord, be done! I have not 
been blessed so much for weeks as I was to-night at 
the class I engaged in prayer. The cross was great, 
but so was the reward. My heart beat violently, but 
I felt some liberty. Oh, how sweet is Christian com- 
munion ! Hail, happy day, when we shall meet to 
part no more around the Throne!" 

Although her absence from home was for so short a 
time, there are some tender references to her mother : 

" Home is particularly sweet to me. Who can tell 
the value of a mother's attention and care, until de- 
prived of it? But, blessed be God, we shall soon meet 
again, and after all our meetings and partings here 
on earth, we shall meet to part no more in glory. . . . 
My mind has been wounded to-day by several little 
occurrences, and to-night my feelings vented them- 
selves in tears. Oh, how I long to get home to my 
dearest mother ! I feel greatly the loss of some kin- 
dred spirit, some true bosom friend. My mind is re- 
joiced at the thought of going home." 

After her return to London, the journal refers to 
the following striking but painful incident : 

" Since last week we have been deeply moved by 
circumstances of a very affecting nature. My dear 
cousin has been here at times lately. She was ex- 
pecting to be married next Thursday, and I was think- 
ing of going down to Southampton with them. 
They had a house prepared for their reception ; but 
alas, how soon is the cup of happiness dashed from 
our hands, and how quickly do our dreams vanish ! 



The young man was taken suddenly ill on the Friday 
and died on the Tuesday morning. Blessed be God ! 
he died in peace, and I doubt not is now in Heaven. 
He is to be buried on Thursday next, his intended 
wedding day! Oh, that I may be found watching, 
when my Lord shall come!" 

On the 28th of November she writes: "This has 
been an especially good day to my soul. I have been 
reading the life of Mr. William Carvosso. Oh, what 
a man of faith and prayer was he ! My expectations 
were raised when I began the book. I prayed for the 
Divine blessing on it, and it has been granted. My 
desires after holiness have been much increased. 
This day I have sometimes seemed on the verge of 
the good land. Oh, for mighty faith! I believe the 
Lord is willing and able to save me to the uttermost. 
I believe the blood of Jesus Christ cleanses from all 
sin. And yet there seems something in the way to 
prevent me from fully entering in. But to-day I be- 
lieve at times I have had tastes of perfect love. Oh, 
that these may be droppings before an overwhelming 
shower of grace. My chief desire is holiness of 
heart. This is the prevailing cry of my soul. To- 
night 'sanctify me through Thy truth — Thy word is 
truth!' Lord, answer my Redeemer's prayer. I 
see this full salvation is highly necessary in order for 
me to glorify my God below and find my way to 
heaven. For 'without holiness no man shall see the 
Lord!' My soul is at times very happy. I have felt 
many assurances of pardoning mercy. But I want a 
clean Jicart. Oh, my Lord, take me and seal me to 
the day of redemption." 

Again she writes: 

"This has been a good day to my soul. This 
morning I felt very happy, and held sweet commun- 

Age 1 8. 


Tastes of 





1848, ion with my God. I feel very poorly, and excessively 

^^ ^^' low, but I find great relief in pouring out my soul to 

God in prayer. Oh, I should like to leave this world 

of sin and sorrow, and go where I could not grieve 

my Lord again!" 

At the beginning of the New Year ( 1 848) she has the 
following entry: 

"I have been writing a few daily rules for the com- 
ing year, which I hope will prove a blessing to me by 
the grace of God. I have got a printed paper of rules 
also, which I intend to read once a week. May the 
Lord help me to adhere to them. But, above all, I 
Searching ^^ determined to search the Scriptures more atten- 
^^tufZ^^' tiv^^Y' ^o^ i^ them I have eternal life. I have read 
my Bible through twice during the last sixteen 
months, but I must read it with more prayer for light 
and understanding. Oh, may it be my meat and 
drink ! May I meditate on it day and night ! And 
then I shall 'bring forth fruit in season, my leaf also 
shall not wither, and whatsoever I do shall prosper. ' " 
A few days later we have an interesting glimpse 
behind the scenes: 
Sgif_ " I have renewed my practice of abstaining from 

denying, (jinncr on a Friday, and from butter in the morning. 
I had discontinued this for some time. O my Lord, 
help me to be more fully decided in all things, and 
not to confer with flesh and blood, but to be bold to 
take up and firm to sustain the consecrated cross." 
On the 17th January, 1848, she writes: 
Her nine- " Nineteen years to-day I have lived in this world 
birthday, of sin and sorrow. But oh, I have had many sweets 
mingled with the bitter. I have very much to praise 
my God for, more than I can conceive. May I for the 
future live to praise Him, and to bring glory to His 
name. Amen." 


THE REFORMERS. 1829-1852. 

It was at this period that a great agitation arose in ^.^g ^^ 
the Wesleyan community, leading ultimately to the -^^^"^ '^"^' 

J ^ ' to J troversy. 

withdrawal or expulsion of about one hundred thous- 
and of its members. Miss Mumford became inter- 
ested in the controversy, and, since her action in 
regard to the matter affected the whole of her subse- 
quent career, it will be necessary to explain briefly 
its origin and history. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Society was founded by The Wes- 
John Wesley in 1739. Five years later he held his ^sSioT.' 
first conference of preachers. But it was not until 
1783 that he drew up his Deed Poll, establishing an 
annual conference, which consisted of one hundred 
ministers, now known as the "Legal Hundred." The The Legal 
members were appointed for life, the gaps caused by 
death being annually filled up by the votes of the 
conference. To this body Wesley delegated the au- Wesleyan 

■^ ^ o autocrat. 

tocratic powers which, during his lifetime, he had 

reserved in his own hands. The democratic element The dem- 
had, however, after Wesley's death, gradually gained element. 

strength, claiming for itself a voice in the Connex- 

ional government, and in the administration of its 

revenues. How far the governmental question was 

used as a catch-cry by a dissatisfied minority of the ^Vas u a 

ministers who hoped, upon the shoulders of the peo- cryf 

pie, to climb into office and dispossess the party then 



1847, in power, it is not for us to say. It is certain, how- 
^^^ ^^' ever, that it gave rise to several agitations, in the 
course of which the secessions occurred which led to 
Origin of the establishment of the younger branches of Meth- 
formers. odistti. The most serious of these disputes com- 
menced in 1844, with the publication of an anony- 
The Fly mous pamphlet entitled " Fly Sheets from the Private 
Sheets, coi-i-espondent," purporting to be issued "by order 
of the Corresponding Committee for detecting, expos- 
ing and correcting abuses." Wholesale charges of 
maladministration were levelled against leading mem- 
bers of the Connexion, and sweeping reforms were 
advocated by the writer, in terms which were calcu- 
lated to embitter the existing controversy. In 1846 
the second number of the Fly Sheets appeared, and 
in the three following years the third, fourth, and fifth 
were published. 
The men The Annual Conference of 1 847 decided that meas- 
ures should be taken for the discovery and punishment 
of "the men in masks," who were the writers of 
these pamphlets, since it was manifest that the mat- 
ter could no longer be ignored, being calculated to 
exercise a mischievous influence, subversive of confi- 
dence and discipline. The authors of the Fly Sheets 
were known to be ministers ; it was therefore resolved 
^ ^, that each minister in the Connexion should be re- 

Thc Con- 

ference quired to givc a definite "Yes" or "No" answer, as 

asserts its . - . , 

author- to whether he had been m any way concerned m the 
publication. The objection raised against such a pro- 
ceeding, as unusual, unjustifiable, and inquisitorial in 
its character, was over-ruled, and a declaration, re- 
pudiating any connexion with the authorship of the 
pamphlets, was drawn up for signature. 
The Seventy ministers refused to sign this document. 

brotherly -^ ^ 

question. Of these, however, some forty gave an implied denial. ' 


With regard to the others it was decided that those 1847, 
who might be suspected should be called to appear ^^ ^ ' 
before the Conference, when a "brotherly question" 
should be put to them by the president, and that, in 
case of their refusal to answer, they should be dealt 
with for contumacy. The result of this course of 
action was that, in 1849, three of the ministers, who 
were looked upon as the leaders in the agitation, were 
expelled from the society, while others, who had more 
or less supported or sympathised with them, were 

But this firm attitude on the part of the Conference, The con- 
instead of putting an end to the controversy, only Iprl^ds. 
served to add fresh fuel to the flames, and converted 
what had hitherto been to a large extent a ministerial 
squabble into a widespread conflict, which convulsed 
the entire denomination. The aggrieved party had 
anticipated the probable result of its uncompromising 
attitude, and had prepared itself for a prolonged 
struggle by the issue of journals and pamphlets which 
would advocate its policy of reform and ventilate its 
grievances. The most important of these was TAe 
Weslcyan Times, a weekly newspaper, of which the The Wes- 

• 1 1 1 T leyan 

first number was issued on the 8th January, 1849. Times. 
It purported to be a liberal and independent organ, 
bound to no particular party, but representing the 
true interests of the Wesleyan body. As a matter of 
fact, it became the medium of the agitators who were 
subsequently known as the Reformers, while the 
Watchman was the mouthpiece of the conservatives. waXch- 
Certainly the acrimonious spirit which the con- '^""■• 
fiict assumed reflected little credit on either the 
one side or the other. The " Fly Sheets" were marked 
by a personality and animosity which it would have teredfeel- 
been all but impossible to tolerate within the ranks of ^^^^' 

66 ' MRS. BOOTH. 

1849, any well-ordered organisation, and which were sadly 
Age 20. antagonistic to the spirit of Christianity. 

On the other hand, the orthodox party would have 
done well to exercise greater patience and self-con- 
trol. A few timely concessions, a resolute determi- 
nation not to return railing for railing, and an exer- 
cise of persistent love toward the malcontents and 
their numerous friends would no doubt have saved 
the Connexion from many of its heaviest losses. At 
any rate, it would have been the soundest and most con- 
vincing proof that the charges heaped upon the Con- 
ference by its enemies were base and foundationless 
calumnies, and that its leaders were still, what they 
professed to be, the true representatives of John 
Wesley's teachings, the veritable and worthy succes- 
sors of their venerable apostle. Had such a course 
^ loss^^'^^ been pursued, there is little doubt that they would at 
least have happily retained within their pale two de- 
voted members, who were destined, perhaps, to be the 
most prominent figures in the religious history of the 
nineteenth century. Unfortunately the disputants on 
either side allowed themselves to be betrayed into 
language which can scarcely be justified, however 
righteous the cause it was intended to defend. 
Some It cannot be denied, on the one hand, that the Re- 

com- formers had some reason for complaint. The conduct 
ij ain . ^£ ^^^ Conference had in several instances been 
arbitrary and high-handed. The utmost stretch of 
charity could hardly invent any justifiable motive for 
The ban- their suddcu banishment of the remarkable American 
of Can- evangelist Caughey, and this at a time when he was 
in the very zenith of his success. He was a Methodist 
minister, and his doctrines agreed in every particular 
with those of the Conference. Crowds flocked to his 
meetings from all the country-side, thousands of 



souls sought salvation, and the revival was at its flood- 1850, 
tide, when the Conference compelled his withdrawal, ^^ 
causing wide-spread discontent among multitudes of 
the most loyal ministers and members of the Connex- 
ion, and exposing themselves to charges of envy and 
jealousy to which it was very difficult to reply. 

Nevertheless, the Reformers put themselves in the injurious 
wrong by resorting to personalities and invectives i^es. 
which no amount of provocation could palliate or ex- 
cuse. Nor is it probable that the remedies which they 
proposed would have served to eradicate the evils of 
which they complained. In all likelihood they would 
but have substituted another class of difficulties for 
those which they were seeking to combat. Indeed it 
is open to question whether an opposite policy might 
not have been the best. 

It cannot be doubted by any student of Methodist Wesley's 

, r despot- 

history that Wesley s own government was far more mn. 

despotic than that of the "Legal Hundred." But 

the conviction that he was actuated by the purest 

motives, and supremely fitted for his post, enabled 

him to hold the reins of his paternal monarchy with a 

firm yet elastic hand, his authority unquestioned, and 

his person to the last beloved. Had he, like Moses, should u 

delegated his authority to some Joshua, or like Elijah '^^co^i-^''^^ 

dropped his falling mantle upon some Elisha, and had ^"^^'^^'-^ 

these in turn chosen similar successors, it is possible 

that the interests of the Connexion would have been 

better safeguarded, and its spirituality preserved, 

than by the institution of the "Legal Hundred." On 

this, opinions are certain to differ. 

To substitute the rule of the sheep for that of the The rule 
shepherds has, it is true, some obvious advantages. %eep^. 
But whether the counterbalancing dangers and draw- 
backs are not of a still more serious character was and 



Age 22. 


for a re- 

The po- 
pish test. 



sands ex- 

must be still open to grave controversy. Miss Mum- 
ford's intense sympathy wth the people led her to re- 
gard the controversy with more than ordinary interest. 
Her views of church government .subsequently under- 
went a great change, but at the time of which we 
write, although so staunch a Wesleyan she strongly 
favoured the Congregational system. 

She longed, moreover, to see a revival of old-time 
Methodism with its deep spirituality and intense pas- 
sion for souls. Hence she hailed the Reform move- 
ment as the harbinger of a happier era when her 
church should be restored to its first love, the souls of 
the people revived, and the spirit of its founders should 
reinspire both rank and file with the zeal and unction 
which had constituted their attraction and power in 
days of yore. 

Miss Mumford studied with deep interest the re- 
ports of the agitation, sitting up often till the small 
hours of the night reading to her mother the accounts 
of the so-called "popish test," and the expulsion of 
the ministers. Her indignation was excited by what 
she looked upon as the arbitrary action of the Con- 
ference. She attended several of the meetings held 
in London by the Reformers, the most important of 
these being one in Exeter Hall at which addresses 
were delivered by the expelled ministers and resolu- 
tions adopted approving their attitude, and instituting 
a committee to further the interests of the agitation. 

As might be expected, the Conference responded to 
the action of the Reformers by retaliatory measures. 
Thousands of their sympathisers were expelled from 
the ranks, whilst those who remained were required 
to abstain from attending their gatherings. A clear, 
sharp line was drawn, and those who persisted in cross- 
ing it were visited with the penalties of interdiction. 


The outspoken manner in which she had expressed 1851, 
her condemnation of the Conference and sympathy ^^ ^^' 
with the Reformers was naturally objected to by her uer ciass- 
class-leader, who remonstrated with her on the folly ^^^rmjes^' 
of her course, reminding her that in identifying her- Mum- 
self with the malcontents she would not only forfeit •^"''■^• 
her position in the church she loved, but seriously in- 
jure her worldly prospects. Such considerations, 
however, carried little weight with the high-spirited 

The prospect was indeed a painful one. She still a painful 


loved Methodism with all her heart. But there was 
something that she loved still better, her conception 
of what was right. To her duty was duty, however 
disagreeable it might be. Not a hair's-breadth would 
she swerve from what she believed to be the cause of 
righteousness. She never paused to consider whether 
she would be in a minority. '"'■ Fiat justitia, mat cae- 
lum' — let justice be done, though the skies fall — was 
the principle on which she acted throughout life. -^^^^ 
And on the present occasion she could not consent J^v.m.- 

'■ J or a ex- 

to withhold her sympathy and countenance from the peiied. 
cause of those who appeared to have been wronged. 
Finding arguments of no avail, her class-leader re- 
luctantly decided to withhold Miss Mumford's ticket 
of membership. 

It is customary in the Wesleyan body to grant to hoiv u 
each member a ticket, which is renewed from quarter "'""^ 
to quarter. A periodical revision of the rolls by the 
office-bearers of each society is thus insured, the non- 
renewal of the ticket being tantamount to expulsion. 
From the decision of the superintending minister and 
his staff there is practically no appeal. It was thus 
that Miss Mumford found herself expelled from the 
Wesleyan Church. 


1852, "This was one of the first great troubles of my 

^^^^' life," says Mrs. Booth, "and cost me the keenest 
Her first anguish. I was young. I had been nursed and 
troxMe. Cradled in Methodism, and loved it with a love which 
has gone altogether out of fashion among Protestants 
for their church. At the same time I was dissatis- 
fied with the formality, worldliness, and defection 
from what I conceived Methodism ought to be, judg- 
ing from its early literature and biographies as well 
as from Wesley's own writings and his brother's 
hymns. I believed that through the agitation some- 
thing would arise which would be better, holier, and 
more thorough. Here were men who, in my simplic- 
ity, I supposed wanted to bring back the fervour and 
aggressiveness of by-gone days. In this hope and in 
sympathy with the wrongs that I believed the Re- 
formers had suffered, I drifted away from the Wes- 
leyan Church, apparently at the sacrifice of all that 
was dearest to me, and of nearly every personal 
She takes It SO happened that the Reformers had commenced 

a class 11-1 . 

among to hold mcctmgs lu a hall near Miss Mumford's home. 

formers. She was offered and accepted the senior class in the 
Sunday-school, consisting of some fifteen girls, whose 
ages ranged from twelve to nineteen. 

For the next three years she threw her whole heart 
into this effort, preparing her lessons with great care, 
devoting at least two half-days every week to this 
purpose, and striving to bring every lesson to a prac- 
tical result. When the rest of the school had been 

the 'key. dismisscd she would beg the key from the superin- 
tendent, and hold a prayer-meeting with her girls. 
This resulted in the conversion of several, one of 

Wonder ^^°"^ ^^^^ triumphantly. 
M times. " I used to have some wonderful times with my 


class," she tells us. "I made them pray, and I am 1852, 
sure that anybody coming into one of these meetings ^^ ^^' 
would have seen very much what a Salvation Army 
consecration meeting is now. They usually all 
stopped, and sometimes our prayer-meetings would 
last an hour and a half. Often I went on till I lost ^ ^osinq 

her voice. 

my voice, not regaining it for a day or two after. I 
used to invite them to talk to me privately if anything 
I said had struck them, and at such times they would 
pour out their hearts to me, as if I had been their 

"However, I was a great deal disappointed with Dis- 
the Reformers. I had hoped that we were upon the Tvith^hf 
eve of a great spiritual revival. Instead of this every- ^''{°/J^' 
thing was conducted very much in the ordinary style, 
and I soon became heartily sick of the spirit of de- 
bate and controversy which prevailed to such a de- 
gree as to cripple the life and power of the concern." 

WILLIAM BOOTH. 1829-1852. 

The Gen- 



His con- 

He joins 
the Wes- 

A zealous 

William Booth was born in Nottingham on the 
loth April, 1829. His mother was of so amiable a dis- 
position and saintly a character that he regarded her 
as the nearest approach to human perfection with 
which he was acquainted. His father, an able and 
energetic man of business, attained a position of 
affluence, but subsequently suffered a reverse of for- 
tune, and died prematurely, leaving his family to 
struggle with adverse circumstances. William, the 
sole surviving son, was apprenticed at an early age to 
a firm, where it soon became manifest that he had in- 
herited a double portion of his father's enterprise and 
commercial skill. 

Reared in the Church of England, he knew nothing 
of conversion, until, happening to stray into a Wes- 
leyan chapel, his attention was arrested by the nov- 
elty and simplicity of the services. For some time he 
continued to attend. The truths, tersely and power- 
fully expounded, took an increasing hold of his mind, 
and on one memorable evening, after days and nights 
of anxious seeking he publicly and unreservedly gave 
his heart to God. With his mother's consent, he 
became immediately a member of the chapel, and, 
though but a lad of fifteen, he gave proof in manifold 
measure of the reality of his conversion. 

Connected with the chapel was a band of zealous 
young men with whom he associated, and whose 



recognised leader he soon became. With one of 1844, 

these, William Sansom, he was specially intimate, and ^^ 

when, a little later, this colleague ruptured a blood- Deuiu <,/ 

vessel in a prayer-meeting and died, Mr. Booth ar- friend. 
ranged a special funeral service, closely resembling 
those subsequently held in the Salvation Army. 

During these early days he was as indefatigable a a hard 

. -, TT . . -, 1 • worker. 

worker as m later years. Unable to leave busmess 

until eight o'clock, he would hurry away each evening 

to hold cottage meetings, which usually lasted till 

ten, and which were often succeeded by calls to visit 

the sick and dying. 

Open-air services were constantly held in connec- a bom 
• 1 1 • 1 ■ 11 Salva- 

tion with these meetings, and processions were led tionist. 

down the Goosegate and other thoroughfares, bring- 
ing to the chapel such a tatterdermalion crowd as 
soon gave rise to a request from the minister that the the back- 
intruders should be conducted to the back entrance 
and seated in the hinder part of the building, where 
their presence would be less conspicuous and dis- 
agreeable to the more respectable members of the 

However, without allowing himself to be discour- ToUing 
aged by such rebuffs, Mr. Booth and his little band 
toiled on, happy in each other's companionship, and 
in the success with which their labours were crowned. 
On the Sunday he would often walk long distances 
into the country to fulfil some village appointment, 
stumbling his way home late at night, alone and 
weary, through dark muddy lanes, cheering himself 
along by humming the prayer-meeting refrains which 
during the day had gladdened the hearts of returning 
sinners. When only seventeen he was promoted to 4 i^^^j 
be a local preacher, and two years later his superintend- -f/^'^^/p^/! 
ent, the Rev. Samuel Dunn, urged him to offer him- '^<'"- 



Age 20. 

Called to 
the min- 
istry at 


little for 



self for the ministry. "I objected," he tells us, "on 
the grounds of my health and youth." With regard 
to the former, Mr. Dunn sent me to his doctor, who 
after examination pronounced me totally unfit for the 
strain of a Methodist preacher's life, assuring me that 
twelve months of it would land me in the grave, and 
send me to the throne of God to receive punishment 
for suicide. I implored him not to give any such 
opinion to Mr, Dunn, as my whole heart was set on 
ultimately becoming a minister. He therefore prom- 
ised to report in favour of the question being de- 
layed for twelve months, and to this Mr. Dunn event- 
ually agreed." 

Referring to this time, Mr. Booth says: "I wor- 
shipped everything that bore the name of Methodist. 
To me there was one God, and John Wesley was his 
prophet. I had devoured the story of his life. No 
human compositions seemed to me to be comparable 
to his writings, and to the hymns of his brother 
Charles, and all that was wanted, in my estimation, for 
the salvation of the world was the faithful carrying 
into practice of the letter and spirit of his instruc- 

" I cared little then or afterward for ecclesiastical 
creeds or forms. What I wanted to see was an or- 
ganization with the salvation of the world as its su- 
preme ambition and object, worked upon the simple, 
earnest principles which I had myself embraced, and 
which, youth as I was, I had already seen carried into 
successful practice." 

In 1849, ^^- Booth removed from Nottingham to 
London. There were temporal advantages in the 
change. Nevertheless, it was his first absence from 
home and he sorely missed his mother, by whom he 
was idolised, and whose affection he ardently returned. 



"I am the only son of my mother, and she is a 
widow," was his pathetic introduction of himself to a 
Methodist brother who, forty years later, remembers 
the very tone in which the words were uttered. His 
London life was, moreover, a lonely one. He missed 
the association of the earnest young men in whose 
company he had laboured since his conversion. 

Age 20. 

" How are you going on ? " He writes in his oldest extant 
letter dated 30th October, 1849, to his friend John Savage. 
" I know you are happy. I know you are living to God, and 
working for Jesus. Grasp still firmer the standard ! unfold 
still wider the battle-flag ! Press still closer on the ranks of 
the enemy, and mark your pathway still more distinctly with 
glorious trophies of Emmanuel's grace, and with enduring 
monuments of Jesus' power ! The trumpet has given the sig- 
nal for the conflict ! Your General assures you of success and 
a glorious reward ; your crown is already held out ! Then why 
delay! Why doubt ? Onward! Onward! Onward! Christ 
for me! Be that your motto — be that your battle-cry — be 
that your war-note — be that your consolation^be that your 
plea when asking mercy of God — your end when offering it to 
man — your hope when encircled by darkness — your triumph 
and victory when attacked and overcome by death ! Christ 
for me! Tell it to men, who are living and dying in sin! 
Tell it to Jesus, that you have chosen Him to be your Saviour 
and your God. Tell it to devils, and bid them cease to harass, 
since you are determined to die for the truth ! 

" I preached on Sabbath last — a respectable but dull and life- 
less congregation. Notwithstanding I had liberty both pray- 
ing and preaching, I had not the assistance of a single 'Amen' 
or 'Hallelujah' the whole of the service! It is hard to work, 
to preach, to labour for an hour and a half in the pulpit, and 
then come down and, have to do the work of the prayer- 
meeting as well! I want some Savages, and Proctors, and 
Frosts, and Hoveys, and Robinsons, here with me in the 
prayer-meetings, and, glory to God, we would carry all be- 
fore us ! Praise God for living at Nottingham every hour you 
are in it ! Oh, to live to Christ on earth, and to meet you 
once more, never to part, in a better world!" 

The Gen- 
extant let- 

The Army 





Age 21. 

His plan 
of cam- 

His early 

Too much 
of the 


It is interesting to trace thus early what afterward 
came to be a distinguishing feature of General Booth's 
"plan of campaign," the utilising of every converted 
person in some capacity, as distinguished from the 
parson-do-everything system which he here so strongly 
deprecates. Nothing perhaps more powerfully char- 
acterises the Salvation Army of later years than its 
"ministry of all the talents." This has meant noth- 
ing short of a revolution in the religious world. But 
we should hardly have expected the happy discovery 
to have been made at so early a date. 

There were not wanting, however, those who en- 
deavoured to throw cold water upon his vehement 
zeal. "Young man," said one of these critics, "there 
is too imicJi of the shroud in your preaching." Said 
others, "You are not sufficiently argumentative. 
Your sermons do not display sufficient marks of 

How disheartening he felt their remarks to be, we 
learn from some of the letters written to his friend, 
John Savage. 

On the 30th of March, 1850, he writes: 

" Concerning my pulpit efforts, I am more than ever dis- 
couraged. Upon becoming acquainted with my congrega- 
tions, I am surprised at the amount of intellect which I have 
endeavoured to address. I am waking up as it were from a 
dream, and discover that my hopes are vanity, and that I lit- 
erally know nothing." 

at results. 

In another letter he writes more cheerfully: 

" I preached twice yesterday at Norwood — a dear people. In 
the morning, I trust, 'O Lord, revive Thy work,' was accom- 
panied with blessing, and in the evening, 'Jesus weeping over 
Jerusalem,' though not attended with pleasurable feelings to 
myself, yet I hope went home to some heart. I saw 7wthing 


"Afterwards I had some conversation with one of our local 1850, 
preachers respecting the subject with regard to which my ^Z^ ^i, 
heart is still burning — I mean the full work. He advises me 
by all means to offer myself next March, and leave it in the 
hands of God and the Church. What say you? You are my 
friend, the chosen of my companions, the man after my own 
heart. What say you ? I want to be a devoted, simple and 
sincere follower of the Bleeding Lamb. I do not desire the 
pastor's crust without having most distinctly received the 
pastor's call. And yet my inmost spirit is panting for the 
delightful employment of telling from morn till eve, from eve 
to midnight, the glad tidings that mercy is free. 

" Mercy ! Have you heard the word ? Have you felt its Mercv' 
power ? Mercy ! Can you describe its hidden, unfathomable 
meaning ? Mercy ! Let the sound be borne on every breeze ! 
Mercy ! Shout it the world around until there is not a sin- 
unpardoned, a pollution-spotted, a hell-marked spirit, un- 
washed, unsanctified ! until there is not a sign of the curse in 
existence, not a sorrow unsoothed, not a tear unwiped away ! 
until the world is flooded with salvation and all men are bath- 
ing in its life-giving streams !" 

What are we to think of the inconceivable blind- 
ness of the superintendent, who could cold-bloodedly 
tell the fiery young evangelist, when he proposed to 
offer himself for the ministry, that "preachers zvere Preachers 
not zvanted by the Connexion !" We cannot help smil- wanted. 
ing as we find William Booth writing to his friend, 
that he was seriously thinking of tendering his services 
as chaplain to a convict-ship, in order to work his way 
out to Australia, as he had heard that it was easier to 
enter the ministry there than in England. He adds 
touchingly : 

" And then my mother's image flits across my mind! You 
know I would prefer by far the home-work. But the difficul- 
ties are so great. My ability is not equal to the task. 
Preachers are not wanted. My superintendent told me so- 
And to go to quarter-day and not succeed would break my 
heart. Were my talents of a superior nature, were my at- 


1851, tainments of a more elevated character, and my education 
Age 22. rnore liberal and extensive, then might I calculate with some 
degree of certainty on passing the scrutiny of the criticising 
leaders, preachers, and trustees of the London fifth, or Lam- 
beth circuit." 

His atti- In 1 85 I, the Reform movement was at its height. 

wa^ds\e ^^^ the character which the agitation had assumed 

Kcform- possessed little interest for William Booth. To him 
the all-absorbing question of his life was how best to 
reach and save the masses. Certainly he had shared 
the universal disappointment at the banishment of 
Mr.Caughey from Nottingham, when the revival was at 
its very height. Himself converted only a few months 
previously, his heart fired with all the burning en- 
thusiasm of its early love, he could not understand 
the motives that prompted the Conference to put a 
stop to so manifest a work of God. Still, like others, 
he had bowed to the decision, and had accepted what 
he could neither hinder nor approve. 

The Rev. It was inevitable, however, that he should be in 

Samuel 1 j • i. ^ j • „ 

Dunn, some measure concerned and interested m a move- 
ment which involved the loss of nearly one-third of 
its members to the Wesleyan Connexion. Several of 
his personal friends were among those who seceded 
or were expelled, and the Rev. Samuel Dunn, who 
was the leading spirit in the agitation, had been for 
three years his own superintendent in Nottingham, 
had recognised his ability, admired his zeal, and di- 
rected his studies for the ministry. But beyond at- 
tending a few of the meetings held in London by the 
Mr. Booth Reformers, Mr. Booth held studiously aloof from 
ahjof. them, neither preaching for them nor in any way 
identifying himself with them. Nevertheless, in 
the society to which he belonged there were already 
twenty-two lay-preachers, and the pulpit work to be 


divided among them was so trifling as to afford but 1851, 
little scope for the intense activities and organizing ^^ ^^' 
genius which already fired his heart and brain. Feel- 
ing that his time would be better spent in open-air 
work in the streets and greens of Kennington, he 
tendered the resignation of his honorary post, request- j^''-)'-^',^-] 
inef at the same time that his name mig^ht be retained preaehcr- 
among the list of members. 

An agitation assuming the proportions and duration is sus- 
of the Reform movement could hardly fail to be ■^^''^ ^"^ ' 
marked by incidents of a regretable character. The 
entire atmosphere seemed laden with doubt and sus- 
picion. Innocent actions were misunderstood, and 
inoffensive words misinterpreted. Nor would it be 
just to blame the Conference for the over-zeal dis- 
played by some of their well-meaning but too hasty 
partisans. To uproot a field of wheat, in order to ex- 
tirpate an occasional tare, is a temptation to which 
human nature has been ever open. 

It so happened that the minister in charge of Mr. Ayui ex- 
Booth's circuit was of an uncompromising heresy- 
hunting disposition. It is scarcely to be wondered 
at, therefore, that he viewed with suspicion the con- 
duct of his lay assistant. Making sure that he had 
discovered once more the cloven hoof of the Reform- 
ers, and determined to purge his society from every 
trace of the pernicious taint, he withheld the usual 
ticket of membership, and thus practically expelled 
from the Wesleyan body the most talented and bril- 
liant Methodist of the day. Not a finger was lifted, 
not an effort made, not a protest uttered, not a syl- 
lable of kindly counsel offered, by this strangely 
infatuated shepherd of the flock, who, with an as- 
sumption of infallibility that the Pope himself could 
scarcely have rivalled, wrapped himself in the cloak 




Age 22. 

The Re- 
invite him 
to join 

Mr. Bab- 

A promi- 
nent Re- 


first ser- 

of his ecclesiastical dignity, and would deign no fur- 
ther response beyond a curt letter refusing to acqui- 
esce in Mr. Booth's proposal. 

No sooner, however, had the Reformers heard of 
this unjustifiable expulsion than they passed a resolu- 
tion cordially inviting Mr. Booth to join their ranks. 
The suggestion was warmly seconded by one of their 
leaders, a Mr. Rabbitts, who had almost from the 
time of his first arrival in London entertained a warm 
affection for Mr. Booth. Mr. Rabbitts was engaged 
in the boot and shoe trade, owning three or four 
shops, which afterward developed into an enormous 
concern with its headquarters in the Borough. He 
was a good type of the shrewd, hard-headed, pushing 
business man, combining with his worldly wisdom 
boundless energy and a deep appreciation for true re- 
liofion. Himself a man of consistent Christian char- 
acter, he was not ashamed to show his colours wher- 
ever he went, and took the lead in every good work. 

When the agitation arose, Mr. Rabbitts embraced 
very warmly the cause of the Reformers. He had 
been dissatisfied for some time with what he consid- 
ered to be the growing coldness and worldliness of 
the Orthodox party, and had therefore hailed the 
present movement with satisfaction, believing that it 
would lead to a revival of the old life and fire. 

He had been present at the first sermon delivered 
by Mr. Booth in the Walworth Road Wesleyan 
Chapel. The latter had launched out in his usual 
unconventional, earnest manner, strikingly in contrast 
with the ordinary ministerial style. Some of those 
present responded heartily, and the ordinary monot- 
ony of the service was disturbed by quite a brisk fu- 
silade of " Amens. " Mr. Rabbitts was delighted. He 
met the preacher at the foot of the stairs, congratu- 


lated him warmly on his sermon, and took him home 1851, 
to dinner, forming on the spot a friendship which ^^ 
lasted to the end of his life. 

"Why don't you become a minister?" said Mr. A.xother 
Rabbitts, as they walked toward his house. And on ministry. 
discovering that this was Mr. Booth's most ardent de- 
sire, he promised to use his influence among the Wes- 
leyan ministers in London, with some of whom he 
was on specially intimate terms. 

Various obstacles had, however, arisen, which had Mr. Booth 

. . joins the 

prevented the realization of Mr. Booth s intentions, Reform- 
until the circumstances just described combined to 
cast him into the arms of the Reformers. It was in 
June, 185 1, that he joined them, preaching as fre- 
quently as he was able to do without relinquishing 
his business, and enjoying a considerably wider scope 
for his energies than had previously been possible. 

It was some months after he had joined the Reform- Preaches 
ers that Mr. Booth was planned to preach at one of "'jieid' 
their chapels known as Binfield House, and situated in °"*^' 
Binfield Road, Clapham. It was a nice little hall 
holding some two or three hundred people. The 
services were arranged on the ordinary Wesleyan 
model, and were conducted in turn by different local 
preachers. Of this congregation, Mrs. Mumford and 
her daughter were members, and it was here that 
Catherine led the Bible class already referred to. 

On the Sunday that Mr. Booth preached she was Miss 
present, and although he was a perfect stranger to criticises 
her, she was very much impressed with him at first preacher. 
sight. The sermon was from the text, "This is in- 
deed the Christ, the Saviour of the World." It so 
happened that during the following week Miss Mum- 
ford met Mr. Rabbitts, whom she had known for some 
time, and was asked by him for her opinion of the 



Age 22. 

The Gen- 
eral meets 


at Mr. 

The tem- 

preacher. She expressed it freely, saying that she con- 
sidered it the best sermon she had yet heard in Binfield 
Hall. Little did she think, however, that Mr. Rabbitts, 
who reckoned her one of the ablest judges of a sermon 
in London, would pass it on to the preacher himself. 

About a fortnight afterward, Mr. Rabbitts invited 
the principal Reformers of the district to his house 
for afternoon tea and conversation, hoping thus to 
promote a spirit of love and unity and to advance the 
interests of the agitation. Mrs. and Miss Mumford 
were among the guests, and so was Mr. Booth. The 
latter came in late, but was almost immediately 
pounced upon by the host to recite an American tem- 
perance piece, which he had heard him repeat some 
days previously. Knowing that there were scarcely 
any teetotallers in the room, Mr. Booth objected 
strongly, on the ground that it was not worth while 
occupying the time with it, when other important 
subjects required to be discussed, adding that the 
theme was also one Avhich might disturb the harmony 
of the gathering. However, Mr. Rabbitts was in- 
exorable and would accept no excuse. He must and 
would have the "Grogseller's Dream," and the fact 
that he was not an abstainer himself would, he was 
sure, prevent any one present from feeling uncom- 
fortable. Amidst earnest attention and with all the 
dramatic force that earned for him a little later the 
title of the "John Gough of England," Mr. Booth re- 
cited the ballad. We give it as quoted from his 
memory, believing it will be of interest : 


"A grogseller sat by his bar-room fire, 
His feet as high as his head and higher, 
Watching the smoke as he puffed it out, 
Which in spiral columns curved about, 


Veiling his face 'neath its fleecy fold, 1851, 

As lazily up from his lips it rolled, Age 22. 

While a doubtful scent and a twilight gloom 

Were slowly gathering to fill the room. 

To their drunken slumbers, one by one, 

Foolish and fuddled, his friends had gone. 

To wake in the morn to a drunkard's pain. 

With bloodshot eyes and a reeling brain. 

Drowsily rang the watchman's cry, 

'Past two o'clock and a cloudy sky!' 

But our host sat wakeful still, and shook 

His head and winked with a knowing look. 

'Aha, ' said he, in a chuckling tone, 

'I know the way the thing is done ! 

Twice five are ten, and another V, 

Two ones, two twos, and a ragged three, 

Make twenty-four to my well-filled fob — 

I think it is rather a good night's job ! 

The fools have guzzled my brandy and wine ! 

Much good may it do them ! The cash is mine T 

And he winked again with a knowing look, 

As from his cigar the ashes he shook. 

'There's Gibson has murdered his child, they say — 

He was drunk as a beast here the other day ! 

I gave him a hint, as I went to fill 

His jug. but the brute would have his will. 

Then folks blame me ! Why, bless their souls, 

If I did not serve him, he'd go to Coles' ! 

I've a mortgage too, on Tomkinson's lot, — 

What a fool he was to become a sot ! 

But it's luck to me ! In a month or so, 

I shall foreclose ! then the scamp must go ! 

Oh, won't his wife have a taking on, 

When she hears that his farm and his lot are gone ! 

How she will blubber and sob and sigh ! 

But business is business, and what care I ? 

Yet I hate to have women coming to me. 

With their tweedle-de-dum and their tweedle-de-dee ; 

With their swollen eyes and their haggard looks, 

And their speeches learnt from Temperance books, 

With their pale lean children — the whimpering fools, 

Why don't they go to the public schools? 

I've a right to engage in a lawful trade, 

And take my chance where there's cash to be made.' 

And he rubbed his hands in his chuckling glee. 

And loudly laughed, 'Aha ! Eehee ! ' 


1 85 1, 'Aha! Eehee ! ' 'twas an echoed sound! 

Age 22. Amazed the grogseller looked around! 

'Aha! Eehee!' 'twas a guttural note, 
That seemed to come from an iron throat ! 
And his knees they shook and his hair 'gan rise, 
And he opened his mouth and strained his eyes, 
And, lo, in a corner, dark and dim. 
Stood an uncouth form with aspect grim ! 
From his grizzly head, through his snaky hair, 
There sprouted of hard rough horns a pair ; 
Redly, his shaggy brows below. 
Like sulphurous flames did his small eyes glow ; 
His lips they were curled with a sinister smile. 
And the smoke belched forth from his mouth the while ! 
In his hand he bore, if a hand it was. 
Whose fingers were shaped like vulture's claws, 
A three-tined fork, and its prongs so dull 
Through the sockets were thrust of a grinning skull ! 
Gently he waved it to and fro. 
And softly chuckled, ' Aha ! Oho ! ' 
And all this while were his eyes, that burned 
Like sulphurous flames, on the grogseller turned ! 
And how did he feel beneath that look? 
Why, his jaw fell down and he shivered and shook, 
And quivered and quaked in every limb. 
As though the ague had hold of him ! 
And his eyes to the monster grim were glued, 
And his tongue was stiff as a billet of wood ! 
' Come, come,' said the Devil, ' 'tis a welcome cold, 
That you give to a friend so true and old ! 
Who has been for years in your employ. 
Running about like an errand boy ! 
But we'll not fall out, for I plainly see 
You are rather afraid — 'tis strange — of mc / 
Why, what do you fear, my friend? ' he said. 
And he nodded the horns of his grizzly head. 
' Do you think I've come iov you ? Never fear! 
You can't be spared for a long time here ! 
There are hearts to break, there are souls to wir 
From the paths of peace to the ways of sin ! 
There are homes to be rendered desolate. 
There is trusting love to be changed to hate. 
Hands that murder must crimson red — 
There are lives to wreck — there is blight to be shed. 
O'er the young, o'er the old, o'er the pure and the fair, 
Till their lives are crushed by the fiend Despair. 


The arm that shielded a wife from ill igci 

In its drunken rage shall be raised to kill ! Age 22. 

Where'er it rolls, that fiery flood, 

'Tis swollen with tears, 'tis stained with blood! 

Long shall it be, if I have 7ny way, 

Ere the night of death shall close your day ! 

For to pamper your lust with the gold and pelf. 

You rival in mischief the Devil himself ! ' 

No more said the fiend, for, clear and high, 

Rang out on the air the watchman's cry. 

With a stifled sob and a half-formed scream 

The grogseller woke ! It was all a dream. 

Solemn and thoughtful his bed he sought, 

And long on that midnight vision he thought ! " 

The recital was followed by an awkward pause, 
which was broken by some one venturing an apology fl^^aae 
on behalf of moderate drinking, perhaps as an excuse ^t^^ '"' 
for the numerous non-abstainers present. This af- 
forded Miss Mumford an opportunity for replying, 
much to the delight of Mr. Rabbitts, who knew and 
appreciated her conversational and debating powers, 
and who enjoyed hearing her demolish her opponent, 
even when the lines of argument happened to militate 
against himself. 

From subsequent conversations it can be readily The Bible 
imagined how ably Miss Mumford would measure ment' 
swords with her opponent. "The Bible permits it," 
was commonly argued by the defenders of the mod- 
eration faith. And of all pretexts used by those 
who sought to bolster up the nation's curse, this was 
the one with which she had the least sympathy. " I 
think you are mistaken," she would reply, in the 
silvery, yet emphatic tones with which she commonly 
entered into such debates. " I have not so read and 
interpreted my Bible. At a first superficial glance 
it might indeed appear so. But if you read with care, 
you will observe that there are two kinds of wine re- 



Age 22. 


sober by 
Act of 

The Rev- 

tians do 

The teeto- 
tal sup- 

ferred to in the Bible, one intoxicating and the other 
not. The former is generally spoken of as 'strong 
drink,' or some equivalent term, and is invariably 
coupled with language of condemnation, never used 
in connexion with the other." 

And then there was the argument, "but you cannot 
make people sober by Act of Parliament." "I am 
not so sure about that," she would reply; "by shut- 
ting up the liquor dens, you can certainly minimise 
the evil, since you remove the temptation from those 
who are too weak to resist it. What is there to pre- 
vent the government from doing this? It has been 
done in some places with the best possible results. 
In the villages and districts where its use has been 
prohibited, drunkenness is comparatively unknown, 
thus proving by experience that people can be made 
sober by Act of Parliament." 

" But what would become of the Revenue?" have 
further argued her objectors. "Revenue!" would 
Mrs, Booth reply; " What would become of a man, if 
he were to suck his own blood and eat his own flesh? 
How can a kingdom flourish that lives upon the de- 
struction of its subjects, and that draws its revenues 
from their very graves?" 

And to the plea that plenty of excellent Christians 
do it and see no harm in it, has come the prompt re- 
ply : " The more the pity, for as the American revival- 
ist, Mr. Charles Finney, has said, it would be almost 
as easy to get up a revival in Hell itself as in a church 
whose members support the traffic, and some at least 
of whom may well be supposed to be the slaves of the 

But supper was announced, and the guests ad- 
journed to the hospitable table of their host. How 
far the company were convinced by the recitation and 



debate to which they had listened, we cannot tell, 
but for that night at least the wine offered remained 
untasted, and water was the favoured drink. 

More important and lasting-,' however, than the re- 
sult of this , discussion in its influence on the future 
were the feelings of mutual respect, sympathy, and 

Age 22. 

Rev. C. G. Finney, D.D. 

admiration that it awakened in the hearts of Catherine 
Mumford and William Booth. Mr. Rabbitts had un- 
consciously helped to lay the foundation of a union 
which should make possible the fulfilment of his most 
cherished hopes, and which should gather together 
and resurrect the dry bones, with which he saw the 
religious valley to be so full, until they should stand 
upon their feet, "an exceeding great army." 

An un- 

The Gen- 

a minis- 




The loth of April, 1852, was a memorable day in 
the history of William Booth. It was his birthday — 
the day on which he finally relinquished business for 
the ministry, and, as if to accentuate the significance 
of the sacrifice, it was a Good Friday. Finally it was 
on this day that the respect and admiration with 
which he regarded Miss Mumford ripened into a life- 
long love. 

He was now practically her pastor. The Reformers 
had accepted him as their preacher, at the instance of 
Mr. Rabbitts, who had undertaken to pay him his 
salary. " How much will you require?" he asked, in 
broaching the question. "Twelve shillings a week 
will keep me in bread and cheese," responded the first 
Salvation Army Captain. " I would not hear of such a 
thing," replied his friend; "you must take at least a 
pound." And so, with this modest remuneration, 
Mr. Booth commenced his work as a preacher of the 
Gospel, " Passing rich on fifty pounds a year!" 

He had set apart the day to visit a relative, with a 
view to interesting him in his new career, when Mr. 
Rabbitts, happening to meet him, carried him off to 
a service held by the Reformers in a school-room in 
Cowper Street, City Road. Catherine was present, 
and the casual acquaintance that commenced a few 
weeks previously was renewed, Mr. Booth escorting 
her home when the meeting was over. 



Although a mutual and ardent affection sprang up, 
which deepened on each succeeding interview, never- 
theless no engagement was entered into, until after 
the most thorough and prayerful consideration. In- 
deed, apart from the love and admiration which each 
entertained for the other, the prospects were by no 
means encouraging. Mr. Booth had left behind 
him the business career, in which he would doubtless 
have made good use of his energy and organising 
abilities. In spite of flattering offers he had no de- 
sire to return to it. His whole soul was aflame for 
the ministry. But for this he imagined that he 
should need years of study and preparation. The 
door of the Wesleyan Church had been closed against 
him. The post he held among the Reformers was 
temporary and unreliable, and each week increased 
his dissatisfaction with their discipline and mode of 
government. They had thrown off the yoke of what 
they looked upon as a tyrannical priesthood, but, as is 
often the case with human nature, the pendulum had 
now swung from one extreme to the other. Having 
first disputed the authority of their ordained pastors, 
they now refused to acknowledge that of those whom 
they had themselves appointed, and whom they were 
likewise free at any moment to discharge. 

This was no doubt a capital training for the future 
General of the Salvation Army. He tasted by bitter 
experience that a democratic government could be as 
tyrannical as a paternally despotic one. Under the 
name and cloak of liberty, he found himself fettered 
hand and foot. 

As a body the Reformers included within their 
ranks many of the best and noblest spirits in Wes- 
leyan Methodism. Nevertheless, it will be easily 
understood, that amid the turmoil of the agitation the 

Age 23. 

An ar- 
dent af- 

fied with 
the Re- 


A fac- 



Age 23. 


vefited in 



tain fu- 
ture of 
the Re- 




more turbulent and demagogic cliaracters pushed 
their way to the front. This was particularly the case 
in regard to the little group with whom Mr. Booth 
had cast in his lot, and whom he always considered as 
poorly representing the movement at large. 

The power was vested in those who did not know 
how properly to use it. His judgment was controlled 
and his plans were thwarted by people who were too 
brainless to think, too timid to act, or too destitute 
of spirituality to appreciate his intense passion for 
souls. This he was sure could not be God's plan for 
leading His people to battle. "Order is Heaven's 
first law," became henceforth a maxim that firmly 
embedded itself in his mind. 

Then again the future of the Reformers was 
wrapped in uncertainty. Their original intention 
was, without leaving the Wesleyan body, to organise 
themselves as a radical democratic party, a sort of 
constitutional opposition of a parliamentarian char- 
acter. For a time they were content to be in a mi- 
nority. Ultimately they believed their views would 
prevail. But the action of the Conference, in expel- 
ling them wholesale from the ranks of the Connexion, 
had forced them to reconsider the question. Some 
were for returning to the mother-church. These 
formed an influential party of reconciliation, who 
endeavoured this very year (1852) to approach the 
orthodox portion of the society, and obtain some 
moderate concessions, which would enable them to 
return. But the Conference were inflexible, refus- 
ing to receive the deputation that was sent to wait on 
them. The memorial was certainly read, but the 
answer sent denied the allegations made, and re- 
jected the prayer of the petitioners. 

A large number, however, among the Reformers 



were opposed to mediation, and preferred to be or- 
ganised into a separate church, whilst others desired 
to cast in their lot with some of the more liberal 
Methodist denominations, which were waiting to re- 
ceive them with open arms. 

With such divided counsels, the future of the Re- 
formers could not but be uncertain, and so far as 
study for the duties of a regular ministry was con- 
cerned it might be necessary to wait for years before 
the organisation had sufficiently developed to make 
this possible. 

Mr. Booth doubted whether, with prospects so un- 
satisfactory, he should be justified in allowing Miss 
Mumford to enter into any engagement. Some of 
the letters that were exchanged are so interesting, 
and the spirit manifested so exemplary, that we can- 
not do better than refer to them. The earliest is 
dated iith May, 1852, when the question of the en- 
gagement was still undecided : 

Age 23. 


Her first 

" My Dear Friend : — I have been spreading your letter be- 
fore the Lord, and earnestly pleading for a manifestation of 
His will to your mind. And now I would say a few words of 
comfort and encouragement. 

" If you wish to avoid giving me pain, don't condemn your- 
self. I feel sure God does not condemn you, and if you could 
look into my heart you would see how far I am from such a 
feeling. Don't pore over the past ! Let it all go! Your de- 
sire is to do the will of God, and He will guide you. Never 
mind who frowns, if God smiles. 

"The words 'gloom, melancholy, and despair,' lacerate my 
heart. Don't give way to such feelings for a moment. God 
loves you. He will sustain you. The thought that I should 
increase your perplexity and cause you any suffering, is al- 
most intolerable. I am tempted to wish that we had never 
seen each other ! Do try to forget me, as far as the remem- 
brance would injure your usefulness or spoil your peace. If 
I have no alternative but to oppose the will of God, or tram- 

to do 



Age 2Z. 

of God. 

pie on the desolations of my own heart, 7Hy choice is made ! 
'Thy will be done! ' is my constant cry. I care not for my- 
self, but oh, if I cause you to err, I shall never be happy again ! " 

In the same letter she adds : 

" It is very trying to be depreciated and slighted when you 
are acting from the purest motives. But consider the char- 
acter of those who thus treat you, and dont overestimate t/ieir 
influence. You have some true friends in the circuit, and 
what is better than all, you have a Friend above, whose love 
is as great as His power. He can open your way to another 
sphere of usefixlness, greater than you now conceive of." 

Little did the writer think how prophetic was this 
last sentence. How immeasurable would have been 
their surprise had the veil been lifted for a moment, 
and a glance into the distant future permitted to 
the two doubt-bestricken, fear-beleaguered lovers, so 
anxious to do right, and to obey the dictates of their 
enlightened consciences, rather than to follow the 
unbridled clamourings of their hearts. In looking 
back we see the mighty issues that were then at stake, 
and all around are spread the fruit unto eternity of 
that sanctified resolution. Well would it be for 
thousands if they paused similarly to take counsel of 
God, before committing themselves to any decision 
in so momentous a matter. 

Two days later Miss Mumford writes again : 

mind the 

" My Dear Friend : — I have read and re-read your note, 
and fear you did not fully understand my difficulty. It was 
fiot circumstances. I thought I had fully satisfied you on that 
point. I thought I had assured you that a bright prospect 
could not allure me nor a dark one affright me, if we are 
only one in /leart. My difficulty, my only reason for wishing 
to defer the engagement, was that you might feel satisfied in 
your own mind that the step is right. I dare not enter into 
so solemn an engagement until you can assure me that you 



feel I am in every way suited to make you happy, and that 
you are satisfied that the step is not opposed to the will of 
God. If you are convinced on this point, irrespective of cir- 
cumstances, let circumstances go, and let us be one, come 
what may ; and let us on Saturday evening, on our knees be 
fore God, give ourselves afresh to Him and to each other. 
When this is done, what have we to do with the future ? We 
and all our concerns are in His hands, under His all-wise and 
gracious Providence. 

" Again I commend you to Him. It cannot, shall not be 
that you shall make a mistake. Let us besiege His Throne 
with all the powers of prayer, and believe me, 
" Yours affectionately, 

" Catherine." 

And so on that Sabbath eve, the 15th May, 1852, 
reason gave its sanction, and conscience set its seal, 
to an engagement which was fraught with results 
that eternity will alone reveal. In the dim twilight 
of that summer day the twin foundation stones were 
laid of a living temple more blessed and beautiful 
than that which crowned the summit of Moriah — a 
temple whose precious stones and costly timbers were 
to be hewn without hands in the depths of darkest 
fetishism, in the jungles of hopeless heathendom, 
and in the civilised and educated, but beweaponed 
and submerged mass of nihilism, socialism, and des- 
potism, which calls itself Christianity — a temple 
which was to be finally fitted and framed into one 
harmonious, glorious, imperishable whole, without 
sound of axe or hammer, by the heavenly craftsmen, 
as a part and parcel of the New Jerusalem, and an 
eternal monument of the wonder-working hand of 
its divine Architect. 

The following letter, written a few days subse- 
quently, might almost have been penned by a Han- 
nah or Mar}^ when rejoicing over their answered 
prayers, and deserves to be embalmed in memory: 

Age 23, 


A second 



Age 23. 

A glad re- 

The high- 
est earth- 
ly bliss. 

A mark 
of disci- 



" My Dearest William : — The evening is beautifully serene 
and tranquil, according sweetly with the feelings of my soul. 
The whirlwind is past, and the succeeding calrh is propor- 
tionate to its violence. Your letter — your visit have hushed 
its last murmurs and stilled every vibration of my throbbing 
heart-strings. All is well. I feel it is right, and I praise God 
for the satisfying conviction. 

" Most gladly does my soul respond to your invitation to 
give myself afresh to Him, and to strive to link myself closer 
to you, by rising more into the likeness of my Lord. The 
nearer our assimilation to Jesus, the more perfect and 
heavenly our union. Our hearts are now indeed one, so one 
that division would be more bitter than death. But I am satis- 
fied that our union may become, if not more complete, more 
Divine, and consequently capable of yielding a larger amount 
of pure, unmingled bliss. 

" The thought of walking through life perfectly united, to- 
gether enjoying its sunshine and battling with its storms, by 
softest sympathy sharing every smile and every tear, and with 
thorough unanimity performing all its momentous duties, is 
to me exquisite happiness; the highest earthly bliss I desire. 
And who can estimate the glory to God and the benefit to 
man, accruing from a life spent in such harmonious effort to 
do His will ? Such unions, alas, are so rare, that we seldom 
see an exemplification of the Divine idea of marriage. 

" If indeed we are the disciples of Christ, 'in the world we 
shall have tribulation ; ' but in Him and in each other we may 
have peace. If God chastises us by affliction, in either mind, 
body, or circumstances, it will only be a mark of our disci- 
pleship ; and if borne equally by us both, the blow will not 
only be softened, but sanctified, and we shall be enabled to 
rejoice that we are permitted to drain the bitter cup together. 
Satisfied that in our souls there flows a deep undercurrent of 
pure affection, we will seek grace to bear with the bubbles 
which may rise on the surface, or wisdom so to bi:rst them as 
to increase the depth, and accelerate the onward flow of the 
pure stream of love, till it reaches the river which proceeds 
out of the Throne of God and of the Lamb, and mingles in 
glorious harmony with the love of Heaven. 

" The more you lead me up to Christ in all things, the more 
highly shall I esteem you ; and if it be possible to love you 



more than I now do, the more shall I love you. You are 1852 
always present in my thoughts. Age 23. 

" Believe me, dear William, as ever, 

" Your own loving 

" Kate." 

One more letter we are tempted to quote : 

" 22d May, 1852. 

" My Dear William : — I ought to be happy after enjoying 
your company all the evening. But now you are gone and 
I am alone, I feel a regret consonant with the height of my 
enjoyment. How wide the difference between heavenly and 
earthly joys! The former satiate the soul and reproduce 
themselves. The latter, after planting in our soul the seeds 
of future griefs and cares, take their flight and leave an ach- 
ing void. 

" How wisely God has apportioned our cup ! He does not 
give us all sweetness, lest we should rest satisfied with earth ; 
nor all bitterness, lest we grow weary and disgusted with our 
lot. But He wisely mixes the two, so that if we drink the one, 
we must also taste the other. And perhaps a time is coming 
when we shall see that the proportions of this cup of human 
joy and sorrow are more equally adjusted than we now im- 
agine — that souls capable of enjoyments above the vulgar 
crowd, can also feel sorrow in comparison with which theirs 
is but like the passing April cloud in contrast with the long 
Egyptian night. 

" How wise an ordination this is, we cannot now discover. 
It will require the light which streams from the Eternal 
Throne to reveal to us the blessed effects of having the sen- 
tence of death written on all our earthly enjoyments. I often 
anticipate the glorious employment of investigating the mys- 
terious workings of Divine Providence. Oh, may it be our 
happy lot to assist each other in these heavenly researches in 
that pure bright world above ! 

" But I have rambled from what I was about to write. I 
find that the pleasure connected with pure, holy, sanctified 
love, forms no exception to the general rule. The very fact 
of loving invests the being beloved with a thousand causes of 
care and anxiety, which, if unloved, would never exist. At 
least I find it so. You have caused me more real anxiety 

The iihil- 

osophij of 



The ca- 
pacity to 
enjoy is 

the ca- 
pacity to 



1852, than any other earthly object ever did. Do yon ask why? 
Age 2^. I have already supplied you with an answer ! " 

After referring to some domestic matters she gives 
an interesting glimpse behind the scenes at the con- 
clusion of her letter: 

Don't sit "Don't sit up singing till twelve o'clock, after a hard day's 
up sing- work. Such things are not required by either God or man, 
and remember you are not your own. 
" I remain, dear William, 

" Yours in truth and the love of Jesus, 

" Catherine." 

The reference to the General as a young man of 
twenty-three, after a hard day's v^ork sitting up sing- 
ing till midnight is one of those unmeant life-touches, 
which vivify the picture of the past, reminding one 
of the painter who in despair flung his sponge at the 
canvas intending to obliterate the scene, but producing 
by the merest accident the very effect which his ut- 
most effort had failed to secure. The incident serves 
as a side-light to a life — an 'Var homo'' to the leader, 
who was to girdle the earth with a belt of song, 
till, to use the expression of a recent church divine, 
the Salvation Arm}^ had sung its way round the world. 
The Among the sacred resorts of Indian pilgrims is All- 

of two ahabad, the so-called " City of God." Here the waters 
of the Jumna embosom themselves in those of the 
Ganges, and the united streams wend their fertilising 
course through the rich plains of Bengal. Each bank 
is studded with countless villages, while at various 
points arise crowded and thriving cities, the teeming 
population depending largely for their subsistence 
upon the river, whose volume of waters, undiminished 
by the prodigious demands, rolls onward to the ocean. 
Even such was to be the issue of the blending of 




these two life-currents in a single channel, which was 1852, 
thenceforth to become a source and centre of increas- ^^ ^^' 
ing spiritual blessing, extending to generations yet 
unborn, and the sum total of which eternity will alone 
reveal. In seeking first "the Kingdom of God," the 
all things promised were indeed superabundantly 
added, and Miss Mumford was able to write: 

" As far as earthly happiness is concerned, I never knew so 
much as now. I have just spent an hour or two of the purest 
earthly bliss I ever enjoyed. Had I never drunk so co- 
piously at the fountain, I might be in danger of resting satis- 
fied with the streams. But I bless the Lord, He has made 
it impossible for me to be made satisfied with anything short 
of a complete union and constant communion with Himself. 
Oh that we may know the bliss of being fully one with God 
(John xiv. 20)." 



ing con- 




to join the 



ists . 

Miss Mumford viewed without dismay the doc- 
trinal and controversial labyrinths through which Mr. 
Booth had now to pass. The clue once grasped, she 
helped him to follow the thread through all the per- 
plexing mazes, which seemed so hopelessly entangled. 
The doors they would have entered seemed persist- 
ently blocked. Orthodox Wesleyanism was too re- 
spectable. The Reformers were too unsettled for 
him to contemplate making a permanent home among 
them. What with committees and votes, resolutions 
and amendments, every one wanting to lead and no- 
body willing to follow, like the Indian bulbul, tied by 
an invisible thread, he could only flutter from finger 
to finger of his many-fingered master, and view with 
chagrin the tantalising heaps of grain that lay just 
beyond his reach. 

Miss Mumford threw her whole heart into the ques- 
tion. She realised that Mr. Booth possessed abilities 
of no ordinary description. She was convinced that 
he only needed a suitable opportunity for his genius 
to assert itself, and that, providing he had fair play, 
he would soon rise to a level that was impossible for 
the mediocrities who surrounded him, and who only 
maintained their superiority by suppressing or decap- 
itating those whose gifts or graces eclipsed their own. 

A possible way of deliverance at length suggested 
itself to her. There was near her home a large Con- 


gregational cliapel, which she frequently attended. 1852, 

Its talented pastor, the Rev. David Thomas, was an ^^ ^^' 

able preacher, whose intellectual and powerful ser- Dr. 

mons she very much relished. Might it not be that ^'"'"'''^• 

among this people the longed-for sphere of usefulness 

was to be discovered ? Certainly the attempt seemed 

worth making. " I argued," she afterward said, " that ^ modest 

with them. William would be able to make a church 

after his own heart, introducing such methods and 
agencies as he might think likely to be useful. I 
could not see why he should not combine all that was 
precious to him in Methodism with the liberty of the 
Independents, to whom my early studies in church his- 
tory had somewhat inclined me." 

But the effort, though spread over several months, Dr. 
beginning in July and lasting till October, proved "'"■'' '^ 
ultimately abortive. True, Mr. Booth was most 
kindly received by Dr. Campbell, an influential min- 
ister of the denomination in London, pastor of one of 
its principal churches, and editor of several religious 

" I was not very sanguine as to the result of this Mr. 
visit," says Mr. Booth. "A friend had informed me first fn- 
before that the doctor was a busy man, and that his ^•^'''"'^*"- 
usage was always to speak to strangers in the lobby, 
in order to get them off as quickly as possible. True 
to his custom, the doctor came out to me, but after a 
few sentences he took me into his room. Pointing 
to a chair, he said, 'Sit down and tell me your story,' 
and after listening to it volunteered the opinion: 'I ",^f/^,^ 
like you, and believe the Congregational church is 
just the place for you. You will make your way in 
it, and I will help you all I can. ' I asked him whether 
my views as to the universal love of God would be 
any hindrance to my acceptance and success. To this 




Age 23. 

The doc- 

Letter to 


Dr. Mas- 
sey dis- 
the Gen- 
eral from 
the min- 

he replied: 'No, you will not be troubled on that 
score. Go to college, study your Bible, and then 
come out and preach whatever doctrine you honestly 
believe you find there.' The doctor then gave me an 
introduction to some other ministers whom he thought 
likely to help me, and shook me affectionately by the 
hand as I rose to leave." 

The result of the interviews which followed we 
learn from a letter to Dr. Campbell written a few 
days later : 

" 25th June, 1852. 
" Reverend Sir : — 

" The kind reception with which, although a perfect 
stranger, you favoured me, the counsel you gave, and your 
request that I should either call or write a fortnight from that 
hour, is the excuse 1 offer for again intruding upon your 
notice. Among other things you wished me, too, again to see 
the Rev. W. Leask of Kennington, which I accordingly did, 
stating that I had seen you. He told me that if I went to see 
Mr. Edwards of the New Chapel, City Road, he would be able 
to give me all the information I needed respecting the Train- 
ing Institution at Cotton End. I therefore called upon the 
Rev. W. S. Edwards, who received me very kindly and 
directed me to Dr. Massey at the office of the Home Mission- 
ary Society, saying that he would tell me all I wished to 
know. From the latter I received, that which is nothing new 
to me, some discouraging information. His advice was to 
the following effect: 'You had better go back to business for 
about two years, unite yourself with an Independent church, 
sit under an intellectual minister, and then through that 
church offer yourself to the society.' Dr. Massey further 
stated 'the almost impossibility of my procuring admission 
into the college, because of there being now more candidates 
than vacancies.' 

" With this counsel I cannot see my way clear to comply. 
To wait in uncertainty for one or two years, and then, after 
that, to be two or three years longer in training, ere I could 
settle down to a sphere of labour, is not in accordance with 
my feelings or hopes. But even this, should I see it to be 


the path my Father points out, I am willing to walk therein. 1852, 
All I can do now is to stand still and see the salvation of God. ■^S^ 23. 

" Perhaps the ministry is not my way. He may have an- 
other work for me to do. My prayer, my constant prayer is, Booth's 
'Teach me Thy will, and bow my own in submission to it.' fears. 
My only fear is, that I have not sufficient ability to be a suc- 
cessful minister, or otherwise I would push the thing to its 
utmost issue. I fear reaching a position which I should not 
be able usefully to sustain. I fear having formed an erroneous 
estimate of myself, my capacities and powers, and I tremble 
at the consequences. But the God whom I serve, and whose 
I am, lives to direct, and in I/im I put my trust, and on I/im 
I only lean. 

" I thank you with the gratitude of a sincere heart for your 
kindness in giving me the direction you deem most judicious, 
and which must have occupied a portion of your time, which 
I know to be so valuable. 

" I trust that God will make you more than ever useful in 
diffusing light and truth and the knowledge of salvation in 
our poor dying world, and praying for the blessing of the Holy 
Spirit upon your labours, 

" I remain, reverend sir, yours sincerely, 

"William Booth." 

Rev. J. Campbell, D. D. 

The Rev. Dr. Massey referred to in this letter was The Cot- 
Secretary to the Home Missionary Society of the Con- insuul- 
gregational Union, which had a Training Institution ''""■ 
at Cotton End. Here Mr. Booth had reason to be- 
lieve he would have the advantage of some months' 
study, without being obliged to spend three or four 
years at the dead languages and without going 
through the ordinary ministerial curriculum, which, 
he feared, would be more likely to hamper than help 
him in his work of saving souls. 

Backed up by Dr. Campbell and other influential Mr. Booth 
members of the Union, and above all encouraged by ^Zel, 
Miss Mumford, Mr. Booth persevered in his efforts to 
enter the institution. 



Age 23, 

States his 

Is ac- 

to change 



Her view 
of the 

He frankly stated to the examining committee his 
difficulty regarding the doctrine of election. In spite 
of this, however, owing no doubt to Dr. Campbell's 
influence, he w^as finally accepted, and was to start 
for the Cotton End college the following day. 

At the same time he was told that no such excep- 
tion had previously been made, and the committee 
expressed their conviction that at the expiration of 
six months' study he would be able to conform to the 
doctrines of the body, recommending him two rather 
noted volumes on the controversy — Booth's "Reign 
of Grace," and Payne on "Divine Sovereignty." 

This was so different to what Dr. Campbell had led 
him to believe, that Mr. Booth was tempted to settle 
the question on the spot and to inform the committee 
that it was impossible for him to accept their nomina- 
tion on such an understanding. However, he curbed 
his impetuosity, and hurried home to tell Miss Mum- 
ford what had transpired, and to seek with her Divine 
guidance. From the time he first knew her, Mr. 
Booth had learned to place great reliance in her 
sound judgment, and to the end of her life he em- 
barked on no important enterprise, nor struck out on 
any new path, without consulting her, and enjoying 
the full benefit of her statesmanlike and far-reaching 
mental instinct. 

Miss Mumford rose to the occasion. Indeed, like 
a well-built vessel in a storm, these life tornadoes 
only served to call into play the innate capacities of 
her soul. Moreover, she took a more hopeful view 
of the case than Mr. Booth was inclined to do. It 
seemed evident to her, from what Dr. Campbell and 
others had said, that the committee did not fairly rep- 
resent the feelings of the Union. There was, at 
least, an important and influential section of the body 


who, if they did not exactly agree with Mr. Booth's 1852, 
views, would at any rate leave him free to think and ^^ ^^' 
act according to the dictates of his conscience. Never- 
theless, she trembled lest she should influence him 
in the wrong direction. Fearing that anxiety for her 
future well-being might influence him, she besought 
him to exclude her from his considerations, and to 
decide as he would have done had he not known her. 
"Don't think," she said, "I shall be disappointed or Urgeshim 
dissatisfied, if you settle against the college. I prom- Ms^con- 
ise you it will not cause me one hour's uneasiness, and ^^*^'^^^- 
should it be afterward necessary, I will exert all my 
ingenuity and influence to smooth and comfort your 
mind under any misgivings as to the judiciousness 
of the step, whatever path the Providence of God may 
open before you. All my energies shall be thrown 
into it, and, as far as I am able, I will be a help-meet 
for you. So long as you are useful and happy, I shall 
be satisfied under any circumstances." 

On his way home, Mr. Booth had bought one of He studies 

111 1 "'^ Reign 

the books recommended to him by the committee, of Grace. 
This he now opened with no ordinary interest and 
curiosity, but he had not read many pages before he 
flung the book across the room, saying that he never FUm/sthe 
could acquiesce in the doctrines which it set forth, away. 
and that it would be a mere waste of time for him to 
attempt to do so. 

The more honourable and straightforward course 
seemed to be to write to the committee and tell them 
plainly that he could not accept the nomination, 
coupled as it was with an understanding, or condition, 
to which his heart would not consent. 

"How can I go to an institution," he argued, Abandons 
"where I shall be obliged to study such books and proposal. 
expected to accept such doctrines? At present I am 


1852, free. I am under no obligations to the committee. 
^^ ^^* I can hold what opinions I like. But when once I 
have received their favours, I shall feel as if I were 
morally bound to accept their teachings. It is one 
thing to forsake Methodism. It is quite another to 
abandon a doctrine, which I look upon as a cardinal 
point in Christ's redemption plan — His universal 
love, and the possibility of all being saved who will 
avail themselves of His mercy." 

And so the question was then and there settled, 
and the letter written, which closed the ports of this 
hoped-for haven against the storm-bound boat, leav- 
ing it to drift for a time in mid-ocean, till after varied 
experiences of tempest and calm it should at length 
ride at anchor in a harbour of its own. 
A fHend- Qod had Something vastly more important in store 

/y part- c:> j l 

ing. for William Booth and Catherine Mumford than the 
pastoral care of an Independent church, to which they 
were then aspiring as the ideal of a useful life. Never- 
theless, the parting was a friendly one, and it was a 
little remarkable that thirty-six years later Catherine 
Booth closed her public career, and delivered her last 
address, in perhaps the leading Congregational tem- 
ple of the world. The " I like you" of Dr. Campbell 
in 1852 was repeated by Dr. Parker in 1888, in fare- 
welling from the public stage to higher spheres of 
usefulness the greatest woman minister of the age. 
It has fitl)'- represented the attitude of the Union to 
the organisation which Mrs. Booth mothered and in 
the history of which she played so prominent a part. 
Another While this controversy was still going on un- 
^lion.' decided, Mr„ Booth received a warm invitation to 
assist Dro Ferguson of Ryde, with the ultimate possi- 
bility of succeeding him as pastor of his congregation. 
The offer was, however, declined. But the following 


letter, written to Miss Mumford on the 28th July, and 1852, 
referring to both the questions, will be read with in- ^^ 
terest : 

" My own dear Catherine: — 

" I have just received a letter (three sheets of note-paper) 
from my friend in the Isle of Wight. He says very plainly 
that he cannot give me up, and prays me to reconsider the 
determination expressed in my last. He calls upon me by 
all that is sacred not to go to be whitewashed at college, but P^^^'i, ^-'^ 
to go to Ryde, where, as he says, I shall have superior oppor- 
tunities for mental and moral training. 

" While I do not feel disposed to alter my views in regard 
to the position I should have to fill at Ryde, or even to recon- 
sider my decision upon the subject, still I must say this im- 
portunity considerably adds to my perplexity. He looks upon 
our meeting as strictly providential. He beseeches me not to 
go to college. I give you a quotation: 'We have a college 
ministry already, and what are they doing in reference to the 
salvation of souls? Their college whitewash is only garnish- 
ing, the sepulchre of dead souls. We want a quickening, 
soul-saving ministry, affectionately brought to bear upon the 
consciences and hearts of sinners.' Again he says: 'Here 
is the place for your social, and I believe loving, heart to ex- 
pand and quicken. Don't go to college. Your thoughts were 
directed here. The experience of thousands of students says, 
'Don't go to college.' Their theology has become stereo- 
typed — their social and moral nature has lost its vigour and 
power, while immured within the college walls. ' What say 
you to the matter? I hope you are not making yourself un- 
happy. This is my reason for writing. I am not miserable; 
do not fear that. I prayed earnestly all the way home last 
night for guidance. I believe it will be given. I am reading 
Finney and Watson on election and final perseverance, and I 
see more than ever reason to cling to my own views of truth 
and righteousness." 

These negotiations appear to have fallen through, 
simultaneously with the arrangement to enter the 
Cotton End Institution, and Mr. Booth was again left 

lo6 MRS. BOOTH. 

1852, in uncertainty. Although he had given away his 

^^ ^^' last sixpence to a poor girl dying of consumption, 

Giving yet the conviction that his decision was a conscientious 

^lastsix-^ one, involving as it did the sacrifice of his almost 

pence, accomplished ambition, filled him with satisfaction. 

Nor was Miss Mumford one to repine over the past. 

Cheerfully they faced the doubtful future, waiting on 

God to reveal what should be their course. They 

were not left long in doubt. 


The determined attitude of the Wesleyan Confer- The 

Spa Id in fj 

ence — their open declaration of war with the mal- Reform- 


contents — their refusal to accept the advances made 
during this year by the would-be mediators, and the 
evident hopelessness of any prospective reconciliation, 
compelled the Reformers to look elsewhere for minis- 
ters. This was at least the predicament in which 
the Spalding circuit had found itself placed. It was 
a country district, some thirty miles in extent, grouped 
round the town after which it had been named. Here 
the Conference had hitherto possessed a flourishing 
cause, but the cream of the laity had gone over to 
the Reformers, who had now struggled on some time 
without a minister. 

Finding themselves unable to make satisfactory pro- They in- 
gress, they wrote to the central committee for a pastor. Booth.' 
who should organise and superintend their scattered 
congregations. Mr. Booth was invited to fill the 
post. This appeared to be a call from God, and in it 
we can undoubtedly trace a Providential purpose. 
Hitherto his labours had been confined to large cities, 
which certainly furnished an admirable training- 
ground and scope for effort. Nevertheless, it would 
be difficult to over-estimate the value of the experi- 
ence gained by fifteen months of active toil in a coun- circuit!' 
try district. The proportion of the world's population 
which is "cabined, cribbed, confined" in towns is, 




Age 23. 

A useful 


The invi- 
tation ac- 

A hearty 

after all, comparatively small. The vast majority are 
still settled on the land. It was as important that 
Mr. Booth should understand by personal experience 
their modes of living and habits of thought, as it was 
that he should explore the miserable recesses of slum- 
dom and familiarise himself with all the phases of 
city life. 

It was reported that the Spalding Reformers were 
more docile and amenable to discipline than the little 
knot with which Mr. Booth had associated in London. 
He would doubtless, therefore, have more liberty of 
action, and among the unconventional country peo- 
ple there appeared to him a better prospect for an 
ingathering of souls. 

On the other hand Miss Mumford argued that it 
would entail a further postponement of the prepar- 
ation which seemed so necessary for a ministerial 
career, and the unsettled state of the Reformers made 
it doubtful whether the goal of ordination could be 
reached within a reasonable time. Moreover, it in- 
volved a separation from which they mutually shrank. 
The ready access for communion and counsel, which 
London afforded, had been especially prized, and they 
could not but view the prospect of forfeiting it with 

Mr. Booth, however, was so wearied with the in- 
activity of the past few months, that it certainly ap- 
peared worth while to give the new sphere a trial, 
and to judge on the spot what probability there 
might be for harmonious and successful effort. 
Hence, after united and earnest prayer, it was decided 
to accept the invitation to the Spalding circuit. 

It was the end of November, 1852, when, the 
preliminary negotiations being completed, he started 
for his new field of labour. That he was agreeably 


surprised and much gratified with his reception is 1852, 
evident in the following extracts from his letters to ^^ ^^* 
Miss Mumford : 

" My reception has been beyond my highest anticipations. 
Indeed my hopes have risen fifty per cent, that this circuit 
will be unto me all that I want or need. 

" 1 do think it was the hand of God that brought me here. 
The fields are white unto the harvest. The friends are ex- 
tremely affectionate, and I believe that many precious souls 
will be gathered in unto God. I had a good day yesterday. 
The people were highly satisfied, and I trust benefited. 

" I know how pleased you will be when I tell you how kind 
all are to me. The best they have is at my service. The 
most talented, the most respectable, and the most holy men 
in the circuit, so far as I can judge, are on our side, and 
wherever I go, I am welcomed. 

"On Sunday I preached at Holbeach from the 'faithful 

saying. ' It went well. The people wept^ — an excellent con- T',^^ P*^*^- 
■ r^ , , i -, , pl^ toept. 

gregation. Strong men were completely melted down. 

It was a good time to my soul. In the afternoon Mr. 

Hardy wished me to preach for him at Thet Fen — a small 

low house I could hardly stand upright in, but two rooms 

were full of precious souls — fifty I should think, and I stood 

in the door-way and told how ready Jesus was to save to the 

uttermost all who came unto God by Him. At night we were 

full at Holbeach. I preached from Blind Bartimeus; some 

little liberty. Four souls cried for mercy." 

The letters abound with the deepest sentiments of 
affection : 

" I have brought with me to Spalding a far better likeness Better 
than the daguerreotype — namely, your image stamped upon '^"'i^ ^^^ 
my soul. I press the dear outline of your features to my otype. 
lips and yearn for the original to press to my heart. Heaven 
smile upon thee, my dearest love." 

To these letters Miss Mumford responded cor- 
dially, at the same time sending the most practical 
advice, and entering with keenest interest into all the 
details of his life and work. She writes: 

no MJiS. BOOTH. 

1852, " It affords me great pleasure to hear the minutiae of your 

Age 23. proceedings, and of the prosperity and extension of Reform 
principles in the circuit. I wish Mr. Hubbard and his coad- 
jutors [Conference preachers from Boston] would stay at home 
and let you have it all your own way, as I know you like that. 
But perhaps we ought rather to rejoice that Christ is preached 
even of contention. At all events I don't think Mr. Hubbard 
will do the people much harm. He has not sufficient talent 
to enrapture them with very eloquent eulogiums of Confer- 
ence. And as to his spirit, unless very much altered, I dare 
almost venture my salvation on its Christlike character. I 
am very sorry and surprised that he does not come out on the 
side of Reform. But we must judge charitably. 
Hoio to " I perceive, my love, by your remarks on the services you 
preach, j^^yg held, that you enjoy less liberty, when preaching in the 
larger places before the best congregations, than in the smaller 
ones. I am sorry for this, and am persuaded it is the fear of 
man which shackles you. Do not give place to this feeling. 
Remember you are t/ie Lord's servant, and if you are a 
faithful one, it will be a small matter with you to be judged 
of man's judgment. Let nothing be wanting beforehand to 
make your sermons acceptable, but when in the pulpit try to 
lose sight of their worth or worthlessness, so far as composi- 
tion is concerned. Think only of their bearing on the destiny 
of those before you, and of your own responsibility to Him 
who hath sent you to declare His gospel. Pray for the wisdom 
which winneth souls, and never mind what impression the 
preacher makes, if the ivord preached takes effect. May the 
Lord bless you, my dearest love, and fit you to be His in- 
strument in saving others without its entailing any harm to 
your own soul." 

In another letter she says : 

" I was very pleased to hear you were going to read Mr. 
Fletcher's life. I hope you will always keep some stirring 
biography on the read. It is most profitable. 
How to " I am much encouraged by the accounts of your prospects 
get on. -^^ ^-^^ circuit, and have no fear about you suiting the people 
providing your heart is filled with the love of God, and your 
head stored with Scripture truth and useftil knowledge. As 
a preacher I am sure you have nothing to fear. With a 


1 1 1 

reasonable amount of study, you are bound to succeed. 1852, 
Whereas, if you give place to fear about your ability, it will -^S^ 23. 
hamper you and make you appear to great disadvantage. 

" Try and cast off the fear of man. Fix your eye simply on 
the glory of God, and care not for the frown or praise of man. 
Rest not till your soul is fully alive to God. 

" You may justly consider me inadequate to advise you in Apolo- 
spiritual matters. After living at so great a distance from God adviling. 
myself, I feel it deeply — I feel as though I could lay myself 
at the feet of any of the Lord's faithful followers, covered 
with speechless shame for my unfaithfulness. But so great 
is my anxiety for your soul's prosperity, that I cannot for- 
bear to say a word sometimes, even though realizing that I 
need your advice far more than you need mine." 

A favor- 
ite air. 

A few days later she writes : 

" The post-boy is just going past, singing that tune you 
liked so, 'Why did my master sell me?' [a secular air to which 
Mr. Booth had adapted spiritual words.] He frequently passes 
my window humming it, and somehow it brings such a shade 
over my heart, making me realize my loneliness, now that 
I hear you sing it no longer ! 

" I have felt it very good to draw nigh unto God. Oh to 
live in the spirit of prayer! I feel it is the secret of real re- 
ligion, the mainspring of all usefulness. In no frame does 
the soul so copiously receive and so radiantly reflect the rays 
of the Sun of Righteousness as in this !" 

The social qualities of the young preacher, from His early 
the very first, found him a place in the hearts of the ^^^^uy^^^ 
people. His intense zeal was coupled with shrewd 
common sense, and his ultra-pietism was totally de- 
void of unnatural sanctimony. He had no patience for 
the religious stilts which, while they appear to elevate 
a minister from the level of his surroundings, fetter 
his liberty and retard his speed, substituting an ar- 
tificial superiority for that of spiritual life and power. - 
Mr. Booth made himself as much at home among the 
pigs and poultry of his farmer audiences, as in their 



Age 2Z. 

ford re- 
joices at 
his recep- 

The dan- 
gers of 

And of 
ed ambi- 

Fix it on 
the throne 

of the 

No re- 

parlours or the pulpit. Hence he became a universal 
favourite, and the object of kindly attention and flat- 
tering appreciation from all classes alike. 
In referring- to this Miss Mumford writes: 

" My heart swells with gratitude and praise to God for His 
goodness in granting you such an auspicious commencement 
to your labours, and in opening the hearts of so many friends 
to receive and treat you kindly. To Mr. Hardy and Mr. and 
Mrs. Congreve I would say : 

■ Friends of my friend, I love you, though unknown, 
And boldly call you, being /n's, my own. ' 

" And yet I rejoice with trembling. I know how dangerous 
such attentions would be to a heart even less susceptible of 
its influence than yours. While a particle of the carnal mind 
remained I feel how dangerous it would be to me. And it fills 
me with tenderest anxiety for your spiritual safety. You 
have special need for watchfulness and for much private in- 
tercourse with God. 

" My dearest love, beware how you indulge that dangerous 
element of character, ambition. Misdirected, it will be ever- 
lasting ruin to yourself and perhaps to me also. O my love, 
let nothing earthly excite it, let not self-aggrandisement fire 
it. Fix it on the Throne of the Eternal, and let it find the 
realization of its loftiest aspirations in the promotion of His 
glory, and it shall be consummated with the richest enjoy- 
ments and brightest glories of God's own Heaven. Those 
that honour Him He will honour, and to them who thus seek 
His glory, will He give to rule over the nations, and even to 
judge angels, who through a per-vcrtcd ambition, the exaltation 
of self instead of God, have fallen from their allegiance and 
overcast their eternity with the blackness of darkness for ever. 

" I feel your danger. I could write sheets on the subject, 
but my full soul shall pour out its desires to that God Who 
has promised to supply all your need. In my estimation 
faithfulness is an indispensable ingredient of all true friend- 
ship. How much more of a love like mine: You say 'Re- 
prove — advise me as you think necessary !' I have no reproofs, 
my dearest, but I have cautions, and I know you will con- 
sider them." 

SPALDING, — Z OND ON. 1 1 3 

Miss Mumford's anxiety in regard to the question 1852, 
of study is expressed in the following passage : ^^ ^^' 

" Do assure me, my own dear William, that no lack of energy Urges 
or effort on your part shall hinder the improvement of those *^^*"1/' 
talents God has intrusted to you, and which he holds you 
responsible to improve to the uttermost. Your duty to God, 
to His Church, to me, to yourself, demands as much. If you 
really see no prospect of studying, then I think, in the highest 
interests of the future, you ought not to stay. 

" I have been revolving in my mind all day which will be How to 
your wisest plan under present circumstances, and it appears ^'^ ^^' 
to ine that as you are obliged to preach nearly every evening 
and at places so wide apart, it will be better to do as the 
friends advise, and stop all night where you preach. Do not 
attempt to walk long distances after the meetings. With a 
little management and a good deal of determination, I think 
you might accomplish even more that way as to study, than 
by going home each night. Could you not provide yourself 
with a small leather bag or case, large enough to hold your 
Bible and any other book you might require — pens, ink, 
paper, and a candle ? And presuming that you generally have 
a room to yourself, could you not rise by six o'clock every 
morning, and convert your bedroom into a study till breakfast 
time? After breakfast and family devotion could you not 
again retire to your room and determinedly apply yourself 
till dinner time? Then start on your journey to your evening's 
appointment, get there for a comfortable tea and do the same 
again! I hope, my dearest love, you will consider this plan, 
and adhere to it, if possible, as a. general practice, admitting a 
few exceptions which circumstances may occasion. Don't let 
little difficulties prevent its adoption. I am aware you would 
labour under many disadvantages, but once get the habit of 
abstracting your mind from your surroundings and it will be- 
come easy. Do not be over-anxious about the future. 
^"paldin^ 7vill not be your final destination, if you make the best 
of your ability." 

Referring to her Sunday-school work she says : „ 

" At Sunday-school I felt sadly annoyed and grieved at the sehooTex- 
injudicious use made of time and opportunity which might periences. 



Age 23. 

Access to 

have been husbanded for so much good. It is a great trial for 
me to go. But I don't feel as though I could give it up at 
present. They are all very anxious for me to remain, the 
class refusing to be taught by others. Perhaps after all, I 
may be more useful there than in a better regulated school. 
If I did not hope so, I would not endure the mortification of 
another Sunday." 

Subsequently she writes more cheerfully : 

" This afternoon, when with my class, I enjoyed a season of 
sensible access to God. Oh, how sweet ! Like a sudden burst 
of morning sunshine in a tempestuous night ! I felt as if self 
were sinking, expiring, and for the moment the glory of God 
only seemed to engage and rivet the eye of my soul. Need I 
tell you that I had special liberty and pleasure in speaking to 
the children?" 

The letters contain constant allusions to the tem- 
perance question: 

Drink " I hope you don't forget," she writes, " to wage war with the 

tobacco, drinking customs. Be out-and-out on that subject. I am glad 
Mr. Shadford is a teetotaler. I hope he is also anti-tobacco and 

And when in a subsequent letter Mr. Booth men- 
tioned that he had been urged by some doctor to take 
port wine, she replies: 

Port wine 

as a 

" I need not say how willing, nay, how anxious, I am, that 
you should have anything and everything which would tend 
to promote your health and happiness. But so thoroughly am 
I convinced that port wine would do neither, that I should 
hear of your taking it with unfeigned grief. You must not 
listen, my love, to the advice of every one claiming to be ex- 
perienced. Persons really experienced and judicious in many 
things, not unfrequently entertain notions the most fallacious 
on this subject. I have had it recommended to me scores of 
times by these individuals. But such recommendations have 
always gone for nothing, because I have felt that, however 
much my superiors such persons might be in other respects, on 
this subject I was the best informed. I have even argued the 



point with Mr. Stevens [her doctor], and have, I am sure, 
completely set him fast for arguments to defend alcohol even 
as a medicine. I am fully and for ever settled on the physical 
side of the question. I believe you are on the moral and reli- 
gious, but I have not thought you were on the physical. 
Now, my love, it is absolutely necessary, in order to save you 
from being influenced by other people's false notions, that 
you should have a settled, intelligent conviction on the sub- 
ject. And in order that you may get this, I have been to the 
trouble of unpacking your box in order to send you a book, in 
which you will find several green marks and pencillings. I 
do hope you will read it, even if you sit up an hour later 
every night till you have done so, and I would not advise this 
for anything less important. 

" It is a subject on which I am most anxious you should be 
thorough. I abominate that hackneyed but monstrously in- 
consistent tale — a teetotaler in principle, but obliged to take 
a little for my 'stomach's sake!' Such teetotalers aid the pro- 
gress of intemperance more than all the drunkards in the 
land ! And there are sadly too many of them among minis- 
ters. The fact is notorious, and doubtless the fault is chiefly 
with the people, who foolishly consider it a kindness to 'put 
the bottle to their neighbor's mouth' as frequently as they 
will receive it ! But my dear "William will steadfastly resist 
such foolish advisers. I dare take the responsibility (and I 
have more reason to feel its weight than any other being). I 
have far more hope for your health, because you abstain from 
stimulating drinks, than I should if you took them. Flee the 
detestable thing as you would a serpent. Be a teetotaler in 
principle and practice." 

Age 23. 


of the 





A lofty 

The pul- 
pit mon- 

No mere 

An earhj 

battle ' 


and won. 

The new year found Miss Mumford diligently pre- 
paring for her future career as a minister's wife. 
She had a lofty conception, altogether in advance of 
the age, of the honour, the opportunity, and the re- 
sponsibility of the position to which she aspired. Had 
there been a theological institution at which she could 
have prosecuted her studies, she would doubtless have 
embraced the opportunity with eagerness. But the 
pulpit was monopolised by the other sex, and the idea 
had become firmly embedded in the creeds and opin- 
ions of Christendom that woman's sphere was limited 
to the home, or at least to the care and instruction of 

Nevertheless, Miss Mumford scorned the notion that 
a minister's wife was to content herself with being a 
mere ornamental appendage to her husband, a figure- 
head to grace his tea-table, or even a mother to care 
for his children. Her ideal was a far higher one. 
She believed it was her privilege to share his coun- 
sels, her duty to watch over and help his soul, and 
her pleasure to partake in his labours. She made no 
secret of her views in speaking and writing to Mr. 
Booth. Indeed, their first serious difference of opin- 
ion arose soon after their engagement in regard to 
the mental and social equality of woman as compared 
with man. Mr. Booth argued that while the former 
carried the palm in point of affection, the latter was 



her superior in regard to intellect. He quoted the 1053, 
old aphorism that woman has a fibre more in her ^^ ^'^' 
heart and a cell less in her brain. Miss Mumford 
would not admit this for a moment. She held that 
intellectually woman was man's equal, and that, 
where it was not so, the inferiority was due to dis- 
advantages of training, a lack of opportunity, rather 
than to any shortcomings on the part of nature. In- 
deed she had avowed her determination never to take 
as her partner in life one who was not prepared to 
give woman her proper due, 

Mr. Booth, in spite of his usual inflexibility of pur- Open to 


pose, has always been singularly open to conviction. tion. 
Can we wonder, then, that he succumbed to the logic 
of his fair disputant ? And thus a vantage-ground w^as 
gained of which the Salvation Army has since learned 
to make good use. A principle was laid down and es- 
tablished, which was to mightily affect the future of 
womankind, and indeed of humanity at large. The 
parties themselves at the time little imagined what was 
involved in the carrying out of that principle to its 
legitimate issue. Nevertheless it became henceforth 
an essential and important doctrine in their creed that 
in Jesus Christ there was neither male nor female, but 
that the Gospel combined with nature to place both 
on a footing of absolute mental and spiritual equality. 
Miss Mumford's views on this subject are so ad- 
mirably expressed in a letter addressed by her to her 
pastor. Dr. David Thomas, and the question is so f^^J^^^J' 
important a one, that we cannot do better than quote ^J^''' 
her remarks in full : 

" Dear Sir : — You will doubtless be surprised at the receipt 
of this communication, and I assure you it is with great reluct- 
ance and a feeling of profound respect that I make it. Were 
it not for the high estimate I entertain for both your intellect 



Age 24. 

not mor- 
ally in- 
ferior to 

Study the 

Takes her 
stand ujj- 

on the 


but not 

and heart, I would spare the sacrifice it will cost me. But 
because I believe you love truth, of whatever kind, and would 
not willingly countenance or propagate erroneous views on 
any subject, I venture to address you. 

" Excuse me, my dear sir, I feel myself but a babe in com- 
parison with you. But permit me to call your attention to a 
subject on which my heart has been deeply pained. In your 
discourse on Sunday morning, when descanting on the policy 
of Satan in first attacking the most assailable of our race, your 
remarks appeared to imply the doctrine of woman's intellect- 
ual and even moral inferiority to man. I cannot believe that 
you intended to be so understood, at least with reference to 
her moral nature. But I fear the tenor of your remarks would 
too surely leave such an impression on the minds of many of 
your congregation, and I for one cannot but deeply regret that 
a man for whom I entertain such a high veneration should 
appear to hold views so derogatory to my sex, and which I 
believe to be unscriptural and dishonouring to God. 

" Permit me, my dear sir, to ask whether you have ever 
made the subject of woman's equality as a being, the matter 
of calm investigation and thought? If not I would, with all 
deference, suggest it as a subject well worth the exercise of 
your brain, and calculated amply to repay any research you 
may bestow upon it. 

" So far as Scriptural evidence is concerned, did I but pos- 
sess ability to do justice to the subject, I dare take my stand 
on /'/ against the world in defending her perfect equality. 
And it is because I am persuaded that no honest, unprejudiced 
investigation of the sacred volume can give perpetuity to the 
mere assumptions and false notions which have gained cur- 
rency in society on this subject, that I so earnestly commend 
it to your attention. I have such confidence in the nobility of 
your nature, that I feel certain neither prejudice nor custom 
can blind you to the truth, if you will once turn attention to 
the matter. 

" That woman is, in consequence of her inadequate educa- 
tion, generally inferior to man intellectually, I admit. But 
that she is naturally so, as your remarks seemed to imply, I 
see no cause to believe. I think the disparity is as easily ac- 
counted for as the difference between woman intellectually in 
this country and under the degrading slavery of heathen 



lands. No argument, in my judgment, can be drawn from 
past experience on this point, because the past has been false 
in theory and wrong in practice. Never yet in the history of 
the world has woman been placed on an intellectual footing 
with man. Her training from babyhood, even in this highly 
favoured land, has hitherto been such as to cramp and paralyse, 
rather than to develop and strengthen, her energies, and cal- 
culated to crush and wither her aspirations after mental great- 
ness rather than to excite and stimulate them. And even where 
the more directly depressing influence has been withdrawn, 
the indirect and more powerful stimulus has been wanting. 

" What inducement has been held out to her to cultivate 
habits of seclusion, meditation, and thought? What sphere 
has been open to her? What kind of estimate would have 
been formed of her a few generations back, had she presumed 
to enter the temple of learning, or to have turned her attain- 
ments to any practical account? And even to within a very 
few years, has not her education been more calculated to ren- 
der her a serf, a toy, a plaything, rather than a self-dependent, 
reflecting, intellectual being? The day is only just dawning 
with reference to female education, and therefore any verdict 
on woman as an intellectual being must be premature and un- 
satisfactory. Thank God, however, we are not without num- 
erous and noble examples of what she may become, when 
prejudice and error shall give way to light and truth, and her 
powers be duly appreciated and developed. 

" The world has had its intellectual as well as its moral hero- 
ines, despite all the disappointments and discouragements 
the female mind has had to surmount. As you, my dear sir, 
often say in reference to other subjects, 'a brighter day is 
dawning, ' and ere long woman will assume her true position, 
and rise to the full height of her intellectual stature. Then 
shall the cherished, though but human, dogma of having 'a 
cell less in her brain, ' with all kindred assumptions, be ex- 
ploded and perish before the spell of her developed and culti- 
vated mind. 

" But, lest I swell this letter to an unseemly length, I must 
hasten to say a word or two on the moral side of the ques- 
tion. And here I am quite sure your remarks implied more 
than you intended. For I cannot believe that you consider 
woman morally more remote from God than man, or less 

Age 24. 






Her ca- 

ing the 

Moral as- 
pect of 
the ques- 



Age 24. 

Placed by 

God on 







does for 

made re- 

capable of loving Him ardently and serving Him faithfully. 
If such were the case, would not the great and just One have 
made some difference in His mode of dealing with her? But 
has He not placed her on precisely the same moral footing, 
and under the same moral government with her companion? 
Does she not sustain the same relation to Himself and to the 
moral law? And is she not exposed to the same penalties and 
an heir of the same immortality? This being the case, I 
argue that she possesses equal moral capacity. 

" Experience also on this point I think affords conclusive 
evidence. Who, since the personal manifestation and cruci- 
fixion of our Lord, have ever been His most numerous and 
faithful followers? On whom has the horrible persecution of 
past ages fallen with most virulence, if not on the sensitive 
heart of woman? And yet how rarely has she betrayed moral 
weakness by denying her Lord, or moral remoteness from 
Him by listening to the tempter ! Has she not, on the con- 
trary, stood a noble witness for Christ in scenes and circum- 
stances the most agonizing to her nature, and with Paul liter- 
ally counted all things (even husband and children) but loss 
for His sake? And even now is she not in thousands of in- 
stances 'dying daily; ' waging a silent, unostentatious conflict 
with evil, and groaning under a tyranny compared with which 
the flames of martrydom would be welcome? 

" Oh, the thing which next to the revelation of the plan of 
salvation endears Christianity to my heart is, what it has done, 
and is destined to do, for my sex. And any attempt to 
deduce from its historical records or practical precepts views 
and doctrines derogatory thereto, I cannot but regard with 
heartfelt regret. 

" All man-made religions indeed neglect or debase woman, 
but the religion of Christ recognizes her individuality and 
raises her to the dignity of an independent moral agent. Un- 
der the Old Testament dispensation we have several instances 
of Jehovah choosing woman as a vehicle of His thoughts and 
the direct and authorized exponent of His will. (Judges iv. ; 
ii. Kings xxii. 13-20; Micah vi. 4.) And in the New Testa- 
ment she is fully restored to her original position, it being 
expressly stated that in Christ Jesus there is neither male nor 
female, and the promise of the outpouring of the Spirit is no 
less to the handmaidens than to the servants of the Lord. 



" It appears to me that a great deal of prejudice and many 
mistaken views on this subject arise from confounding wo- 
man's relative subjection with inferiority of nature, as though 
one depended on the other, whereas it appears to me entirely 
distinct. God, who had a right to determine the penalty for 
sin, has clearly defined and fixed a woman's domestic and social 
position, and, as a part of her curse. He has made it that of 
subjection, not, however, as a being, but only in a certain re- 
lationship, subjection to her own husband. This was imposed 
upon her expressly as a punishment for sin, and not on the 
ground of inferiority, intellectual or moral. Indeed had this 
subjection existed prior to the Fall, as the natural conse- 
quences of inferiority, there would have been no force in the 
words 'He shall be over thee.' But to subject a being of 
equal power and strength of will to the will of another does 
appear to me to be a curse indeed, when both are unregener- 

" Here, however, the glorious provisions of Christianity 
come in to those who are united in Christ. The seed of the 
woman, having bruised the head of her old enemy, and taken 
the curse out of the way, nailing it to His cross, the wife may 
realize as blissful and perfect a oneness with her husband as 
though it had never been pronounced. For while the sem- 
blance of it remains, Jesus has beautifully extracted the sting 
by making love the law of marriage, and by restoring the insti- 
tution itself to its original sanctity. What wife would not be 
careful to reverence a husband, who loves her as Christ loves 
the Church? Surely the honour put upon woman by the Lord, 
both in His example and precepts, should make His religion 
doubly precious to her and render His sanctuary her safe 
refuge froin everything derogatory or insulting to her nature ! 

" Oh that Christians at heart would throw off the trammels 
of prejudice, and try to arrive at the truth on this subject! 
Oh that men of noble souls and able intellect would investi- 
gate it, and then ask themselves and their compeers, why the 
influence of woman should be so underestimated, that a 
book, a sermon, or a lecture addressed to her is a rarity, while 
those to young men are multiplied indefinitely? If it be only 
partially true that those who rock the cradle rule the world, 
how much greater is the influence wielded over the mind of 
future ages by the mothers of the next generation than by all 

1 853, 
Age 24. 

He,r rel- 
ative auh- 

Not in- 
of nature. 

But a 
ment for 

The curse 

away by 

The law 
of love. 

The truth 
on the 

the key to 
the situ- 



Age 24. 


The duty 

of the 


The cause 
of non- 

I love my 



the young men living! Vain, in my opinion, will be all 
efforts to impregnate minds generally with noble sentiments 
and lofty aspirations, while the mothers of humanity are com- 
paratively neglected, and their minds indoctrinated from the 
school-room, the press, the platform, and even the pulpit, 
with self-degrading feelings and servile notions of their own 
inferiority ! Never till woman is estimated and educated as 
man's equal — the literal 'she-man' of the Hebrew — will the 
foundation of human influence become pure, or the bias of 
mind noble and lofty. 

" Oh that the ministers of religion would search the original 
records of God's v/ord in order to discover whether the general 
notions of society are not wrong on this subject, and whether 
God really intended woman to bury her gifts and talents, as 
she now does, with reference to the interests of His Church ! 
Oh that the Church generally would inquire whether narrow 
prejudice and lordly usurpation has not something to do with 
the circumscribed sphere of woman's religious labours, and 
whether much of the non-success of the Gospel is not attri- 
butable to the restrictions imposed upon the operations of the 
Holy Ghost in this as well as other particulars ! Would to 
God that the truth on this subject, ^o important to the inter- 
ests of future generations, were better understood and prac- 
tically recognised ! And it is because I feel that it is only the 
truth that needs to be understood, that I make this appeal to 
one who, I believe, loves truth for its own sake, and who, I 
know, possesses the ability to aid in its manifestation. 

" Forgive me, my dear sir, if I have spoken too boldly, I 
feel deeply on this subject, though God knows it is not on 
personal grounds. I love my sex. I desire above all earthly 
things their moral and intellectual elevation. I believe it 
would be the greatest boon to our race. And though I deeply 
feel my own inability to help it forward, I could not satisfy 
my conscience without making this humble attempt to enlist 
one whose noble sentiments on other subjects have so long 
been precious to my soul. 

" Allow me to say, in conclusion, that the views I have ex- 
pressed are as independent and distinct from any society or 
association of whatever name, as your own on the war ques- 
tion. I have no sympathy with those who would alter 
woman's domestic and social position from what is laid down 


in the Scriptures. This, I believe, God has clearly defined, 1853, 
and has given the reason for His conduct. And, therefore, I ^£^ ^4- 
submit, feeling that in wisdom and love, as well as in judg- 
ment, He has done it. But on the subject of equality of 
nature, I believe my convictions are true. 

" But I fear I have swelled this communication to an undue Equality 
length, though I realize how imperfectly I have expressed my- 
self. I hope, however, if there be anything worth your atten- 
tion, you will not despise it on account of its illogical expres- 
sion. Nay, I feel sure you will not. Neither, I trust, will you 
judge me harshly for withholding my name. I began this let- 
ter hesitating whether I should do so or not. But there being 
nothing in it of a personal character, or which can at all be 
influenced by the recognition of the critic, and it being the 
furthest from my thoughts to obtrude myself upon your notice, 
I shall feel at liberty to subscribe myself an attentive hearer, 
and I trust a mental and spiritual debtor to your ministry." 

The practical commentary on the opinions expressed ^ ^ '^/^-^ 
in this letter is indelibly written upon the whole life 
of Catherine Booth. Her views never altered. She 
was to the end of her days an unfailing, unflinching, 
uncompromising champion of woman's rights. There 
were few subjects that would so readily call forth the 
latent fire, as any reflection upon the capacities or 
relative position of woman. 

" I despise the attitude of the English press toward ^^^^ ^l' 
woman," she remarked one day. " Let a man make ^^e Press. 
a decent speech on any subject, and he is lauded to 
the skies. Whereas, however magnificent a speech 
a woman may make, all she gets is, 'Mrs. So-and-so 
delivered an earnest address!* 

"I don't speak for myself. My personal experi- 
ence, especially outside London, has been otherwise. 
But I do feel it keenly on behalf of womankind at 
large, that the man should be praised, while the 
woman, who has probably fought her way through 
inconceivably greater difficulties in order to achieve 

124 MRS. BOOTH. 

1853, the same result, should be passed over without a 

Grinding " I have tried to grind it into my boys that their 
^ ^boys!^^ sisters were just as intelligent and capable as them- 
selves. Jesus Christ's principle was to put woman 
on the same platform as man, although I am sorry to 
say His apostles did not always act up to it." 
No idea At the time, however, of which we are writing, 

of a pub- . 

lie min- nothing was further from Miss Mumford's mind than 
the idea of any public ministry for herself. The 
highest position to which she then aspired, and which 
seemed to be within the legitimate sphere of a wo- 
man's influence, was that of seconding her husband's 
public efforts in a private capacity. She says in one 
of her letters written to Mr. Booth at this time, that 
she was sending him some notes and extracts which 
she had made from various sources, and that she 
would continue to do this from time to time, adding, 
" Perhaps you will not object to receive something 
ortg'i?ial occasionally, provided that it is short." And 
luring SO we find her manufacturing sermons long before she 
sermons. ^^^^^^^ of delivering them. Nor had Mr. Booth 
any idea that his betrothed would ever be able so far 
to overcome her intense timidity as to speak in public. 
Mr. ^ Not that he was opposed to female ministry. There 
early had been a time when he had regarded it with preju- 

views on ^. ., . 1 -111 1 1 i- 

female dicc, having heard a lady preacher whose masculine 
mimstry. ^^^ dictatorial manner had grated upon his sense of 
decorum. Subsequently, however, to his arrival in 
London, Mr. Rabbitts had persuaded him to attend 
a service in which a Miss Buck had been announced 
to preach. The text chosen was : "The great trum- 
pet shall be blown, and they shall come which 
were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, and the 
outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the 


Lord in the holy mount at Jerusalem." — Isaiah .^^53. 
xxvii. 13. The sermon was a particularly powerful 
one ; and, although not fully converted to the principle, 
Mr. Booth left the chapel saying that he should never 
again oppose the practice, since Miss Buck had cer- 
tainly preached more effectively than three-fourths of 
the men he had ever listened to. 

Unconscious, however, as was Miss Mumford of Duties of 

. , , a minis- 

the public career that awaited her, she nevertheless ter'swife. 
fully estimated the privileges of the post she was 
about to occupy. She had long since seen the ne- 
cessity of setting a different example to the majority 
of ministers' wives with whom she was acquainted. 
She was amazed and pained at finding them living in 
such conformity with the world, rivalling the most 
fashionable members of their congregation in their 
modes of dress, and bringing up their children with 
almost the sole object of giving them a first-class 
education in order that they might obtain a high 
position in society. Diligent in their attendance 
at tea-parties, they were usually conspicuous by their 
absence at revival meetings, except perhaps on Sun- 
days. Miss Mumford felt that this was all the very 
opposite of her ideal of what a minister's wife should 
be. She could not bear anything approaching to 
lightness and frivolity. The tattling and gossip with views on 
which so many wasted their time were utterly repug- 
nant to her nature, and seemed calculated, in her 
opinion, to undo the effects of the ablest ministry. 

" Being so much alone in my youth," she remarks 
in after life, " and so thrown on my own thoughts and 
those of the mighty dead as expressed in books, has 
been helpful to me. Had I been given to gossip, and 
had there been people for me to gossip with, I should 
certainly never have accomplished what I did. I be- 



Age 24. 


lieve gossip is one of the greatest enemies to both 
mental and spiritual improvement. It encourages 
the mind to dwell on the superficial aspect of things 
and the passing trivialities of the hour. 

" There are very few people who have either the ca- 
pacity or inclination to converse on deep and impor- 
tant questions. And therefore, if you mix much with 
them, you are obliged to come to their level and talk 
their twaddle. This you cannot do, except perhaps 
now and then as a recreation, without its having a 
reflective evil effect on the mind. I should think that, 
as a rule, if we knew the lives of persons whose men- 
tal attainments are of a superior character, we should 
find that they are men and women who have been 
very much thrown upon their own resources, and cut 
off from others, either by choice or by their circum- 
stances. In confirmation of this, one has only to note 
Ordinary the ordinary conversation at a dinner table, or in a 
railway carriage, to observe how little substance there 
is in it. As a rule there is not a word spoken of an 
elevating or useful tendency in the whole conversa- 
tion, and indeed it is commonly the case that nothing 
has been said which might not just as well, or better, 
have been left unsaid." 

For a minister's wife to spend her life in such 
emptiness seemed to Miss Mumford very reprehen- 
sible, and so painfully conscientious was she in re- 
gard to this that even in her intercourse with Mr. 
Booth we find her striving continually to make both 
letters and conversation of as useful and practical a 
nature as possible. Again, it was a source of regret 
to her to find that so few occupying this position de- 
voted themselves to the study of such books as were 
calculated to improve their minds, and make them real 
help-meets to their husbands. The very idea of what 


A high 



is termed "light reading," for one who professed to 
have devoted her life to so sacred a cause, seemed to 
her unsuitable in the extreme. For novels in par- 
ticular she had an intense hatred. To read them 
seemed to her contrary to the profession of Christian- 
ity, and fraught with the most evil consequences. 

" I have every reason to be glad," she tells us at the 
end of her long career of usefulness, " that I never read 
a single novel in my young days. Indeed I could count 
on my fingers the number I have read throughout my 
life, and I do not believe that the little I gained from 
those I did read was worth the expenditure of time. 

" I carefully kept novels of every kind from my 
children, and am certain that many of the troubles 
which afflict and divide families have their origin in 
works of fiction. Not only are false and unnatural 
views of men and women and of life in general pre- 
sented, but sentiments are created in the minds of 
young people, which produce discontent with their 
surroundings, impatience of parental restraint, and a 
premature forcing of the social and sexual instincts, 
such as must cause untold harm. Not only so, but 
they lead to the formation of relationships and com- 
panionships that cannot but be injurious, while the 
mind is filled with pernicious and vain ambitions 
destined never to be fulfilled. 

" While I would not include every single novel un- 
der the same condemnation, yet no one acquainted 
with the subject will deny that even those works of 
fiction which are more particularly read as offering 
useful representations of historical events or of the 
social condition of various nations and periods, excite 
the imagination and create a taste for works of a sim- 
ilarly fictitious character, though written with a widely 
different object. It is, moreover, equally true that 


Age 24. 

strong ob- 
jection to 

Not worth 
the time. 

Wo7'ks of 

fiction the 

origin of 




a false 




Age 24. 

The secret 


The cul- 
of gifts. 

Acting on 

few readers of even the least baneful class of novels 
ever read them slowly and carefully enough to bene- 
fit much by the information they may contain." 

It would be difficult to imagine Mrs. Booth occupy- 
ing the sphere of usefulness to which she ultimately 
attained, had her time been frittered away in the or- 
dinary frivolities of society, or in the reading of light 
and sentimental literature. No amount of natural 
talent would have sufficed to counteract such influ- 
ences. The laws of nature are as irrevocably fixed in 
regard to our minds as in regard to our bodies. And 
we can no more systematically poison the one with 
bad literature and idle conversation without injurious 
effect, than we can the other with unwholesome or 
unsuitable food. And yet what multitudes of profess- 
ing Christians expose themselves and their children to 
such dangers, vainly hoping that in some way or 
other they may escape the consequences; only too 
often living to mourn the results of their folly with 
lamentations which are embittered by the knowledge 
that they were self-incurred, and might therefore 
have been avoided. 

Many, no doubt, who have listened to Mrs. Booth's 
addresses, or who have had the privilege of receiving 
her personal advice, have been surprised at the suc- 
cess with which in the midst of multiplied and cease- 
less labours she has reared a large family, and have 
wished that, even afar off, they could follow in her 
footsteps and emulate her example. 

To such it will be encouraging to discover, that 
while undoubtedly gifted by nature with special 
powers, it was to the persistent use she made of them 
and to her diligent improvement of them, that, under 
God, she owed her wonderful career. She laid down 
for her guidance certain principles, which are as 


strictly applicable to others as to herself, and having 1853, 
laid them down nothing would induce her to swerve ^^^ ^4- 
from them. She did that which was good, and did 
it systematically and perpetually, because it com- 
mended itself to her highest judgment. She avoided 
the appearance of evil, hating even the garment that 
was spotted with the flesh. And hence to the last 
she was able to say : " Be ye followers of me, even 
as I am of Christ." 

True, she had the five talents, and we may have a chance 
but the one. And yet there is no reason why we 
should not do with our one Avhat she did with her 
five, and then we may discover, as she did, that after 
all we possess other talents, the very existence of 
which we had never suspected. At least there will 
be the infinite and unalloyed satisfaction of being 
able to offer to our Master at His coming His own 
with usury, 



A kaleid- 
oscope of 

Art in- 
ferior to 




Nature abounds in contrasts. Indeed this con- 
stitutes its chief charm. Earth and sky, land and 
sea, mountain and valley, light and darkness, sun- 
shine and shadow, provide a kaleidoscope of change 
and dissipate the monotony that would otherwise 
tarnish God's most perfect works. The calm and the 
terrific in nature are often linked together. Above 
the fertile plains and tranquil bay of Naples tower 
the frowning summits of Vesuvius, belching forth 
dark columns of smoke by day and lurid flames by 
night. The serenity of the one adds to the grandeur 
of the other. 

With the most perfect creations of man's art and 
genius it is otherwise. The best that he can do is to 
imitate either some fraction of the grand original, or 
the product of another's brain. And even in imitat- 
ing he seldom equals and often mars the very object 
he admires. There is too much of the scale and yard- 
measure about his efforts. The mind is wearied with 
the dull sameness and consequent tameness of the 
view. Contrast, for instance, the unsightly wilder- 
ness of bricks, of streets and pavements and ungainly 
chimney-pots, which constitute a city, with the bril- 
liant verdure and variety of a country landscape. 

And so with human beings ; while the world is full 
of imitations, there are but few originals. The whole 



tendency of modern education is to put all humanity 1853. 
into a sort of Procrustes' bed, in which, if there be ^® ^4* 
room for the biggest head, it is at the sacrifice of the 
noblest heart, and if mental culture is afforded un- 
limited space, both spirituality and individuality are 
mercilessly lopped off. Amidst the millions that com- 
pose mankind, how rarely do we find a genuine un- 
alloyed child of nature, and how refreshing is the 
discovery when it is made ! 

Such an one was Catherine Mumford. Happily she Giving 
had escaped the ruthless shears of conventionality to nature. 
which so often amputate the limbs in their anxiety to 
clip the wool that grows on them.. While developing 
her mental powers she had given superior scope to 
the moral and Divine. Hence nature had full play, 
and produced the same striking contrasts as in the in- 
animate world. There was robustness and vigour 
without angularity, firm conviction without dogmat- vigorous 
ism, intellectual power combined with feminine grace angular. 
and tenderness. She was a good hater; she abhorred 
that which was evil, and fearlessly denounced it, be 
the consequences what they might. For the Phari- 
sees she had little patience, while over publicans and 
sinners she yearned with a sympathy and compassion 
that knew no bounds. There was an originality and 
muscularity, so to speak, about her religion, very 
different from the sickening sentimentality which 
often passes by the name. 

A striking illustration of this occurred during the c^MrTsft^'^ 
present period, and is deserving of something more 
than a passing notice, inasmuch as it furnishes an op- 
portunity for the expression of her views on the im- 
portant subject of courtship and marriage. 

Among the circle of her personal friends was a 
lady, to whom she was very much attached, and who 



1853. had been engaged for some years to a minister, So- 
^^ ^* cially she was his equal, while her talents and piety 
admirably fitted her for the position she was to occupy. 
It so happened, however, that in the neighbourhood 
there resided a wealthy family, at whose house he be- 
came a frequent visitor. Finding there was an op- 
portunity for bettering his worldly interests he basely 
A broken broke off his engagement, adding insult to injury by 

engage- i-,- i- iiT-i ■, -, -, 

ment. alleging as his reason that he did not and could not 
love her. Soon afterward, however, it became known 
that he was engaged to a daughter of the family re- 
ferred to. Miss Mumford was indignant at the heart- 
less treatment of her friend, whose sorrow she entered 
into as though it had been her own. To her the vows 
of betrothal were as sacred as those of marriage, es- 
pecially when, as in this case, they had not only been 
entered upon with deliberation, but had extended over 
a considerable space of time. The motives which 
had prompted the desertion seemed to her mean and 
contemptible in the extreme. That a true heart 
should be lacerated, its confidence betrayed, and its 
happiness extinguished with such wanton cruelty, and 
this by one who professed to be a minister of Christ, 
seemed to her incapable of defence or palliation. 
Referring to the episode in a letter written at the 
time she says: 

The voivs 


" I received a distracted, heart-rending letter last week from 

Miss , and wrote one of four sheets in reply. Poor 

dear girl, I do feel for her! She will, in spite of all I can say, 
blame herself and continue to look at the mean villain as if he 
were a treasure. Oh, I cannot tell you how I loathe him now 
she has told me all, and it does not exalt her in my esteem 
that she can manifest a willingness to be the slave of a man 
who has told her he did not love her ! But I make every allow- 
ance for her state of mind. 

" She seems to regard me with uncommon affection, and 


thinks my letters I don't know what. Poor girl, I wish she 
could rise above it ! As for him, he has thrown away a loving 
heart and superior mind to grasp a little gold, and he will 
lose both, so surely has his own wickedness corrected him ! 
He seems to fear the exposure. He has resigned office and says 
he M'ill emigrate. I should hope he will ! He ought to be 
sent out of the country free of expense ! What can we think 
of a young man, who would go in and out of a house, where 
he saw he was making a false impression on the mind of a 
lady, without giving her any intimation that he was engaged? 
What sort of love could he feel for the professed object of his 
choice? What kind of notions would he entertain of manly 
honour? What species of religion could he possess, who would 
so coolly sacrifice honour and humanity and one who loved 
him, in order to possess himself of a little gold?" 

It was not that Miss Mumford doubted that many 
rashly formed engagements would better be cancelled 
rather than consummated in a marriage which would 
mean a life of prolonged misery to both parties. But 
in such cases she believed that whatever action was 
taken should be by mutual consent, or at least with 
the tenderest consideration for the feelings of each 

"Who can wonder," she remarked in later life, 
"that marriage is so often a failure, when we observe 
the ridiculous way in which courtship is commonly 
carried on? Would not ajiy partnership result disas- 
trously that was entered into in so blind and senseless 
a fashion ? 

" Perhaps the greatest evil of all is Jiurry. Young 
people do not allow themselves time to know each 
other before an engagement is formed. They should 
take time, and make opportunities for acquainting 
themselves with each other's character, disposition, 
and peculiarities before coming to a decision. This 
is the great point. They should on no account com- 
mit themselves until they are fully satisfied in their 

Age 24. 

able en- 

The cause 
of un- 

The evil 
of hurrij. 



Age 24. 

Acting on 

ality of 




own minds, assured that if they have a doubt before- 
hand it generally increases afterward. I am con- 
vinced that this is where thousands make shipwreck, 
and mourn the consequences all their lives. 

" Then again, every courtship ought to be based on 
certain definite principles. This, too, is a fruitful 
cause of mistake and misery. Very few have a defi- 
nite idea as to what they want in a partner, and hence 
they do not look for it. They simply go about the 
matter in a haphazard sort of fashion, and jump into 
an alliance upon the first drawings of mere natural 
feeling, regardless of the laws which govern such 

" In the first place, each of the parties ought to be 
satisfied that there are to be found in the other such 
qualities as would make them friends if they were of 
the same sex. In other words, there should be a con- 
geniality and compatibility of temperament. For 
instance, it must be a fatal error, fraught with per- 
petual misery, for a man who has mental gifts and 
high aspirations to marry a woman who is only fit to 
be a mere drudge ; or for a woman of refinement and 
ability to marry a man who is good for nothing better 
than to follow the plough, or look after a machine. 
And yet, how many seek for a mere bread-winner, or 
a housekeeper, rather than for a friend, a counsellor 
and companion. Unhappy marriages are usually the 
consequences of too great a disparity of mind, age, 
temperament, training, or antecedents. 

" As quite a young girl I early made up my mind 
to certain qualifications which I regarded as indispen- 
sable to the forming of any engagement. 

" In the first place, I was determined that his re- 
ligious views must coincide with mine. He must be 
a sincere Christian; not a nominal one, or a mere church 


member, but truly converted to God. It is probably 1853, 
not too much to say, that so far as professedly relig- ^^ ^^' 
ious people are concerned, three-fourths of the matri- 
monial misery endured is brought upon themselves 
by the neglect of this principle. Those who do, at 
least in a measure, love God and try to serve Him, 
form alliances with those who have no regard for His 
laws, and who practically, if not avowedly, live as 
though He had no existence. Marriage is a Divine 
institution, and in order to ensure at any rate the 
highest and most lasting happiness, the persons who 
enter into it must first of all themselves be in the 
Divine plan. For if a man or woman be not able to 
restrain and govern their own natures, how can they 
reasonably expect to control the nature of another? 
If his or her being is not in harmony with itself, how 
can it be in harmony with that of anybody else ? 

" Thousands of Christians, women especially, have a sad ex- 
proved by bitter experience that neither money, po- p^^^^^^^- 
sition, nor any other worldly advantage has availed 
to prevent the punishment that invariably attends 
disobedience to the command, ' Be not unequally yoked 
together with unbelievers.' 

" The second essential which I resolved upon was Simiiar- 

^ty of 
that he should be a man of sense. I knew that I charac- 

could never respect a fool, or one much weaker men- 
tally than myself. Many imagine that because a 
person is converted, that is all that is required. This 
is a great mistake. There ought to be a similarity 
or congeniality of character as well as of grace. As 
a dear old man, whom I often quote, once said, 'When 
thou choosest a companion for life, choose one with 
whom thou couldst live without grace, lest he lose it!' 

" The third essential consisted of oneness of views Oneness 


and tastes, any idea of lordship or ownership being 



Age 24. 

The law 
of love. 


give and 


No physi- 
cal repug- 

An ab- 
from con- 


lost in love. There can be no doubt that Jesus Christ 
intended, by making love the law of marriage, to re- 
store woman to the position God intended her to oc- 
cupy, as also to destroy the curse of the fall, which 
man by dint of his merely superior physical strength 
and advantageous position had magnified, if not really 
to a large extent manufactured. Of course there 
must and will be mutual yielding wherever there is 
proper love, because it is a pleasure and a joy to yield 
our own wills to those for whom we have real affection, 
whenever it can be done with an approving con- 
science. This is just as true with regard to man as 
to woman, and if we have never proved it individually 
during married life, most of us have had abundant 
evidence of it at any rate during courting days. 

" For the same reason neither party should attempt 
to force an alliance where there exists a physical re- 
pugnance. Natural instinct in this respect is usually 
too strong for reason, and asserts itself in after life 
in such a way as to make both supremely miserable, 
although, on the other hand, nothing can be more 
absurd than a union founded on attractions of a mere 
physical character, or on the more showy and shallow 
mental accomplishments that usually first strike the 
eye of a stranger. 

" Another resolution that I made was that I would 
never marry a man who was not a total abstainer, and 
this from conviction, and not merely in order to grat- 
ify me. 

" Besides these things, which I looked upon as be- 
ing absolutely essential, I had, like most people, 
certain preferences. The first was that the object of 
my choice should be a minister, feeling that as his 
wife I could occupy the highest possible sphere of 
Christian usefulness. Then I very much desired 

Mr. Mumford. 


that he should be dark and tall, and had a special 1853, 
liking for the name 'William.' Singularly enough, in 
adhering to my essentials, my fancies were also grati- 
fied, and in my case the promise was certainly fulfilled, 
' Delight thyself in the Lord and He shall give thee 
the desires of thy heart. ' 

" There were also certain rules which I formulated -Rw'^s for 

. . married 

for my married life, before I was married or even en- life. 
gaged. I have carried them out ever since my wed- 
ding day, and the experience of all these years has 
abundantly demonstrated their value. 

" The first was, never to have any secrets from my ^Vo 
husband in anything that affected our mutual relation- secret^. 
ship, or the interests of the family. The confidence 
of others in spiritual matters I did not consider as 
coming under this category, but as being the secrets 
of others, and therefore not my property. 

" The second rule was, never to have two purses, thus One 
avoiding even the temptation of having any secrets 
of a domestic character. 

" My third principle was that, in matters where there Unity of 
was any difference of opinion, I would show my hus- 
band my views and the reasons on which they were 
based, and try to convince in favour of my way of 
looking at the subject. This generally resulted either 
in his being converted to my views, or in my being 
converted to his, either result securing unity of 
thought and action. 

" My fourth rule was, in cases of difference of opin- No argu- 

,- 1 1 -1 1 T "'9' before 

ion never to argue m the presence of the children. I the 
thought it better even to submit at the time to what 
I might consider as mistaken judgment, rather than 
have a controversy before them. But of course 
when such occasions arose, I took the first opportunity 
for arguing the matter out. My subsequent experi- 


138 MRS. BOOTH. 

1853, ence has abundantly proved to me the wisdom of this 
Age 24. 


The How God blessed a union formed on such rational 

principles, and in such obvious harmony with His 
highest designs, the following narrative will in some 
degree disclose. The value, too, of acting on principle 
rather than according to the dictates of mere emotion, 
or the passing influences of the hour, has been strik- 
ingly manifested, not only in Mrs. Booth's own case, 
but in the happy marriages of her children. And the 
world has thus been furnished with object-lessons of 
what unions so entered upon may accomplish. In 
fulfilling the highest purposes of God, none can fail to 
advance their own best interests, whilst they extract 
from their sorrows that peculiar sting, the realisation 
that they have been self-inflicted. 



General Booth as the first Salvation Army Cap- The first 
tain in charge of his first Corps is too tempting a pic- ^^^rmy^ 
ture to pass by. Indeed we can hardly do justice to Captain. 
the early days of his future Lieutenant-for-life with- 
out some description of the Captain in this his first 
independent command. To Salvationists all over the 
world, and in all ages, the story of the early struggles 
and remarkable achievements of the founders of the 
movement must ever possess a peculiar charm. And 
although our narrative, strictly speaking, concerns but 
one, nevertheless the lives of both are henceforth so 
intertwined, that it becomes necessary to refer to the 
one in describing the other. 

The Reformers having broken loose from the au- ^o cen- 

^ tral con- 

thority of the Wesleyan Conference, without having troi. 
formed any central government of their own, each 
circuit, like Israel of old, did very much what seemed 
good in their own eyes. Hence, so far as any supe- 
rior authority was concerned, Mr. Booth found him- 
self practically unfettered. From the leading mem- 
bers of his flock he had met with, as we have already 
learned, an unusually warm-hearted reception. They 
were justly proud of his talents, and still more grat- 
ified with his success. Wherever he went souls were 
saved. Indeed, from the first, he could not tolerate afl^uits. 
a ministry destitute of results, and felt as if some- 



1853, thing must be wrong unless there were penitents at 
^^ ^^' every meeting. The aim of all his services was to 
force his hearers to immediate decision on the life- 
and-death subjects affecting their eternal welfare. 
The example of Caughey, the teachings of Finney, 
the life and writings of John Wesley, and the labours 
of other successful evangelists were burnt in upon his 
soul. He realised that the same Holy Spirit which had 
inspired them was able through him to accomplish 
similar results. And before long his most sanguine 
expectations were more than realised. 
Extracts r^^ g-ive a detailed account of Mr. Booth's labours 

from his o 

earliest {^ Spaldingf must be reserved for some future histo- 

joiirnal. ^ ^ 

rian, but a few extracts from his earliest journal will 
be read with interest, and must serve as a specimen 
of the rest : 

" 3d November, 1853. — I have to-day given myself afresh to 
God. On my knees I have been promising Him that if He will 
help me, I will aim only at souls, and live and die for their 
salvation. 1 feel a delightful and soul-cheering victory over 
what has often been of late very severe temptation. 

"Wednesday, 12th November, 1853.— Two souls weeping 
very bitterly. I never saw persons in deeper distress. From 
about eight until half-past ten they wept incessantly on ac- 
count of their sins. 

"Sunday, i6th November. — In the morning very large 
congregation. Very little liberty, but good was done, as I 
afterward learned. 

" Evening. — Liberty in preaching. Fourteen persons came 
forward, many, if not all, of whom found the Saviour. Praise 
the Lord !" 

Bringing Mr. Booth's custom was to invite the anxious to 

JiouhTo a come forward to the communion-rail, thus publicly 

decision, signifying their desire to serve God. This custom 

has .since been followed in the Salvation Army with 

glorious results, and has no doubt brought thousands 


to a definite decision, who would otherwise have' 1853, 
deferred the matter, and thus in many instances have ^^ ^^' 
failed to come to the point at all. 

"Monday. — Preaching at Spalding. Good congregation. 
Four came forward, two of whom professed to find Jesus. I 
exerted myself very much in the prayer-meeting, and felt 
very deeply. L prayed very earnestly over an old man, who 
had been a backslider seven years. He cried a great deal and 
prayed, 'O Lord, if Thou canst wash a heart as black as 
hell, save me!' By exerting myself so much I became very 
ill, and could not leave the house for the rest of the week. 

Sunday, 23d November. — I started from home rather un- 
well. Mr. Shadford begged me to tell the people I was ill, 
and said they would readily understand it by the sight of my 
haggard appearance. I was planned at Donnington for morn- 
ing and night and Swineshead Bridge for the afternoon. At 
night the Lord helped me to preach, and fourteen came out. 
Many more sought Jesus, but fourteen names were taken as Fourteen 
having found Him. It was indeed a very precious meeting — mJ^cy 
a melting, moving time. May God keep them faithful ! 

" Monday, Swineshead Bridge. — Here I was to preach three 
nights, with a view to promoting a revival. Many things 
seemed against us and our project, but the Lord was for us. 
After the preaching, two came out for mercy, and the Lord 
saved them both. This raised our faith and cheered our 
spirits, especially as there were several more in distress. 

"Tuesday. — Congregation better. The news had flown 
that the Lord was saving, and this seldom fails to bring a 
crowd. The word of the Lord was with power, and six cried 
for mercy. A glorious meeting we had. I determined to 
stop the rest of the week at the earnest solicitation of the 

In a later entry Mr. Booth adds : 

" During the remainder of the time many more sought sal- The best 
vation. I shall always meditate with pleasure on the week ^^^ 
I spent at Swineshead Bridge. I prayed and preached with 
more of the expectation of faith, and saw greater success than 
I ever saw in a week before during my history. 

"Friday, 19th December. — Received a letter from Mr. 



1 853, 
Age 24. 


six for 

Wiggles worth, solicitor, of Donnington, requesting me to 
spend the ensuing week at Caistor, a small town about twenty- 
miles south of Hull, he promising to take my appointments 
in my own circuit. To this I consented. 

" Saturday, 20th December. — I arrived at Caistor about 4 p.m. 
My coming was altogether unexpected, but the bellman was 
sent round the town, and the friends did all they could to 
make it known. 

" Sunday. — In the morning we had a salvation meeting, and 
I oifered many reasons why the members should join me in 
seeking a revival in Caistor. We knelt and gave ourselves 
afresh to God. 

"Afternoon. — The place was crowded. The singing was 
delightful. The people wept, and conviction seized many 
hearts, which ended in conversion. 

" Night. — One of the most glorious services I ever held. I 
did not preach with much liberty, but there was power and 
feeling, and in the prayer-meeting many cried for salvation. 

" Every night the place was full, sometimes densely crowded. 
Thirty-six found salvation. Among others the following was 
an interesting case : Mr. Joseph Wigglesworth, the brother of 
the gentleman who prevailed on me to come to Caistor, at- 
tended the morning meeting. I found he was then deeply 
wrought upon. He came in the afternoon and wept. At 
night I spoke to him. He had for years enjoyed the Methodist 
privileges — nay, from infancy he had been blessed with a 
religious training. Yet he was unsaved, and could never be 
prevailed upon to come to a prayer-meeting. I talked to him 
about the importance of decision. He broke down, came 
boldly to the penitent-form, and with many tears and prayers, 
sought and obtained forgiveness. It was a splendid case and 
did us all good." 

A month later Mr. Booth visited Caistor a second 
time, and writes: 

A second 

" I left Spalding for Caistor, where I had promised to spend 
another week. The friends were well, and very pleased to 
see me. 

" Sunday. — We held in the morning a precious meeting. 
Only two out of the thirty-six, who had found the Lord during 



Age 24. 

Seventy - 
six more. 

my previous visit, had gone back to the beggarly elements of 
the world. 

" Afternoon and evening I preached in the Independent 
chapel, which had long been closed. The many fears we 
had indulged with regard to the congregation were dispersed 
when we saw it comfortably filled in the afternoon. In the 
evening we had a most triumphant meeting. God was with 
us eminently. I at once promised to stay the whole of the 

" I wrote a bill which we got printed and taken to every 
house in Caistor and the surrounding villages. The result 
was a glorious harvest. Seventy-six were saved during the 
week, and I only left them under a promise to return the next 
week but one. The whole town was in a ferment. 

"Saturday, February 7th, Caistor. — Returned here for an- 
other week. 

" Sunday. — Not so successful, although the congregations 
were overflowing. 

" Monday night. — A good time and many saved. 

"Friday. — Every night many souls saved. To-night the 
influence was overwhelming. The parting with this dear 
people was very painful. I had never experienced anything 
approaching to the success with which God crowned my 
labors here ; I found them a poor, despised people, meeting in 
an old upper room, with about thirty-five members, and I left 
them with over two hundred members in a good roomy 
chapel, full of spirits, and very many precious souls all over 
the town under deep conviction. May God take care of them 
and guide them safe to Heaven, and may I meet them there !" 

But although his labours were attended with such The 

ii-i-i 11 -i-inT- T.T r 1 Methodist 

multiplied success, nevertheless both Miss Mum ford New Con- 
and Mr. Booth felt that it was high time either for '^^^"^^ 
the Reform movement to become crystallised into a 
united organisation of its own, with a distinctive gov- 
ernment whose authority would be acknowledged by 
all, or, failing this, that it would be necessary for Mr. 
Booth to attach himself to some church which an- 
swered to this description. It so happened that at 
this very period he became acquainted with the Meth- 

.4 re- 



Age 24. 

Its origin. 



The burn- 
ing ques- 


odist New Connexion, which to his mind appeared 
admirably fitted to the requirements of the Reform- 
ers, combining a liberal government with Wesleyan 
doctrine. Here was the very opportunity for which 
Mr. Booth had so long looked, and he conceived the 
bold idea of not only joining them himself but of urg- 
ing the entire body to do the same. 

The Methodist New Connexion is the first-born of 
the numerous Wesleyan progeny, to which the parent 
organisation gave birth after the death of its founder 
in 1 79 1. It is no small testimony to the creative gen- 
ius of Wesley that each member of the family is 
almost a facsimile of the rest. Indeed the doctrines 
are identically those which he formulated. His rich 
hymnology and peculiar nomenclature have also been 
preserved intact. It has only been on questions of 
church government, similar to those which gave rise 
to the Reform agitation, that differences of opinion 
and consequent divisions have arisen. Indeed in 
not a few instances it would puzzle any outsider, not 
thoroughly versed in all the subtle distinctions of 
Methodistic polity, to say wherein the various 
branches of that body differ, or to which the palm of 
superiority may fairly be ascribed. 

During the last few years there has been a strongly 
marked tendency to still further assimilate, and it 
seems within the range of possibility that the union 
of the Methodist bodies which has already taken place 
in Canada may be succeeded by a world-wide con- 
solidation, which would doubtless strengthen the po- 
sition of Wesleyanism and place it numerically at the 
head of Protestant Christendom, although historically 
of so recent origin. It would certainly be a remark- 
able coincidence if such a reunion were based, as 
seems not improbable, on the very principles which 



led to the secession of 1791. The gulf which divided 
the orthodox party from the dissentients then has 
since been bridged by the concession of nearly every- 
thing which was at that time refused. 

The links which bound John Wesley's followers 
to the Church of England have long since been 
broken. At the time of which we speak, their po- 
sition resembled very closely the present semi- 
independence of the various missionary societies, save 
that the national clergy were then far less tolerant of 
anything out of the beaten track than they are now. 
How far the germs of ultimate separation exist in 
these more recent developments of Church activity 
would form an interesting subject for speculation, but 
for this we have neither time nor space. 

The question, as it concerned John Wesley's or- 
ganisation, had even during his lifetime given rise to 
burning discussions. He had, however, set his face 
like a flint against all proposals for separiation. His 
" travelling preacher" had not been allowed to admin- 
ister the sacraments. Meetings were not held during 
the hours of " Divine service" in the national church. 
And Wesley discouraged generally the assumption of 
ministerial titles, or priestly functions. 

On this and other questions the Annual Conference 
of Preachers, which had been bound together hitherto 
by his strong personality, became divided after his 
death. Some were desirous of adhering rigidly to 
their venerated founder's policy, while others con- 
tended for the introduction of such alterations as 
might from time to time appear advisable. 

Among the most prominent of the latter party was 
a young preacher- named Alexander Kilham, who 
spoke strongly on behalf of reform, publishing sev- 
eral pamphlets on the subject. The principal changes 

Age 24. 


to separa- 

ences of 


146 MRS. BOOTH. 

1853, which he advocated were, that the travelling preachers 
^^ ^^' should be authorised to administer the sacraments, 
and that the laity should have equal power with the 
ministry in the government of the organisation. He 
supported his arguments by casting serious reflections 
on the existing management of affairs, and by alleging 
that abuses had already arisen, which he believed 
could only be effectually dealt with by introducing 
delegates from the laity both into the Annual Confer- 
ence and into the district meetings. 

His ex- Por these publications Kilham wa§ tried and ex- 

pelled in 1796. This led to his publishing a monthly 

pamphlet which was styled the MctJwdist Monitor, and 
which developed two years later into the Methodist Nciu 
Connexion Magazine, for the purpose of advocating 
his views. Mr. Kilham still nourished a hope that 
the Conference would ultimately grant the concessions 
for which he and his friends had asked. But in this 
he was disappointed, and it soon became clear that 
nothing further was to be expected, especially in re- 
gard to the question of lay representation. 
Forma- The first step taken toward a separation was the 
thTNew purchase of Ebenezer Chapel in Leeds from the Bap- 
nexion. tists. This was opened in May, 1797, Mr. Kilham 
conducting the services. The Conference met in 
July, when a final, but abortive, effort was made to 
induce them to reconsider their decision. The fail- 
ure of this attempt led to the resignation of three 
more ministers, who united with Mr. Kilham and a 
few other friends at Ebenezer Chapel in establishing 
the New Connexion. The outlines of a constitution 
were agreed upon in accordance with the views ad- 
vocated by Mr. Kilham, who became the secretary of 
the organisation, while the Rev. Thorn, one of the 
dissentient ministers, was elected its first president. 


The principle of lay representation round which 1853, 
the controversy most fiercely raged, and which be- ^^ ^'^' 
came the chief plank in the platform of the New Con- Lay rep- 
nexion, has since beeil adopted with certain modifica- ^^uon? 
tions by every branch of Wesleyanism, and it seems 
not unlikely that if there ever should be a general 
amalgamation, it will take place on the lines laid down 
by this earliest reform movement. One is tempted 
to speculate as to the possible history of a united 
Methodism during the past hundred years, had the 
suggestions of young Kilham been at the outset 
adopted. But perhaps the Society was not then pre- 
pared for changes of so radical a character. 

Such was the origin of the organisation with which Position 
Mr. Booth proposed that the Reformers should iden- jhiencT'of 
tify themselves. It was not then, nor is it now, one ^ ment^^' 
of the most numerically important branches of the 
Methodist family. Its position, however, should not be 
estimated by this, so much as by the influence it exer- 
cised in shaping the subsequent policy both of the 
parent stock and of the younger branches of the family, 
occupying as it has continued from the first to do a 
medium position between the extreme conservatism 
of the former and the ultra-radicalism of some mem- 
bers of the latter. 

To amalgamate the Reformers with this church Proposed 

-, 1 . - . - . . amalffa- 

seemed to him preierable to constituting a separate mation of 
organisation of their own, since they would obtain all formers. 
the privileges which had been denied them by the 
parent church, without having to encounter the delay 
and difficulties which must necessarily attend the op- 
posite course. To manufacture a strong government 
out of elements so discordant, so heterogeneous and 
so unadhesive would, he felt, be extremely difficult, us ad- 
Whereas if the fragments were thrown into a pot ^"*^'"9'^«- 



Age 24. 

His desire 
to termi- 
nate the 

The sub- 

which had already some cohesion of its own, the 
law-abiding portions could be melted down, so to 
speak, into one consistent mass, while the disorderly 
elements could more easily be eliminated, and would 
at any rate be less likely to do harm. Besides, why 
waste time over building up a facsimile of what already 
existed, when the original combined at the same time 
both the stability and elasticity which seemed de- 
sirable ? 

Above all, Mr. Booth longed to put an end to the 
interminable disputations and argumentations which 
seemed to be fast sapping the vitality and spirituality 
of the Reformers. How could souls be saved under 
such conditions, and how could those who were saved 
be made into saints and soldiers, if, instead of the 
sincere milk of the word, they were fed upon dry 
discussions, or if when they cried for bread, they were 
offered a barren theory ? 

Once decided as to the right course of action, it only 
remained to settle the modus operandi. The principal 
organ of the Reformers was, as has been already men- 
tioned, the Wcshyan Times. The subject was accord- 
ingly broached by Mr. Booth in its columns, and some 
correspondence ensued. Nor were the leaders of the 
New Connexion slow to avail themselves of this fa- 
vourable opportunity. During the Annual Conference, 
which held its sitting in May, at Longton, in the 
Staffordshire Potteries, the following resolution was 
adopted and published in the Wesleyan Times: 

The reso- 

by the 
New Con- 

" That the Conference feels deeply concerned at the un- 
happy differences which have so long prevailed in the 
Wesleyan family, and would rejoice to see the brethren who 
are contending for a more liberal system of Church govern- 
ment, directing their attention to some practical course, 
whereby they may attain that object, and thus restore peace 


and prosperity to the Methodist bodies. That the Conference 1853, 
has too much sympathy with all Christians, who hold the same ^S^ 24, 
doctrines and entertain similar views of Church government 
with itself, to be indifferent to their welfare, and having 
taken no part in the recent struggle, it would rejoice at some 
healing measure being adopted, whereby friendly relations 
might be brought about between the parties. Where that 
cannot be accomplished, to those who desire to unite with us 
on the principles and practice of the Connexion, the Confer- 
ence would give the right hand of fellowship." * 

In the following year the secretary for the Reform Further 
Committee opened up communications with the presi- ^^7ions' 
dent of the Methodist New Connexion as to the pos- 
sibility of amalgamating the two bodies. The latter 
replied that they would be glad to consider any pro- 
posals for doing so on the basis of their own consti- 
tution, but declined to make any alterations in it, to 
suit the more democratic tastes of the Reformers. 
Hence the negotiations fell through, and although a fail 
considerable number of the Reform societies attached ' **'''"S'''- 
themselves to the Connexion, the bulk of that body 
united themselves to the Wesleyan Methodist Asso- 
ciation, which assumed the name of the " United The u. m. 

F. c 
Methodist Free Churches," adhering as usual to the 

Wesleyan formula of doctrine, but adopting, as the 
name signified, a more congregational form of govern- 
ment. Meanwhile Mr. Booth had opened up a cor- 
respondence with Dr. Cooke, one of the leading 
ministers, and an ex-president of the New Connexion, 
from whom he received the following reply : 

"3 Crescent, Albany Road, May 28th, 1853. 
" My Dear Sir: — Your favour found me at the Conference -f '^'^^T, 
from which I am but just returned, and being now almost Cooke. 
overwhelmed with the pressure of duties prior to the publica- 
tion of our minutes, I can command time to answer only one 

*Wesleyati Times, 30th May, 1853. p. 340. 

156 MRS. BOOTH. 

1853, portion of your letter. I think it not unlikely that a formal 
Age 24, application from yovi to our president for the year, Rev. J. 
Hudson, of Huddersfield, would result in your reception as a 
minister in our body. At the same time the usage of four 
years' probation would undoubtedly be applied to you, just 
as strictly as it is to those candidates who are chosen from our 
own ranks, and who are well known to us. I fully sympathise 
with your views and feelings as to the desirableness of a 
union of the Reformers with our body. It would present to 
them a home of peace and rational, scriptural freedom, with 
institutions of various kinds already established and in pros- 
perous operation. 

" Praying that the Lord may direct and prosper you, I am, 
dear sir, 

" Yours in haste, but very respectfully, 

" William Cooke." 

Mr. Booth Having- prepared the way by a careful study of the 

addresses a r r j j j 

hiscir- New Connexion system, and by getting into touch 
''^" ' with some of its leading spirits, Mr. Booth now 
broached the subject at the quarterly meeting of the 
office-bearers of his own circuit, proposing that, with- 
out waiting for the action of the entire body, they 
should themselves take immediate measures for amal- 
gamation. Although strongly supported by some of 
but fails the most influential persons present, the motion was 

to carry -r ir ' 

thejH and lost, and failing to carry his people with him, Mr. 

resolves to o ^ x i 

go over Booth announced to them his resolution to go over 


Hispeopie This dccisiou was received by his people with un- 

remon- ... 

strate. feigned regret, and many efforts were put forth to 

induce him to remain. He was offered the privilege 

of immediate marriage, together with a furnished 

home, and a horse, and a trap to enable him to visit 

distant places. To this pressure he might have 

Miss yielded, had not Miss Mumford thrown her influence 

f^a's i^t*^ the opposite scale. The inviting career of a 

firmness, couutry parsou, she argued, combined though it might 


be with the tempting prospect of domestic bliss, would 1853, 
not alter the fact that the time so spent would prob- ^^ '** 
ably be thrown away, and that he would be compelled 
to do in the end what could more easily and profit- 
ably be done now. 

There was another course open to Mr. Booth, which Another 
had for him special attractions, and which not a few 
of his friends strongly urged upon him, and that was 
to work as a revival preacher, independently of all 
organisations. Himself born and cradled in a revival, 
with the stirring examples of Caughey and Finney 
fresh in his mind, he had a strong leaning to a career 
so much in accordance with his tastes and aspirations. 
He was, however, satisfied that even as an evangelist 
his work would be of a more permanent character, 
and his converts better looked after, if he laboured 
in connexion with some already established organisa- 
tion, rather than by playing the part of a religious 
free-lance. Besides, there would be the assurance, 
in joining the New Connexion, of a renewal for at 
least some few months of his much-interrupted 

Miss Mumford strongly favoured this view of the Decides to 
matter, and it was accordingly settled that early in Neiv^Con- 
1854 he should enter the Methodist New Connexion, »«^*'«''- 
studying for six months under Dr. Cooke's personal 
supervision, and offering himself for their ministry 
at the ensuing Conference, when there was every 
reason to believe he would be accepted. 



The con- 

A firm, be- 
liever in 
tive effort. 

His sub- 

writes to 

The decision to enter the New Connexion had 
scarcely been arrived at, when the revivals at Swines- 
head Bridge and Caistor occurred, leading to a re- 
newal of the vexed question as to the evangelistic 
sphere. Indeed, but for the fact that he had pledged 
his word, and that Miss Mumford was so convinced 
as to the wisdom of the step, Mr. Booth would in all 
probability have launched forth on an itinerant career. 
Not that he favoured a mere roving life. On the 
contrary, he has always been a firm believer in con- 
secutive effort. But observing the tendency of the 
church to stagnation, he thought the evil might be 
largely remedied by visiting the various centres, and 
holding a protracted series of meetings, thus ingather- 
ing a multitude of souls, and infusing a spirit of zeal 
and enterprise among Christians. 

Forty years have passed since first his heart was 
drawn toward such work. Standing in the sunset of 
a triumphant career, his views remain unchanged, 
and although the oversight of the vast organisation, 
which, under God, he has raised up, interferes with 
a renewal of similar toil, he is comforted in the fact 
that he has created for other labourers a like op- 
portunity all over the world. 

At the time, however, of which we write, the con- 
troversy was of a perplexing character, as may be 
gathered from the following letters : 



HoLBEACH, January, 1854. 

" My Dearest Kate: — The plot thickens, and I hesitate not 
to tell you that I fear, and fear much, that I am going wrong. 

" Yesterday I received a letter asking me if I would consent 
to come to the Hinde Street Circuit (London Reformers), 
salary ^100 per year. I have also heard that the committee 
in London are about to make me an offer. I would give a 
great deal to be satisfied as to the right path, and gladly 
would I walk it whether he^e or there. 

" You see, my dearest, it is certainly enough to make a 
fellow think and tremble. Here I am at present in a circuit 
numbering 780 members, with an increase for the year of 
nearly two hundred. Am invited to another with near a thou- 
sand. And yet I am going to join a church with but 150 
members in London, and a majority of circuits with but a 
similar number. 

" I fear that with all my cautiousness on this subject I shall 
regret it. Send me a kind letter to reach me on Friday. 
Bless you, a thousand times! My present intention is to tear 
myself away from all and everything, and persevere in the 
path I have chosen. They reckon it down here the maddest, 
wildest, most premature and hasty step that ever they knew 
a saved man to take. 

" I remain, my dearest love, 

" Your own 


Age 25. 


To this, the following reply was sent by Miss Mum- 

ford^ s 

" My Dearest William : — I have with a burdened soul com- 
mitted the contents of your letter to God, and I feel persuaded 
He will guide you. I will just put down one or two consider- 
ations which may comfort you. 

" First, then, you are not leaving the Reformers because 
you fear you would not get another circuit or as good a sal- 
ary as the Connexion can offer. You are leaving because 
you are out of patience and sympathy with W.'o principles and principle, 
aims, and because you believe they will bring it to ultimate 

" Second, you are not leaving to secure present advantages, 
but sacrificing present advantages for what you believe to be 

Acting on 

154 MRS. BOOTH. 

1854, o^ ^^^'^ whole (looking to the end) most for God's glory and 
^^^ 25. the good of souls. And the fact of Hinde Street offering ^200 
would not alter those reasons. If it is right in principle for 
you to leave the movement and join the Connexion, no advan- 
tages in the former or disadvantages in the latter can possibly 
alter the thing. 
Satisfy " But mind, / do not urge you to do it, and I do not see 

your coil- ^^ j. ■ ^ • ^ ^ j_ j_ j_ i • r 

science, even now that it is too late to retreat, if your conscience is 
not satisfied as to the quality of your motives. But I believe 
it ought to be. I wish you prayed more and talked less about 
the matter. Try it, and be determined to get clear and settled 
views as to your course. Leave your heart before God, and 
get satisfied in His sight, and then do it, be it what it may. I 
cannot bear the idea of your being unhappy. Pray do in 
this as you feel in your soul it will be right. My conscience 
is no standard for yours. 
Make the " I am not sorry tliat the people think I am anxious for the 

act your -.-11 -> 1 

own. Step. 1 Wish them to understand that I am favourable to it. 
But at the same time you do right to make the act your own, 
though you can let them know I highly approve it. 

" Oh, if you come to London, let us be determined to reap a 
blessed harvest. Let our fellowship be sanctified to our souls' 
everlasting good. My mind is made up to do my part toward 
it. I hope to be firm as a rock on some points. The Lord 
help me ! We must aim to improve each other's minds and 
characters. Let us pray for grace to do it in the best way and 
to the fullest extent possible. 
Living " I am living above. My soul breathes a purer atmosphere 

" °^'^* than it has done for the last two or three years. God lives 
and reigns, and this to me is a source of much consolation. 
" With deepest interest and sincere affection, 

" I remain, your loving 

" Kate," 


Writing again a few days later, Miss Mumford says: 

"lam very sorry to find that you are still perplexed and 
harassed about the change. I did think that there were con- 
ditions weighty enough to satisfy your own mind as to the 
propriety of the step, and if not I begged you not to act. Even 
now it is not too late. Stay at Spalding, and risk all. Pray 
be satisfied in your own mind. Rather lose anything than 


make yourself miserable. You reasoned and suffered just so 1854, 

about leaving the Conference, and yet you see it was right ■^S^ 25. 

now. I never suffered an hour about it, after I once decided, 

except in the breaking of some tender associations. Nor do I ^q^ahn. 

ever expect to suffer. I reasoned the thing out and came to 

a conclusion, and all the Conference battering I met never 

caused me a ten minutes' qualm. 

" You mistake me if you think I do not estimate the trial it Feelings 

must be to you, and the influence of circumstances and persons ,'?" ""' , 
T^ 1 -. 1 alter reul- 

around you. But remember, dearest, they do not alter reali- ities. 

ties, and the Reform movement is no home or sphere for you ; 
whereas the principles of the Connexion you love in your 
very soul. I believe you will be satisfied when once from un- 
der the influence of your Spalding friends. 

" Anyway, don't let the controversy hurt your soul. Live Mind 
near to God by prayer. Oh, I do feel the importance of your aoul. 
spiritual things, and am in a measure living by faith in the 
Son of God! The Lord is very precious to me and admits 
me to free and blessed intercourse with Himself. I have 
spent some precious moments in committing all into His 
hands, and I do believe He will answer prayer and guide us 
in all things. You believe He answers prayer. Then take 
courage. Just fall down at His feet and open your very soul 
before Him, and throw yourself right into His arms. Tell 
Him if you are wrong, you only wait to be set right, and be 
the path rough or smooth you will walk in it. This is exactly 
the position of my mind now. I feel an infinite satisfaction 
in lying at the footstool of my God, and I believe He will con- 
descend to guide us. 

" Oh, you must live close to God ! If you are at a greater Live dose 
distance from Him than you were, just stop the whirl of out- ^° ^°^- 
ward things, or rather leave it, and shut yourself up with Him 
till all is clear and bright upwards. Do, there's a dear. Oh, 
how much we lose by not coming to the point ! Now, at once, 
realise your tmion with Christ, and trust Him to lead you. 
through this perplexity. Bless you ! Excuse this advice. I 
am anxious for your soul. Look up! If God hears my 
prayers. He 7uust guide you — He imll guide you. I love you, 
I pray for you, and I will do all in my power to make yoti 

" Your espoused and loving 

" Catherine." 

156 MRS. BOOTH. 

1854, It appeared, however, too late to draw back, and 

Mr. Booth resolved to persist in carrying out the ar- 

Mr. Booth rangement entered into with Dr. Cooke. 

Df\Cooke. Had anybody at this time ventured to prophesy 
that either Mr. Booth or Miss Mumford would ever 
of^the view with favour the military form of government 
Army. ^^\^\Q\^ was the final outcome of their experiences, 
surely none would have contemplated such an idea 
with more surprise and apprehension than themselves. 
Quick as were their minds to grasp a new idea, and 
resolute and intrepid as they were in carrying it into 
effect, they were still too largely dominated by their 
surrounding circumstances and by the force of long 
formed habit to foresee the chain of providences 
which was to compel them, almost in spite of them- 
selves, to a course of action leading to such momen- 
tous results. For the time being, however, their 
pathway seemed clear, and they were content to link 
their fortunes with the organisation which seemed 
to answer so nearly to their highest ideal. 
Jehus, But wherever they might be and with whomso- 

ever they might cast in their lot, these Jehus were 
Jehus still, and might be known from afar by their 
furious driving. And they imported into their new 
position an element of dash and adventure which soon 
commenced to clash with vested interests. The 
child-debater, temperance secretary, and school-girl 
monitor had the inborn instincts of a leader, and 
chafed under restrictions and limitations which 
seemed to her so often to spring from unworthy mo- 
tives, and to cripple the aspiration and thwart the best- 
planned schemes of one whose genius and single-eyed 
devotion so transcended in her opinion those who 
surrounded and legislated for him. 

It is, perhaps, but the universal fate of nature's 


most gifted children to find barriers interposed where 1854, 
they are least expected, and it may truly be said that ^^ ^ ' 
the course of the grandest benefactors of the human Barriers 

. .-,1 ,, ,1 ,, to genius. 

race never did and perhaps never will run smooth. 
To our short-sighted vision it might seem well if every 
mountain torrent sped its way with canal-like straight- 
ness to the sea. And yet thus it would unavoidably 
miss some of its most important tributaries, and, by 
shortening its course, deprive many needy valleys of 
its fertilising streams. It would at least lose much of 
its charm, and by forfeiting the added force and ve- 
locity which each surmounted barrier lends to its on- 
flowing current, would sacrifice in a great measure its 
purity and power. 

Had the New Connexion proved all that was hoped ^''^.^'^i^^^ 
for when it received this reinforcement, and had its 
Conference been endowed with sufficient foresight to 
anticipate coming events, there would perhaps have 
been no occasion for the establishment of a Salvation 
Army. But, after all, there are not many who are 
able to discern the signs of the times, or who are 
willing to give genius and spiritual power its legiti- 
mate scope. And thus the benefactors of the earth 
are too often hindered till compelled at length to 
manufacture for themselves new channels when the 
old might amply have sufficed. 

It may, however, well be questioned whether it ^f^^^f 
would have been possible to have manufactured an Army. 
aggressive force such as the Salvation Army within 
the borders of any existing denomination. The ma- 
terials for such a movement required to be drawn 
from widely different sources. The more than ninety The 

/-M • • t, 4- ninety per 

per cent of England's nominally Christian, but ac- cent. 
tually heathen population, whose church was the 
public-house and whose Bible was the " penny dread- 



Age 25. 

A happy 

The ten- 
dency to 


ful," were to constitute the recruiting grounds for a 
religious crusade which was to send forth its conquer- 
ing legions to the four quarters of the globe. Un- 
embarrassed by traditional teachings, unspoiled by 
bungling management, unshackled by governmental 
red tape and destitute of religious grave-clothes to 
conceal their moral nudeness, this spiritual wilder- 
ness contained virgin soil which needed only patient 
toil and sturdy persistence to convert it into a veritable 
paradise. Mr. and Mrs. Booth were afterwards to 
make the happy discovery that the foetid fever-breed- 
ing muck-heaps that obstructed the gangways of civi- 
lisation and threatened to overwhelm society with 
wholesale perdition might be converted into fertilis- 
ing material, which should yet prove a source of 
wealth and happiness to its possessors, and a blessing 
to the world at large. 

Human creeds and religious organisations have an 
inveterate tendency to fossilise the ideas and inspira- 
tions of a dead past, which they vainly endeavour to 
foist upon an altogether altered present. They have 
too often ceased to grow. Their very garb and lan- 
guage are frequently antiquated and unnatural — in- 
teresting relics of a bygone age, time-honoured mem- 
orials of a buried century, but powerless to cope with 
the exigencies of an ever-changing world. 

We say it, not in a censorious spirit, but as the 
simple explanation of a strange phenomenon. The 
results of nearly every great religious awakening have 
in time become petrified and crystallised into beauti- 
ful but powerless forms. Instead of " spires whose 
silent fingers point to Heaven," we have sign-posts 
whose backward finger points to the hallowed but 
speechless and lifeless cemetery of bygone days and 
deeds. Instead of living prophets we have grave- 


stones which, like funeral sentinels, take their stand 
upon the dust and ashes of the past. 

Those who have been truly great, because they 
caught the spirit of their times and combined with it 
the spirit of the Divine, are transported into sur- 
roundino-s and circumstances where their names have 


ceased to conjure or enchant. Had they lived they 
would themselves no doubt have acted differently 
under the altered circumstances. The religious 
Caesars of the past would have been the Napoleons 
and Moltkes of the present. They would not have 
attempted the futile task of clothing the living with 
the winding-sheets, however pure and fragrant, of 
the dead. They would have scorned to cater for the 
religious few, while the breadless multitudes perished 
at their doors; and if their genius could not have 
soared to the emergencies of their generation, it would 
have carried them far enough to enable them to re- 
cognise and support the spirit of the age, in however 
strange or even uncouth a form it might have em- 
bodied itself. Instead of devoting their ingenuity to 
manufacturing patches for the tattered and discarded 
draperies of early days they would have contrived to 
weave some newer vestments better suited to cover 
the moral nakedness of their times. Instead of being 
satisfied with sewing together the original fig-leaves 
of Eden, they would have invented some more suit- 
able material, and instead of endeavouring to clothe 
humanity with the bibs and baby-linen of its early 
days, they would have devised garments more con- 
genial to its manhood's prime. Instead of storing 
its new wine in the leaky worn-out wineskins of the 
past, they would have reckoned it the truest economy 
to invest a few shillings in purchasing it a new and 
serviceable cask, consenting with a good grace to the 

Age 25. 


ing the 
spi)'i7 of 
the age. 

The bibs 
and babji- 
linen of 



Age 25. 

Lack of 

ery tried 

transmigration of the accustomed leathern hides into 
the iron hoops and wooden staves of modern progress. 

Be this as it may, it was just the absence of this 
element of elasticity in existing organisations that 
justified and necessitated the separate existence of 
the Salvation Army, and afforded it a peculiarly 
wide and unoccupied field for its operations. 

But the time for this had not yet come, and the 
earlier years of Mr, and Mrs. Booth's life were spent 
in experimenting with existing machinery for the 
accomplishment of purposes which became yearly 
more and more the engrossing object of their very 

LONDON. 1854. 

The reception with which Mr. Booth met at the a cordial 
threshold of his new departure was- cordial and en- '^^^^p^^^^- 
couraging. In Dr. Cooke he found an able and ap- 
preciative leader, and the mutual regard which they 
entertained for each other was preserved to the end. 
The Doctor, who was in the habit of preparing a few 
students for the ministry, received him, with two or 
three others, into his own home. 

That his studies were intermingled with active inter- 
evangelistic labours will readily be surmised. Indeed Studies. 
the very day after his arrival in London we find him, 
on the 15th of February, 1854, preaching in Bruns- 
wick Street Chapel, when fifteen souls sought salva- Fifteen 
tion. The General naively admits that he never was tenlT. 
a pattern student, and that he might often have been 
found on his face in an agony of prayer when he 
ought to have been mastering his Greek verbs. But 
the blessed results, which .had already stamped his 
ministry with an apostolic seal, continued to mark 
his London labours, and when it came to his turn for 
his sermon to be criticised by the Doctor according His turn 

to he cv'it'i' 

to custom, he could only say, " Mr. Booth, I have dsed. 
nothing to say to you. Go on, and may God bless 
you." Indeed the constant rows of weeping peni- 
tents, including one night the Doctor's daughter, 
formed the best apology for the non-ministerial, un- 

n 161 

l62 - MRS. BOOTH. 

1854, artificial, dramatic style which distinguished Mr 
^^ ^^' Booth's pulpit utterances. 
Dr. " I intend proposing you at the next Conference as 

prl^omi. superintendent of the work in London," said Dr. 
Cooke one morning, as he strolled with Mr. Booth 
through the garden, thus showing his confidence in 
the ability and devotion of his favoured student. To 

Mr. Booth this proposal Mr, Booth strenuously objected, plead- 
o jec s. .^g. j^^^ youth and inexperience for so important and 
responsible a position. He consented, however, to 
take the position of assistant pastor, should he be de- 
sired to do so, accepting as his leader whomever Con- 
ference might appoint. 

There was a difficulty, however, in the adoption of 
this plan, as hitherto the society had only supported 
one preacher. This objection was overcome by his 
old friend, Mr. Rabbitts, who had followed him into 
the New Connexion, and who now offered to pay the 
salary of a second pastor, provided that Mr. Booth 
was appointed to the post. To this arrangement the 
Conference subsequently agreed. 
His first But during the interval an event had occurred 

East End. which is deserving of special notice. This was Mr. 
Booth's first visit to the East End of London, where 
the New Connexion had maintained for many years 
a small cause, and where he was destined eleven 
years later to establish the foundations of a world- 
wide movement. The following entry from his jour- 
nal will be read with more than ordinary interest in 
the light of subsequent history : 

His jour- "Sunday, March 19th, 1854. — Left home at 10 o'clock for 

mil. Watney Street. Felt much sympathy for the poor neglected 

inhabitants of Wapping, and its neighbourhood, as I walked 

down the filthy streets and beheld the wretchedness and 

wickedness of its people. Reached Bethesda Chapel, and 



Age 25. 

found a nice little congregation, who seemed to hear the word 
of the Lord gladly. At night a good congregation. Felt much 
power in preaching. The people wept and listened with much 
avidity. Commenced or rather continued the meeting by 
holding a prayer-meeting. All, or nearly all, stayed. Gave 
an invitation to those who were decided to serve the Lord to 
come forward and many came — fifteen in all — of whom four- 
teen professed to find Jesus, and went home happy in His 
love. Many of these were very interesting cases. All en- 
gaged were much blessed. Tired and weary, I reached home 
soon after 11 o'clock." 

In May there is another entry : 

" At Watney Street I held a week's special services, preach- 
ing every night. Very many gave their hearts to God. I 
never knew a work more apparently satisfactory in proportion 
to its extent. Some most precious cases I have beheld, and 
I thank God for them. The people appear very happy and 
united. God bless and keep them ! " 

Referring to the same meetings in one of his let- 
ters, Mr. Booth says: 

" We had indeed a glorious day yesterday. Good congrega- 
tion in the morning. In the afternoon we held a love -feast. 
Seventeen spoke, and nearly all praised God for the day 1 
came among them. Many of my spiritual children, with 
streaming eyes and overflowing hearts, told us how God, for 
Christ's sake, had made them happy. 

" At night, notwithstanding the unfavourable weather, we 
had the place crammed every nook and corner, and in the 
prayer-meeting we had near twenty penitents. Mr. Atkin- 
son's daughter and Mr. Gould, her intended husband, came 
forward and with many tears and prayers sought and fotmd 
mercy. Two black women came, and altogether it was a 
good night." 

Although it had been impossible for Dr. Cooke or j^^ce'pted 

any of his influential friends to pledge the Conference ^^ tj^_ 
to accept Mr. Booth's candidature, nevertheless it "ice. 
had been a foregone conclusion that they would read- 

A pros- 
j)erous be' 



Age 25. 

ily extend to him the right hand of fellowship 
promised by them to the Reformers in general at 
their last annual gathering. Still Mr. Booth, and even 
Miss Mumford, were scarcely prepared for the hearty 
and unanimous manner in which they were received, 
and for the special favour granted to them in the 
privilege of receiving permission to marry, at the 
end of twelve months, instead of having to wait, as 
was generally the rule, for the expiry of the four 
years of probation that must elapse before he could 
be formally ordained as a minister of the church. 

In announcing this news to Miss Mumford, Mr. 
Booth writes; 

Not much 

" I snatch a moment to say that a letter has just come 
to hand from Mr. Cooke, stating that I have been unanimously 
received by the Conference. This is very good, but for some 
unaccountable reason, I do not feel at all grateful, neither 
does it all elate me ! " 

ford'' s 

Her up- 

To this letter Miss Mumford replies as follows : 

" Your letter this morning filled my heart with gratitude 
and my mouth with praise. I am thankful beyond measure 
for the favourable reception and kind consideration you have 
met with from the Conference, and I can only account for 
your ingratitude on the ground you once gave me, namely, 
that blessings in possession seem to lose half their value. This 
is an unfortunate circumstance, but I think in this matter you 
ought to be grateful, when you look at the past and contem- 
plate the future. However, I am. This comes to me as the 
answer of too many prayers, the result of too much self-sacri- 
fice, the end of too much anxiety, and the crowning of too 
many hopes, not to be appreciated ; and my soul does praise 
God. You may think me enthusiastic. But your position is 
now fixed as a minister of Christ, and your only concern will 
be to labour for God and souls. 

" I saw that in all probability you might toil the best part 
of your life and then, after all, have to turn to business for your 
support. But now, for life you are to be a teacher of Christ's 



Age 25. 

A fresh 

glorious gospel, and I am sure the uppermost desire of my 
soul is that you may be a holy and successful one. May God 
afresh baptise you with His love, and make you indeed a 
minister of the Spirit ! 

" Oh, to begin anew, to give up all, and to live right in the 
glory ! Shall we ? Can we dare do otherwise with the light 
and influence God has given us ? God forbid that we should 
provoke the eyes of His holiness by our indifference and luke- 
warmness and inconsistency ! The Lord help me and t/iee to 
live, so that our hearts condemn us not, for then shall we 
have confidence toward God, that whatsoever we shall ask of 
Him (even to making us instrumental in saving thousands of 
precious souls) He will do it for us. Amen ! " 

On the inside of the envelope, Miss Mumford adds 
the following quotation : 

"Not to understand a treasure's worth 
Till time hath stole away the slighted good 
Is cause of half the misery we feel, 
And makes the world the wilderness it is." 

Previous to entering upon his London appointment 
Mr. Booth paid a short visit to Caistor, with a view to 
benefiting his health, which was a good deal run down. 

But no sooner was it known by his old friends and 
converts that he was in the place, than meetings were 
planned which he could not refuse to conduct, so that 
at the conclusion of his visit he writes that in future 
he would arrange his rest in a place where he was not 
quite so well known. At the same time his reception 
was such as to gratify his heart. Although his pre- 
vious visits to the town had been so brief, the results 
had been both powerful and permanent. He writes 
to Miss Mumford: 

" Mv reception has been exceedingly pleasing. Even the a hearty 
children laugh and dance and sing at my commg. and eyes 
sparkle and tongues falter in uttering my welcome. Yester- 
day I had heavy work. Chapel crowded. Enthusiasm 

visit to 

1 66 


Age 25. 

A crash- 

ford^ s 




ran very high. Feeling overpowering, and yet not the 
crash we expected. My prospects for usefulness seem to be 
unbounded. But God knows best, and where He wants me 
there He can send me. The people love me to distraction, and 
are ready to tear me to pieces to have me at their homes. A 
large party was invited to meet' me." 

Two days later he adds : 

" Yesterday I preached to crowded congregations, and we 
had a crashing prayer-meeting. Some splendid cases. I am 
more than ever attached to the people. They are thorough- 
going folks. Jifsf my sort. I love them dearly, and shall stand 
by them and help them when I can. 

" I have just taken hold of that sketch you sent me on 'Be 
not deceived, ' and am about to make a full sermon upon it. I 
like it much. It is admirable. I want you to write some 
short articles for our magazine. Begin one and get it done 
by the time I come up. It will do you a world of good. I am 
sure you can do it. I will look them over and send them to 
the editor. 

" I want a sermon on the Flood, one on Jonah, and one on 
the Judgment. Send me some bare thoughts; some clear, 
startling outline. Nothing moves people like the terrific. 
They must have hell-fire flashed before their faces, or they 
will not move. Last night I preached a sermon on Christ 
weeping over sinners, and only one came forward, although 
several confessed to much holy feeling and influence. When 
I preached about the harvest and the wicked being turned 
away, numbers came. We must have that kind of truth 
which will move sinners. 

~ " I have written by this post to Dr. Cooke. I tell him that 
I come in love 7vit/i no half-measures, and I am determined to 
seek success. I am doing better in my soul. Am resolved 
to live near to God, and put confidence in Him. Let us live 
for Heaven ! " 


Summing up this visit to Caistor, in his journal 
Mr. Booth remarks: 

" Nearly all my spiritual children stand firm in the faith. All 
glory to God! Preached eight sermons and attended a public 

LONDON. 167 

meeting. I trust that during my visit some good has been 1854, 
done. Near thirty profess to have found peace, but still the ^Z^ 25. 
work has not been up to my expectations." 

On returning to London, Mr. Booth threw himself ^^tations' 
heart and soul into his new work as assistant pastor 
to the Rev. P. T. Gilton. His fame as a revivalist 
had now spread to distant places, and frequent invi- 
tations were received for him to hold special services. 
Whilst most of these were declined withotit further 
consideration, several were of such a pressing nature, 
and were so strongly backed by influential friends, 
that he scarcely knew what to reply. Coming as they 
did from New Connexion congregations, it was diffi- 
cult to return a refusal. 

Miss Mumford hailed the news of each advance Miss 
with joy. She had from the first entertained an un- ford's 
bounded confidence in Mr. Booth's ability, and felt •^°^" 
that all he needed was an opportunity to enable him 
to occupy, with glory to God and credit to himself, a 
far higher position of usefulness than any that he had 
hitherto held. 

" Bless you ! Bless you !" she writes. " Your note has, like A stirring 
'joy's seraphic fingers,' touched the tenderest chords in my ^«<*«''- 
heart, and what I write is but like the trembling echoes of a 
distant harp. If you were /lere, I would pour out the full strain 
into your bosom and press you to my heart. God is too 
good ! I feel happier than I have done for months. You will 
think me extravagant. Well, bless God. JJe made me so. 
Yes, we shall, I believe it, be very happy. 

" Do I remember ? Yes, I remember «//, all that has bound 
us together. All the bright and happy, as well as the clouded 
and sorrowful of our fellowship. Nothing relating to you, 
can time or place erase from my memory. Your words, your 
looks, your actions, even the most trivial and incidental, come 
up before me as fresh as life. If I meet a child called William, 
I am more interested in him than any other. Bless you! 



Age 25. 

Keep your spirits up and hope much for the future. God 
lives and loves us, and we shall be one in Him, loving each 
other as Christ has loved us. 

Her visit 

to Burn- 


"Thus by communion our delight shall grow ! 
Thus streams of mingled bliss swell higher as they flow ! 
- - Thus angels mix their flames and more divinely glow !" 

During the autumn of 1854, Miss Mumford paid a 
long promised visit to a friend at Burnham, in Essex. 
There is a little incident connected with this trip 
worthy of reference. She was persuaded to attend an 
Irvingite Chapel, in the vicinity, for the purpose of 
seeing and hearing one of their "angels." She gives 
the following characteristic summary of her impres- 
sions : 


" Burnham contains about seventeen or eighteen hundred 
inhabitants. It has a very old church, a Wesleyan chapel, a 
Baptist chapel, a Calvinist chapel, a Chapel of Ease, and an 
Irvingite chapel. To the last of these a party of us went last 
Sunday evening, to hear one of the travelling 'angels' belong- 
ing to their denomination. Of all the mystery I ever listened 
to or conceived possible, it excelled! It was indeed beyond 
my comprehension, or that of anybody else ! I wish you had 
been there, though I hardly think you would have been able 
to sit it through. It was all I could endure to see the people 
gulled in such a way. Poor things ! What need there is for 
effort and energy, for real religion and common sense." 

Perhaps one of the most valuable and clearly 

marked features of Miss Mumford's character washer 

capacity for discerning spirits. She was never long 

in coming to a conclusion, and was seldom mistaken 

in her judgments. While she never hesitated to 

denounce anything like lukewarmness in religion, she 

Luke- was equally careful to guard against fanaticism, be- 

warmness j^g^jj^g ^.j-^^^^ ^^le latter was almost as injurious to the 

aticism. (^g^^gg Qf chi-ist as the former, and arguing that when 

for dis- 

LONDON. 169 

the devil could not persuade people to hold back from 1854, 
doing their duty, he would tempt them to discredit ^^ ^^" 
God's work by going too far. The common curse of 
modern Christianity doubtless consists in whittling 
away the Gospel, and lowering ths wStandard of right- 
eousness. Nevertheless she held that there was a 
noble but misguided minority who erred in the op- 
posite direction. By exaggerating certain aspects of 
the truth, by magnifying to the exclusion of all else 
some favoured hobby, or by fixing for the multitude 
a standard that was possible only for the few, she 
believed that needless stumbling-blocks were cast in 
the path of multitudes, and that the most sincere and 
devoted were often tempted to desert the substance 
of religion for its shadow, the pursuit of righteous- 
ness for that of a fugitive ideal which either could not 
be grasped at all, or the possession of which was of 
no profit to the would-be possessor or to the world 
at large. 

This faculty of discernment was of infinite value a mental 


to her in helping to shape the course of the religious 
movement with which her name must ever remain 
so intimately connected. New and unforeseen de- 
velopments were perpetually occurring, which required 
to be handled with combined promptness and dis- 
cretion. At these decisive epochs, Mr. Booth gladly 
availed himself of the prophetic instinct, which, while 
unbending in its demand for uttermost devotion, was 
equally rigid in its rejection of the unwise and need- 
lessly extreme. Like a carrier pigeon, she would 
arise, as it were, at such emergencies into the air, 
circle a few times round the debated point, and then, 
having taken her bearings, would arrive at her con- 
clusions with a speed and directness which seemed 
nothing short of a mental miracle. 

lyo MBS. BOOTH. 

i8s4, In another of her letters from Burnham, there is a 

^^ ^^' charming descriptive passage: 

A charm- " n jg truly delightful here now at night. The lovely moon 
cription. throws her silvery beams on the bosom of a beautifully tran- 
quil river. All around is serene and silent. The breeze is 
just sufficient to fan the water into gentle ripplets. The boats 
and skiffs repose on its surface as if weary with the day's en- 
gagements. Altogether it reminds one of Heaven. I wish 
you could see it just now. It would stir the old poetic fire in 
father's soul, and warm mother's heart with admiration and 
devotion I All nature, vocal and mute, points upwards. And 
the most unsophisticated soul 7;iusf feel the power of its testi- 
mony, and the being and goodness of the Christian's God. I 
love to gaze on these dear foot-marks of Jehovah. It does 
one good sometimes as much in soul as in body. I don't 
know what effect the majestic in nature would have upon me. 
But such a scene as this stirs strange feelings and touches 
chords which thrill and vibrate through my whole being. 

" Be happy about me. God lives, and I feel safe in His hands. 
Let us try to live according to our professed belief, and be 
careful for nothing. Bless you ! 

" Good-bye, and believe me as ever, your own loving 





The earliest extant publication from Miss Mum- Herear- 
ford's pen is an article for the Nfzv Connexion Mag- ncation. 
azine on the best means for retaining new converts. 
It contains probably her first public utterance on the 
important question of female ministry. Indeed, the 
concluding portion is almost prophetical. Forty 
years ago she raised a warning voice as to the im- 
possibility of rearing young converts in a worldly 
church, and before her life-work was completed she had 
the joy of helping to establish a universal nursery for 
souls, in which the rules she thus early laid down 
should be carried into practice with a literalness that 
she could hardly have hoped for, and with a success 
that proved their value. Forty years ago she proph- ^^^J^^P; 
esied that there were hidden Lydias in the church. ''^^'^^'^''- 
Five years later she stepped forward as one of them 
herself, and she lived to be surrounded by tens of 
thousands of women whose lips she had unsealed, 
whose timidity she had overcome, whose rights she 
had defended, and whose ability to preach the Gospel 
she had proved by their abundant and unqualified 
success and indubitable inspiration. 

In this early effort there is reflected the ripeness 
of her later years. The keen common sense, the 
lucid logic, the grasp of details, the inimitable com- 
mand of language, the originality of ideas, and the 
close personal application, are almost as plainly im- 




Age 25. 

printed on this her earliest effort as on her last. But 
the following lines will speak for themselves : 

The best 
means for 

new con- 

an anal- 


"The Editor, Methodist N civ Connexion Magazine. 

"Dear Sir: — The following few thoughts were 
suggested by the perusal of your question relative to 
the best means of retaining the new converts brought 
in during the late revivals ; and as I feel deeply inter- 
ested in this important subject, I venture to transmit 
them to you, to be made use of or not, as your judg- 
ment dictates. 

" I am fond of tracing the analogy which in many 
instances exists between the economy of the natural 
and spiritual worlds, and I think to all who love and 
seek out the ways of the Lord, this must be an ever 
interesting and profitable exercise. I think, too, there 
are truths and principles of extensive application and 
great practical importance often deducible from it. 
When considering your question, it suggested an- 
other, namely: What are the conditions indispensa- 
ble to the preservation and growth of the natural 
babe? And the following immediately occurred to 
me: — ist. An adequate supply of congenial aliment. 
2d. A pure and invigorating atmosphere. 3d. A care- 
ful cleansing away of all impurities. And 4th. Free- 
dom from undue restraint in the exercise of its facul- 
ties. Between these conditions and those necessary 
to the preservation and progress of spiritual life, there 
appears to me a striking and beautiful analogy. 

" The first and most important want of the babe in 
Christ is unquestionably congenial aliment ; it needs 
to be fed with 'the sincere milk of the Word.' De- 
prived of this, there is no chance of life, to say noth- 
ing of growth. How important, then, that the char- 
acter of the ministry should be suited to the wants 


of a new-born soul, ' the sincere milk of the Word, ' that ^^^^54. 
which is felt to be real Words without heart will 
chill the very life-current of a young believer. It 
must be that which has been tasted and handled of 
the Word of Life. The spiritual babe will soon pine 
away under mere theoretical teaching. It must be Jf^^^^;;^;- 
sustaining, and in order to this the milk must be ing. 
pure, unmixed with either diluting or deleterious doc- 
trines. It must be congenial to the cravings of a 
spiritual appetite, and capable of being assimilated by 
a spiritual nature. It must be direct and practical. 
The babe, under its teachings, must learn how to walk 
in all the ordinances and statutes of the Lord blame- 
less how to apply the principles of action laid down 

in His Word to the daily occurrences of life, how to 
resist temptation and overcome the world. And I 
think, without an adequate supply of such spiritual 
food, the first condition of its preservation and pro- 
gress will not be fulfilled. 

"Then comes the second scarcely less important J^^^^^^^-^ 
condition — a pure and invigorating atmosphere. Not 
more surely will the sprightly infant born in some 
pent-up garret, which for generations has been im- 
pregnable to the pure air of heaven, pine and die, 
than will the spiritual babe introduced into the death- 
charged atmosphere of some churches. So far from 
its being a matter of surprise that so many converts 
relapse into spiritual death, it appears to me a far 
greater wonder that so many survive under the 
influence of the noxious atmosphere into which they 
are often forced. 

" Let the spiritual infant, born amidst the genial \ft'^,^^^^l'f 
influences of a genuine revival, and just awakened to 
a sense of the importance and reality of eternal 
things, be transplanted to a church in which the tide 


174 MFS. BOOTH. 

1854, of holy feeling has been rolled back by a flood of 
"^^ worldliness, formality, and indifference, and what a 
shock his spiritual nature must sustain ! Nay, sup- 
pose him introduced into some class-meeting where 
there are old professors of ten, twelve, or twenty years' 
standing, who ought to be far ahead of him in the joy 
and strength of the Lord, but whose everlasting com- 
plaint is 'my leanness, my leanness,' and this always 
:he key of in the same key — the key of doubt, who can estimate 
the freezing, paralysing effects of such an atmosphere? 
What can be expected but misgiving, anxiety, and 
relaxation in duty? Oh, if the Church would indeed 
be the nursery of the future kings and priests of her 
God, she must awake up from her lethargy and create 
an atmosphere of warm and holy feeling, pure and 
unfeigned love, incessant and prevailing prayer, and 
active untiring effort for souls ! Then may she hope 
that the converts born under special outpourings of 
the Spirit will grow and thrive, and in due time ar- 
rive at the stature of men and women in Christ Jesus. 
Cleansing " The third Condition of physical life and health 
purities ^^ ^^® clcausing away of impurities. The infant, 
though truly a living and healthy child, is too feeble 
and ignorant to remove what would be injurious to 
itself and render it offensive to others, and therefore 
some maternal and loving hand must come to its help. 
Is there no analogy in this respect between the natu- 
ral and spiritual babe? Has the latter no injurious 
habits to be pointed out and overcome ; no false views 
to be corrected ; no mistaken conduct to be rectified ; 
no unholy tendency to be subdued ; and is it not gen- 
erally too feeble and ignorant to understand its errors 
and to correct them? Then does it not need the 
careful pruning of experienced and loving Christians, 
the tender watchfulness of fathers and mothers in 



Christ, that its life be not sacrificed or its spiritual 1854, 
nature depressed? ^^ ^^ 

" It is as great a mistake to expect perfection in jVo« to 
the spiritual babe as it would be to expect maturity of p^r/ec- 
strength and intellect in the natural. If indeed it „/«('««% 
were born perfect, of what force the injunction, ' Go on 
to perfection!' and why the precaution to give milk 
unto babes rather than strong meat? There may be 
heterogeneous substances to be cleansed away, and 
some unseemly blemishes to be removed, where the 
germ of true spiritual life has been deposited. But let 
not nursing fathers and mothers be discouraged on 
that account. Rather let them learn of the heavenly 
husbandman how to hasten the pruning process and 
develop the hidden life. 

" There is yet another condition in which the anal- Freedom 
ogy between the natural and spiritual seems even rf^f" ^T' 
more striking and complete, namely, that of freedom «^*'«*'^<- 
from undue restraint in the use of the faculties. 
Thank Heaven, the days of ignorance with reference 
to the operation of natural law are fast passing away, 
and mothers and nurses are learning that health and 
vigour are attendants on freedom and exercise. 
Would that the church generally would make, and act 
upon, the same discovery. 

" What can be a more fatal cause of religious de- inactivity 
clension than inactivity? And if religion consists in of decline. 
doing the will of God, what an anomaly is an inactive 
Christian ! Yet there are multitudes in this our day 
professing to be Christians, who do absolutely nothing 
for the salvation of souls, or the glory of God. Men 
and women attempt to serve God by proxy, as though 
paying another for the employment of his talent were 
all the same as improving their own ; as though God 
did not demand, and the world need, the exertion of 

1/6 MRS. BOOTH. 

1854, every man's energies and the exhibition of every 
^^ ^^' light which God has kindled. The babe in Christ 
must be made to feel his individual untransferable 
responsibility. He must be taught that labour is the 
law of life, spiritual as well as natural, and that to in- 
crease in wisdom and stature and in favour with God, 
he 'must be about his Father's business.' The ca- 
pacity of every young convert, male and female, 
should be ascertained, and a suitable sphere provided 
for its development. 
Women's "Methodism, beyond almost any other system, has 
minis ry. ^q^sq^^^^^q^ ^j^g importance of this principle, and to this 
fact doubtless owes much of its past success ; but has 
it not in some measure degenerated in this respect, at 
least with regard to its employment of female talent? 
Reiuc- There seems in many societies a growing disinclina- 
%ray!'^ tion among the female members to engage in prayer, 
speak in love feasts, band meetings, or in any manner 
bear testimony for their Lord, or to the power of His 
grace. And this false God-dishonouring timidity is 
but too fatally pandered to by the church, as if God 
had given any talent to be hidden in a napkin, or 
as if the church and the world needed not the employ- 
ment of all. 
Theswad- " Why should the swaddling-bands of blind custom, 
bands of which in Wesley's days were so triumphantly broken, 
and with such glorious results thrown to the moles 
and the bats, be again wrapped round the female dis- 
ciples of the Lord Jesus? Where are the Mrs. Fletch- 
ers and Mrs. Rogers of our churches now, with their 
numerous and healthy spiritual progeny? And yet 
who can doubt that equal power in prayer and the 
germ of equal usefulness of life exist in many a 
Hidden Lydia's heart, smothered and kept back though it may 

Lydias. . , 

be? I believe it is impossible to estimate the extent 



of the church's loss, where prejudice and custom are 
allowed to render the outpouring of God's Spirit upon 
His handmaidens null and void. But it is a signifi- 
cant fact that in the most cold, formal, and worldly 
churches of the day we find least of female agency. 

" I would warn our societies against drifting into false 
notions on this subject. Let the female converts be 
not only allowed to use their newly awakened facul- 
ties, but positively encouraged to exercise and improve 
them. Let them be taught their obligations to work 
themselves in the vineyard of the Lord, and made to 
feel that the plea of bashfulness, or custom, will not 
excuse them to Him Who has put such honour on 
them, and Who, last at the cross and first at the sep- 
ulchre, was attended by women, who so far overcame 
bashfulness as to testify their love for Him before a 
taunting multitude, and who so far disregarded cus- 
tom that when all (even fellow-disciples) forsook Him 
and fled, they remained faithful. 

" Oh that the Church would excite its female mem- 
bers to emulate their zeal and remove all undue 
restraint to its development ! Then, when every 
member, male and female, is at work, exercising 
their spiritual faculties, using the talents God has 
given them on purpose to be used, then will our Zion 
become a praise in the whole earth, and men shall 
flock to it as doves to their windows. 

" Yours faithfully, 

"C. M ." 


Age 25. 

A timely 

How to 



A nation LONDON has always been regarded by preachers as 
agnation, an extremely difficult field, and many who have been 
successful elsewhere have failed completely when 
they have sought to move the shrewdly-intelligent 
and worldly-wise heart of Cockneydom. It is scarcely 
too much to say that the vast metropolis is a nation 
within a nation. The thoroughbred Londoner is a 
man sui generis. For needle-like acuteness, for ready 
repartee, for unabashed self-confidence, for unguUi- 
bility — if we may coin the word — he presents the very 
antipodes of the simple-minded country yokel. In- 
deed, in these respects it would be hard to match him 
in the world. Perhaps the struggle for existence, the 
ceaseless roar of traffic, and the perpetual contact with 
keen intellects, all help towards the formation of such 
characteristics, which serve considerably to counteract 
the preacher's toil. 
The mod- The lowest classes are absorbed in the scramble for 
Lazarus, the crumbs which fall from the rich man's table. One 
Lazarus is bad and sad enough ; but here are hundreds 
of thousands lying at Dives' door, whose destitution 
is even more miserable than that of their Eastern 
counterpart. Nay, they are not allowed to lie in so 
comfortable a place. The Dives of the nineteenth 
century cannot tolerate so painful a sight. The baton 
of the policeman, and, if needs be, the bayonet of the 
soldier, must sweep such refuse as far as possible from 




his gaze, into the dens and alleys where it lies seeth- 
ing for a time, awaiting the ghastly day of resurrec- 
tion and retribution. To go to them with a loaf in 
one hand appears as necessary as to carry the Gospel 
in the other. "Give ye them to eat," seems as defin- 
itely commanded for their bodies as it is for their 
souls. And yet, whence shall any buy bread for such 
a multitude? 

And then there are the labouring classes, who live 
upon the borders of this human pandemonium, this 
earthly purgatory, this out-Hadesed Hades, and who 
are perpetually supplying the fuel for its flames. 

The conditions of society have made their burdens 
so grievous, their hours of toil so long, their means 
of subsistence so scanty, that they have but little time 
and opportunity to provide for the interests of their 
souls, so absorbed are they in caring for their bodies. 
Their worse than Egyptian taskmasters bid them to 
make bricks without straw, and sacrifice their health 
and families without even the occasional shelter of a 
land of Goshen, as a hard earned recompense for their 
toil. The modern Rehoboam answers the universal 
cry of Israel for concessions by declaring that his lit- 
tle finger shall be thicker than his father's loins, and 
by substituting a scourge of scorpions for his father's 
thongs. And when the busman, the tram conductor, 
the shop-girl venture to ventilate their grievances 
and to complain against their Gethsemane of toil, they 
are threatened, if one may reverently say it, with the 
Calvary of the Law! How hard, how almost impos- 
sible, must it be then to reach such with the message 
of salvation, unless their Moses can at the same time 
proffer them some prospect of escape from bondage ! 

The middle classes have more leisure, it is true, 
but perhaps even less inclination, for the vital godli- 


Age 25. 

The la- 

Israel i)\ 

The mod- 
ern Reho- 

The Cal- 
vary of 
the Law. 

The lei- 

i8o MRS. BOOTH. 

1854, ness which would check them in their wild pursuit of 
^^ ^^* wealth, or force upon them a life of self-control and 
sacrifice. Those who are not engulfed in the absorb- 
ing- worship of Mammon are mostly enthralled by the 
fascinating enchantments of pleasure. And between 
the two there is but little room or desire for the ser- 
vice of God. A press that largely banishes religion 
from its columns caters for a public who largely ban- 
ish God from their thoughts and affections. 
The gold And the higfher we rise in the social scale the more 

fever. ^ 

is this experience intensified. The gold fever grows 
worse. The pulse beats faster. The temperature 
increases. Each fresh draught, instead of quenching 
the thirst, maddens the victim, who may well cry out — 

"Water, water, everywhere, 
But not a drop to drink ! " 

The gold that perishes can no more satisfy his im- 
mortal soul than could the salt waters of the ocean 
the shipwrecked mariner upon his raft. And yet 
there seems no limit to the cursed love of gold, the 
'' auri sacra fames'" oi the old Roman poet. Well 
might his words be applied to our modern Rome : 

"'Get money, money' — is the cry! 
Honestly — if you can ; 
If not, no matter how, or why ! 
'Tis money makes the man ! " 

The imr- And thosc who are not votaries of wealth, who do 

pleasure, not make piety and true nobility of character play 

second fiddle to gold {I'irtus post nunwtos), are in an 

exaggerated degree the devotees of pleasure and the 

victims of fashion. 

" Faster whirls the giddy dance ! 
Music soft and song 
With their fatal spell entrance, 
Sweeping them along; 


" Quaff ye now your Lethe-draught ; 1854 

Soon the charm shall break ! Age 25. 

Death thy doomed soul shall waft 
To the fiery lake ! " 

It may be said that the above remarks apply to London a 
other cities and districts besides London. This is true, ''"'''^ ^°^^' 
but surely in a less degree. At least London offers 
an exaggerated exemplification of them, and at the 
time of which we write it had been the subject of 
but few revivals, and had comparatively foiled the 
efforts of many godly labourers. The fact therefore 
that Mr. Booth's Spalding successes were repeated in 
London, and this at a period when the New Connex- 
ion cause there was low and struggling, soon attracted 
the notice of other circuits where circumstances were 
more favourable for the expectation of a revival. 
If any good thing could come out of this Jerusalem, 
there was certainly great hope for the outlying Gali- 
lees and Bethlehems. We have already referred to 
the successful meetings in the East End. We cull 
a few further extracts from Mr. Booth's journal, as 
to his successes at the other chapels : 

"May 28th, 1854, Sunday. — Preached in the morning at con- 
Albany Road. Some little liberty in urging upon the people of Jf^'l^^f 
God the necessity of labouring for the salvation of souls. 
Night, at Brunswick Street Chapel. Good congregation. Power 
in speaking. Afterwards the communion rail was crowded 
with penitents. Some precious cases. To God be all the glory ! 

"Sunday, September loth, 1854. — I resumed my labours at 
the New Chapel. Congregations very good. At night we 
had a glorious prayer meeting and a precious influence. 
Twelve penitents came forward and sought the Lord, and I 
trust many found Him." 

There is also an interesting reference to Mr. Booth's 
London successes in a letter to the Neta Connexion 
Magazine from Mr. Josiah Bates, who was perhaps 


1 82 MRS. BOOTH. 

1854, the most influential lay member of the organisation 
in London. He writes as follows: 

An oMt- " My dear Sir : — It affords me peculiar pleasure to inform 

sidefs yQ^ ^i^a^^- q^j- cause in this place continues to prosper. 
opinion. ■' ^ r- I- 

" I regard the appointment of the Rev. W. Booth to this cir- 
cuit as providential. He is a workman that needeth not to 
be ashamed. Many will have cause to bless God to all eternity 
that he was ever sent among us. I sincerely hope that it 
may please God to continue his health and sustain him under 
the arduous labours in which he is constantly engaged. 
Would to God we had a host of such men in addition to our 
present staff of ministers ! In that case we should soon, as a 
community, double our present numbers. I hope the next 
Conference will leave Mr. Booth without a fixed circuit, so 
that he may go through the Connexion as an evangelist; and 
I doubt not, if he retain his piety and dependence on the 
Divine Spirit, God will abundantly own his labours in every 
circuit he may visit. 

" My present object, however, is to inform you that during 
the present month we have had a fortnight's consecutive re- 
vival services conducted by Mr. Booth. A short but solemn 
and pointed address was printed and circulated extensively 
in the district. It may be said of the entire series of meet- 
ings that they were indeed times of refreshing, and the only 
regret felt at the close was that they had terminated. The 
results have been most blessed and satisfactory. About thirty 
members have been added and the older members have also 
been quickened. I believe the good effect of these services 
will be found after many days. 

" Yours truly, 

"JosiAH Bates." 

Aweehin The appeals fcr Mr. Booth's services from other 
Bristol, (jjgi^j-icj^s in the Connexion now so increased in num- 
ber and importunity, that they could no longer be 
disregarded. The first circuit he visited was Bristol, 
where he held a week's meetings, with the result that 
about fourteen professed salvation, ten of whom were 
added to the society. 


Mr. Booth's next evangelistic meetings were held 1854, 
in Guernsey. His journal and letters contain some ^^ ^^* 
interesting references to them, and the remarkable a trip to 
results achieved doubtless helped to decide the nature ^^-^^^^y- 
of his work during the next eleven years. Indeed 
they may be said to have left an everlasting mark on 
the subsequent labours of both himself and Mrs. 

"October i6th, 1854. — In compliance with an invitation Doubts 

from the New Connexion Church in Guernsey, I left town this '^*^'^' ^^iff^' 

evening. Prior to starting, the object and probable result of 

my visit had been discussed by friends in London. Various 
opinions were entertained and different conjectures raised as 
to the probable result. Some thought that my visit would be 
promotive of the salvation of souls and the highest well-being 
of the church, and some thought very differently. It was 
stated that they were a proud, intellectual and wealthy peo- 
ple, cold and formal, the very opposite of what I should de- 
sire. Some even went so far as to intimate that my visit 
would be useless and that the people would turn away from 
my preaching and refuse to regard it. However, I left Lon- 
don conscious of my supreme aim and desire being the glory 
of God and the salvation of sinners, and depending upon Him 
and the power of His Spirit for success." 

Mr. Booth subsequently adds: 

" I reached Guernsey in safety by the mercy of God, and 
was soon lodged in the family of Mr. John Ozanne, Mount 

" In the evening I attended the prayer-meeting. The night a dis- 
was a stormy one. At intervals the rain descended in tor- ^oiiraging 
rents. I expected, of course, a tolerable attendance. I had nhuj. 
come 200 miles, was a stranger, had come on purpose to pro- 
mote a work which demanded prayer. When I arrived four 
persons only were present, besides myself and the chapel- 
keeper! It is true four or five others had been there, had 
waited a quarter of an hour, and had then gone quietly home 
instead of staying to pour out their hearts for a mighty influ- 
ence, which should arouse and quicken the slumbering church. 

1 84 


Age 25. 

Thi- fide 

his corn- 

He des- 
eribes the 

We remained and pleaded with Heaven. I wrestled in prayer. 
God heard, and the results will show how gloriously He an- 
swered our petition. 

" The following - morning I visited, in company with my 
host, many of the leading members of the church, and I spoke 
with them kindly and affectionately, relative to the work of 
God, words of reproof and invitation, which I have every 
reason to believe brought forth much fruit. 

" As I was walking up one street, a young lady in deep 
mourning was coming along. 'There,' said the gentleman 
with me, 'that young person has lost her mother. She is one 
of our singers. ' And he immediately introduced me to her. 
I spoke to her about her soul, and the tears welled up in her 
eyes, and as I left her I remarked to Mr. Ozanne that she 
would be among the first fruits of the revival. That night 
she led the way to the communion-rail, and I afterwards re- 
ceived a letter from her thanking me and stating that her 
sister, her three cousins, and a friend had all found peace with 
God during the services. 

" That night I opened my commission from the pulpit, and 
if ever I tried to preach pointedly and plainly, it was that 
night. Four penitents came forward. 

" And now came the struggle. Some approved my preach- 
ing, but did not like my plans in the prayer-meeting ; some, I 
suppose, disapproved of everything. Some looked cold. Some 
wished me success, but held aloof and would not lend a hand. 
Nevertheless I continued to pray and believe and labour." 

Describing the meetings, Mr. Booth writes to Miss 
Mumford as follows: 

Mount Durant, Guernsey, 17th Oct., 1854. 
"My Dearest and Most Precious Love: — Last night I 
preached my first sermon. The congregation was middling, 
very respectable, stiff and quiet. I let off a few heavy guns 
at the lazy formality so prevalent, and with some effect They 
opened their eyes at some of the things I said. 

"20th October. — My preaching is highly spoken of. The 
Lord is working, and I trust that to-morrow we shall have a 
crash — a glorious breakdown. Already the Lord has given 
me some souls, but my anxious heart cries out for many more. 


I cannot write about the natural beauties of the place. I have 1854 
done nothing yet but sigh for and seek the salvation of its ^S^ 5- 
inhabitants. The arrangements for the services were misera- 
ble-not even a notice printed. And when they advertised 
the anniversary sermons for to-morrow they never mentioned 
the preaching afterwards. I asked the good brother who had 
the thing under his control to put another line, but he said 
he dare not without the consent of the leaders' meeting ! Poor 
fellows! They will advertise for money, but are ashamed to 
advertise for souls ! 

•• God bless you. Pray for me. Look for a fuller and com- 
pleter manifestation of the Son of God, and believe me as 


" Yours in betrothed and unalterable affection. 

" William." 

The entries in the jeurnal continue as follows: 

" Sunday —Rose with a delightful sense of God's favor His jour- 
and anticipating a good and successful day. In the morning «« • 
the congregation was very good, and the word, I am convinced, 
went with power to many hearts. At night the chapel was 
crowded. It was their anniversary. The collections were 
double in amount those of last year, and in the prayer-meet- 
ing wonderful victory was ours. We took down about twenty- ^TWy-^ 
six names— some most interesting and glorious cases. Many tuken. 
went away under deep conviction. 

" Monday —Good news comes in on every hand. To-night, 
although the weather is most unfavorable, the congregation 
has been very good, and the prayer-meeting even more suc- 
cessful than the one last night. Many very clear cases of con- Thirty-^^ 
version. About thirty-five penitents. 

" Tuesday -The excitement increases. The congregation 
was much larger and a great number of penitents came for- 

'""^'"^Wednesday.- The chapel to-night has been packed-fuller 
than it was on Sunday night-and the prayer-meeting vvas a 
most glorious one. We did not conclude until 10:30. Very 
many who had been seeking all the week found peace. _ 

" Thursday —To-night many went away unable to get into 
the chapel. The aisles were crowded, and up to eleven 
o'clock it was almost an impossibility to get them up to the 

1 86 MRS. BOOTH. 

1854, communion-rail, owing to the crush. We had near sixty 
Age 25. penitents, many very clear cases, and I doubt not over sixty 
Sixty pen- niore were in deep distress in different parts of the chapel. 
itents. 'pj^g parting with the people was very affecting. 

" Friday.- — I bade farewell to Guernsey. Many came down 
ing fare- to the pier to wish me good-bye, and when the packet bore me 
ivell. away and I caught the last glimpse of their waving 'hands and 
handkerchiefs, I felt I had parted with many very dear 
friends, and that I had bidden adieu to a fair spot, where I 
had certainly passed one of the happiest fortnights of my 
brief history." 

Further On his Tetum from Guernsey, Mr. Booth received 
pressing invitations to visit Longton and Hanley, in 
the Staffordshire Potteries, at that time practically the 
headquarters and chief stronghold of the New Con- 
nexion. The undertaking appeared to him to be too 
great and he declined to go. The chapel at Hanley 
was said to be the largest in the United Kingdom — 
some said in the world. Its superintendent, the Rev. 
Mr. Mills, was the President of the Connexion. Mr. 
Booth aro^ued that he was young, and that he had but 

His 00- ° . . - 1 . . . 

jections recently entered the denomination ; that his circuit 
would suffer by his prolonged absence, and that these 
irregular services would hinder him in preparing him- 
self for the ordinary pastoral duties of the future. 
But the President was not to be refused. Dr. Cooke, 
Mr. Bates, and other friends backed up the invitation. 
The circuit agreed to part with him for a month. 
Perhaps they would have been less willing to do so 
had they foreseen that he would return to them in his 
ministerial capacity no more. The visit to the Potter- 
Further i^s Capped Mr. Booth's previous successes and finally 
successes, established his reputation as a revival preacher, the 
calls for his services becoming now so numerous that 
the question of his appointments was referred to the 
Annual Committee, which transacted the business of 


the Connexion between the sittings t)f the Conference. 1855, 
It was decided by this committee that a substitute ^^ ^ ' 
should be provided to take Mr. Booth's place in the 
London circuit, and that the next few months should 
be devoted to holding evangelistic services. 

To give anything like a complete account of these 
meetings is at present impossible. Ample material 
is available, but must be reserved for the future 
chronicler of Mr. Booth's career. At present we 
satisfy ourselves with a few extracts from his diary 
which will suffice to throw a light on the subsequent 
history of the subject of these memoirs. The double 
" footprints on the sands of time" occasionally move 
so closely together that in tracking the one we cannot 
but observe the other. 

"Sunday, January 7th, 1855.— An important day in the Fifty 
annals of Zion Chapel. Longton. At night the chapel was ^^f'/Jf/^^Jf 
comfortably filled, about 1,800 persons present. After the ser- ton. 
mon, fifty precious souls cried for mercy. This gave all great 

"Monday, January 8th, 1855.— The congregation to-night 
has been excellent. Preached with much liberty, and Mr. 
McCurdy intimated after the service that every sentence was 
with great power. We had about thirty penitents. Many 
very good cases. 

"Thursday, nth.— The farewell. The chapel very full. 
more so than on Sunday night. A grand and imposing spec- 
tacle. How solemn the responsibility of the man who stands 
up to address such crowds on the momentous topics of Time, 
Eternity, Salvation, and Damnation. Lord, help me/ So I 
prayed, and mighty were the results. We took down about J^.^^ ^^^^ 
sixty names this night, making a total of 260 during the nine ^-^^^^^^^^ 
days that I had stayed at Longton. 

" Sunday, January 14th.— My first Sabbath at Hanley. It Hanley 
has been a remarkable day and I have preached twice in per- chapel. 
haps the largest chapel in the world. At night an imposing 

" I had much anxiety about visiting this place before leav- 



Age 26, 

Four hun- 
dred and 


for our 


ing London, and many fears as to my fitness for so large a 
building and so important a congregation. I was astonished 
at the quietness of spirit with which I rose to address so large 
a multitude, comparatively careless as to their mental criticism 
of the messenger and absorbed in an earnest desire for the 
salvation of the people. 

"Wednesday, 24th. — Congregations increased. During the 
fortYiight 460 names have been taken down, a very large num- 
ber, but not many in proportion to the vast crowds who have 
attended the meetings. Many glorious and wonderful cases 
of conversion have transpired, and on the whole I cannot but 
hope that the services have exercised a very salutary effect 
on the society and neighbourhood." 

During the following months up to the meeting of 
the Conference in June, Mr. Booth conducted services 
with similar results at Oldham, Mossley, Bradford, 
Gateshead, and Manchester, returning to London 
about the middle of May for his wedding. But before 
proceeding to describe this event, we must conclude 
the present chapter with an extract from a letter writ- 
ten to him by Miss Mumford during this period, in 
which she responds to a proposal for her to visit his 
newly-made friends in Guernsey: 

" Should the opportunity ever occur I shall not let so short 
a voyage hinder me. I have no doubt I should be very ill, 
but it would only be for a little while, and we usually have to 
^ay for our enjoyments in this world. There is no rose here 
without its thorn, and 1 never expect to be able to travel 
much without fatigue and suffering. So if ever we are to en- 
joy the beauties of nature together you must not mind a little 

" I long to see you. Your letters do not satisfy the yearn- 
ings of my heart. Perhaps they ought to. I wish it were 
differently constituted. I might be much happier. But it will 
be extravagant and enthusiastic in spite of all my schooling. 
If ever I get to Heaven, what rapture shall I know ! What a 
mercy it is that this is but the vestibule to a future existence, 
that my poor soul may enjoy a glorious future, and realise 


not only the perfection of all its powers, but the satisfaction 1855, 
of its hitherto insatiable desires. I often anticipate the time Age 26. 
when every jarring string shall be removed and all its tender 
chords be susceptible only of blissful harmony. How sweet 
to meet then, when our very hearts shall be open to each 
other's gaze and no envious veil come between to hinder the 
workings of each other's souls ! I believe that unions perfected 
in Jesus on earth, will be in some peculiar sense recognised 
and perpetuated in Heaven. But oh, to live for it! Will 
you try? And help me also ? 

" No, there is no fear of us loving each other too much. How The 
can we love each other more than Christ has loved us? — and *^""^f*^"^^ 
this is the standard He has given. Indeed, this love will only 
make us more lovable in His sight! What a precious thing is 
the religion of Jesus! It makes our first duties our highest 
happiness ! It has the promise of the life that now is, as well . 
as of that which is to come. We will spend all our energies 
in trying to persuade men to receive and practise it." 



A strik. Compared with the principles and practice of the 
^^ralt^ Salvation Army in later years, the wedding of Mr. 
Booth and Miss Mumford presents a striking contrast. 
Indeed, in the light of subsequent experience, they 
have not scrupled to blame themselves for having 
thrown away so unique a chance of influencing multi- 
tudes by considering their personal predilections 
rather than the highest interests of the kingdom. 
They were now so well known both in the Connexion 
and among the Reformers that the occasion might 
easily have been utilised as a powerful fulcrum on the 
hearts of the people. 
Anoppor- There are certain important domestic events which, 


though strictly speaking of a private character, never- 
theless appeal in an especial manner to the sympathy 
of those who are outside the narrow family pale. 
Under such circumstances the superabundance of joy 
or sorrow may be said to burst the ordinary bounds 
of stiff and cold decorum, and it has been the time- 
honoured custom in all nations for relations, friends, 
acquaintances, and even the public at large to rejoice 
with those who rejoice, and to weep with those who 
weep. If such a course be allowable and even laud- 
able in the world at large, how much more should 
this be the case v/ith those whose religious fellow- 
ship binds them in the closest of bonds, not only for 
time, but for eternity! 




There are some no doubt who deprecate this as- 
sembling of ourselves together on such occasions, 
and who would relegate all such demonstrations, 
when they are of a religious nature, to some unseen 
and speechless limbo. But this is to do violence to 
human nature and to sacrifice some of the tenderest 
links which bind together the entire fabric of so- 
ciety. There are certain charms to the magic " Hey ! 
presto!" of which the mortal heart spontaneously 
and involuntarily responds. They are few enough as 
it is, and the onward march of civilisation tends to 
diminish their ntimber and to substitute an artificial 
and powerless condition of existence such as would 
reduce the social structure to separated and cohe- 
sionless atoms. We cannot throw aside these spells 
without the danger of producing chaos, any more than 
we can dispense with mortar in putting together the 
bricks that compose our homes. Man is truly said to 
be a gregarious animal, and those who would isolate 
him, especially in the moments of his supreme joy or 
sorrow, strive to do they know not what, and, in de- 
claring war against his universal instinct, would, if 
successful, inflict upon him an irreparable injury. 

But these were lessons which were to be learnt in 
later life. And so an event which was fraught with 
consequences of everlasting importance to hundreds 
of thousands of souls, was enacted in all the empty 
quietude of a congregationless chapel. Mr. Booth 
led his bride to the altar in the presence of none, save 
her father, his sister, and the officiating minister. 
And yet perhaps never has there been a wiser choice, 
a more Heaven-approved union, than the one which 
was thus undemonstratively celebrated by Dr. 
Thomas, at the Stockwell New Chapel, on the i6th 
June, 1855. And if happiness be judged, not merely 

Age 26. 


A quiet 

16th June, 

192 MES. BOOTH. 

1855, by the measure of joy personally experienced, but by 
the amount imparted to others, then surely it may be 
said that never were two hearts united with happier 
results. " The joy of joys is the joy that joys in the 
joy of others." This is the purest and most unselfish 
form of happiness. Marriage too often degenerates 
into the merest self-indulgence, with the inevitable 
consequence that its charms decay as soon as it loses 
the gloss of early courtship. But where personal in- 
terests, though necessarily consulted, are subordi- 
nated to the claims of God and humanity, the happi- 
ness that ensues is both perfect and permanent. 
An inter- And yet, while for some reasons we cannot but 
side-Ught. I'^g^ct the loss of SO valuable an opportunity for 
gathering the people together and for impressing 
upon them the claims of God, the incident is valuable, 
inasmuch as it throws an interesting side-light upon 
the actual character of Mr. and Mrs. Booth. Far from 
being the ardent popularity-hunters and publicity- 
seekers which some suppose, it has been through life 
their constant lamentation that the calls of duty de- 
Theiriove privcd them of the domestic seclusion which they 
%acy would Otherwise have coveted. Especially was this 
the case with Mrs. Booth. Had she yielded to the 
bent of her personal inclinations, she would have in- 
finitely preferred the life of retirement which became 
less and less possible in her subsequent .career, and 
would have smuggled away her talents and buried 
her opportunities in some secluded retreat, satisfied, 
like so many, with having done no harm, while con- 
scious of having accomplished but little good. 
Talent- How Surprising it is that such a low standard of 
^ ^^^' morality as is involved in this talent- hiding disposition 
should satisfy the majority of mankind! Who can 
doubt that, however congenial it may be to our natural 


love of ease, it is entirely foreign to that spirit of ^^^55,^ 
Christianity which was designed, if for anything at 
all, to lift us out of the slough of selfishness, and to 
plant the feeblest feet upon the rock of benevolence. 
This at least was the gospel for which William and 
Catherine Booth contended, and in resolutely dis- 
regarding the natural barriers of reserve and timidity 
which would so often have hindered them in the 
prosecution of their life-enterprise, they were able to 
unearth and consecrate to God's service the hitherto 
dormant talents of tens of thousands. 

Hence, when in later years the same opportunity ^o tur^ 
recurred in the marriage of their children, it was no 
shallow thirst for show which prompted them to pur- 
sue so opposite a course to that which they had 
adopted at their own wedding. The opportunity of 
impressing upon the world at large what marriage 
might and ought to be was too valuable to be lost. 
And the great fundamental principle prevailed of ^^I'^T 
sacrificing personal preferences for the all-absorbing vrindpU. 
claims of God's kingdom. The trade winds were 
blowing too favourable a breeze for the fleet to lie 
at anchor. It might be necessary at times to scud 
under bare poles across stormy seas, or even to seek 
for a while some sheltering haven, but that was no 
reason for discarding opportunities so favourable, 
some of which come but once in a lifetime and pass 
away, if neglected, never to return. 

Man's instinct is to imitate, and the example of a ^ ff^^^^^" 
public wedding in which frivolity and extravagance frmnin^i 
—those curses of society— were conspicuous only by uhiting. 
their absence, who could overestimate? The picture 
of a union in which there was joy without folly, and 
in which the highest interests of God and man sup- 
planted the whims of private caprice and the mer- 



Age 26, 



born in 


cenary motives of worldly wisdom, may well be 
framed and exhibited for a few brief hours in such 
a manner as to arrest the attention of even the most 
careless passer-by. Mere display for its own sake is 
as contemptible as a gilded frame without a picture. 
To this the frameless picture of Mr. and Mrs. Booth's 
wedding is indeed infinitely preferable. God's pur- 
poses can afford at times to be born in obscurity. 
Nay, the very gloom from which they emerge may 
heighten the after effect. 



of a new 


" 'Tis thus God often shapes His choicest plan 
Far out of ken and reach of every man, 
Then suddenly in daylight broad unfolds 
His wisdom ! All the earth amazed beholds 
And doth His goodness better understand, 
Adores perforce His wonder-working hand ! 
Thus, in a bud, profusion of green leaves 
And blossoms richly coloured close He weaves, 
Forgetting not for bees the honey-drop. 
Nor even there His matchless skill doth stop ! 
Perfumes that seem so delicate and rare. 
And yet so strong their fragrance fills the air, 
Like angel's breath, defying human skill, 
Hid in that bud, encloses He at will. 
Just when to outward eye no hope is left, 
And of its last green leaf the tree's bereft, 
He sends His workers — all at variance seem — 
The rain, the dew, the wind, and the sunbeam — 
And then, when all in turn their part have played, 
Behold each twig with leaf and flower arrayed ! " 

And now Catherine Booth found herself on the 
threshold of the life of usefulness, which had consti- 
tuted the subject of her girlhood's dreams and the 
summit of her Christian aspirations. By her side 
was the man of her heart's choice. The impetus 
•which springs from unity of aim and purpose, was 
now in the fullest sense her own. The position for 
which, especially during the past three years, she 


had so diligently been preparing, was within her 1855, 
grasp. She realised at once its opportunities and re- ^^^ ^^' 
sponsibilities, and rose to meet them with unfailing 
grace, dignity, and power. 

There are some characters which appear to best f'hnr<y- 
advantage at a distance. Courtship invests them with h',-<n- iZlk- 
a false halo which enhances for a time their super- '"^ "^* 
ficial attractions and conceals their defects, but which 
disappears after the first few days of married life. A 
celebrated painter is said to have silenced one of his 
critics by explaining that his pictures were " not in- 
tended to be smelt S' Looked at from a distance such 
characters possess, like these pictures, a beauty which 
fades away on closer acquaintance. Catherine Booth 
was not one of these.- Nothing could exceed the es- 
teem and affection of those who knew her best. The 
very fact that she laid herself out rather for their 
benefit than to win golden opinions for herself, se- 
cured their everlasting respect. Mr. Booth realised 
increasingly that in her he had found the wise man's 
ideal of a wife, and had obtained favour of the Lord. 

As soon as the wedding was over Mr. and Mrs. ^ second 

visit to 

Booth proceeded to Ryde, in the Isle of Wight, but Guernsey. 
remained there only a week, when they took steamer 
to Guernsey, where they received a hearty welcome 
and found themselves the guests of Mr. Booth's 
former host and friend, Mr. Ozanne. 

From the ordinary point of view it would appear to 
have been a strange honeymoon, so early did public 
claims trespass upon domestic peace. On reaching 
Guernsey they found a crowd of people on the pier 
anxiously awaiting their arrival. 

Meetings had been already arranged, and without Another 
further pause they found themselves launched into all ^''"'^" • 
the opportunity and excitement of a powerful revival. 



1855, In describing these meetings to her mother, Mrs. 

^^ ^ ■ Booth writes : 

" William is preaching to-night. I feel so sorry that I am 
not well enough to go and hear him. The doors were to be 
open at half-past five to admit the seat-holders before the crush. 
The interest has kept up all through the services to such a de- 
gree as I have never witnessed before. It would do you good 
to see some of the prayer-meetings — chapel crowded, upstairs 
and down. There have been some precious cases of conver- 
sion, but not so many as William expected." 

Before leaving Guernsey, the following autographs 
were entered in the album of a friend : 

early aw- 

" Life with me," writes Mr. Booth, " has had its dark shadows 
and its gloomy days. And yet it has not been all sadness. 
There have been silvery linings to its darkest clouds. I have 
tasted many of its sweets, and have drunk deeply of its pass- 
ing excitements. I have known somewhat of the quiet joys 
of home, the pleasure of friendship, the thrilling delights in- 
spired by beholding the creations of man's genius, and the 
lovely and picturesque in nature. But no emotions that ever 
filled my heart were so rapturous, so pure, so heaven-like, as 
those that have swelled my heart, while standing surrounded 
by penitent souls, seeking mercy at the hand of Calvary's 
Prince. The cries of the weeping, the prayers of the men and 
women of God, and the songs of rejoicing alternately as- 
cending, have made to me music the most melting and glori- 
ous of any ever heard outside the portals of the Temple of 

Mrs. Booth writes as follows: 

" The woman who would serve her generation according to 
the will of God, must make moral and intellectual culture the 
chief business of life. Doing this she will rise to the true 
dignity of her nature, and find herself possessed of a wonder- 
ous capacity for turning the duties, joys, and sorrows of do- 
mestic life to the highest advantage, both to herself and to all 
those within the sphere of her influence. 

"July 20th, 1855. Catherine Booth." 


Beneath this entry her eldest daughter afterwards 1855, 
adds the following remarks : 

" Thirty years ago my beloved mother wrote in this book, The Ma- 
years before I was born. Words would fail to express all her ^^axiio- ^ 
example and influence have done for her children, all of graph. 
whom now speak for her in the gate ! My one and only joy 
is to follow in her steps and turn men from darkness to light, 
fully realising how short the time is and how more than 
worthy is our Redeemer of every moment of my life. 

"June 5th, 1885. Catherine Booth." 


The Con- 

nine peni- 
tents in 



One hun- 
dred and 
one seek- 
ers in one 


The five months of evangelistic work which pre- 
ceded his marriage had established for Mr. Booth a 
widespread reputation for devotion, ability, and suc- 
cess, so that when the Annual Conference had met at 
Sheffield, just previous to the wedding, it was resolved 
that " the Rev. William Booth, whose labours had 
been so abundantly blessed in the conversion of sin- 
ners, be appointed to the work of an evangelist, to 
give the various circuits an opportunity of having his 
services during the coming year." 

The results had indeed been remarkable. In the 
space of four months no less^than 1,739 persons had 
sought salvation at nine separate centres, besides a 
considerable number at four or five other places, of 
which we have no particulars. This gave an average 
of 214 for each circuit visited, or 161 for each week, 
and 2 3 for each day during the time that meetings were 
being held. At Longton, during the first visit there 
were 260 in nine days, and during the second visit 97 in 
four days. At Hanley, there were 460 in a fortnight ; 
at Burslem, 262 in one week; at Mossley, 50 in five 
days; at Newcastle-under-Lyme, 290 in one week; at 
Bradford, 160 in a fortnight, and at Gateshead, a simi- 
lar number in the same time. Not included in the 
above was Guernsey, where, during Mr. Booth's first 
visit, 200 souls sought salvation in the space of a 
fortnight. It was an ordinary occurrence for 40, 50, 
and 60 persons to come forward to the communion 


Age 26. 

A trying 

rail each night, and at Burslem we read in the Nczo 
Connexion Magazine, that on a single occasion loi 
names were taken. Besides those who actually pro- 
fessed conversion, large numbers of persons became 
convinced of sin, and were gathered in after the 
special services were over. 

From Guernsey Mr. and Mrs. Booth proceeded to Jersey. 
Jersey, and it is worthy of note that the hall in which 
the meetings were held has since become an Army 

The return voyage was a very trying one. Mrs. 
Booth was always a wretched sailor, and this trip was 
certainly one of her worst. She had been for some 
time in very poor health, and it now became manifest 
that it would be impossible for her to accompany her 
husband in fulfilling the next appointments marked out 
for him by the Annual Committee. It was therefore 
decided, much to their mutual disappointment, that 
Mrs. Booth should remain at home with her mother 
till well enough to travel, while Mr. Booth proceeded 
to York, in fulfilment of his next engagement. How 
keenly they felt the separation may be judged from 
the first letters interchanged by them, after Mr. 
Booth had left : 

A first 

" 3 Castle Gate, York, August 4th. 1855. 

"Mv Precious Wife: — The first time I have written you 
that endearing appellation! Bless you a thousand times! 
How often during my journey have I taken my eyes from off 
the book I was reading to think about you— yes, to think ten- 
derly about you, about our future, our home and its endear- 

" Shall we not again commence a life of devotion, and by 
renewed consecration begin afresh the Christian race? 

" O Kate ! be happy. You will rejoice my soul if you 
send me word that your heart is gladsome, and your spirits 



Age 26. 

are light. It will help you to battle with your illness, and 
make the short period of our separation fly away. 

" Bless you ! I feel as though a part of my very self were 
wanting — as though I had left some very important adjunct 
to my happiness behind me. And so I have. My precious 
self. I do indeed return that warm affection I know you bear 
toward me. 

" Your faithful and affectionate husband, 

" William." 

Booth re- 

s2Jonds. sponse : 

To this letter Mrs. Booth sent the following re- 


phy ver- 
sus love. 

"August 6th, 1885. 

" My Precious Husband : — A thousand thanks for your 
sweet letter. I have read it over many, many times, and it 
is still fresh and precious to my heart. I cannot answer it, but 
be assured not a word is forgotten or overlooked. 

" As soon as you were out of sight, I felt as though I could 
have performed the journey with far less suffering than to 
stay behind. It was a supremely wretched day, and long be- 
fore night I had made up my mind to come to you, sick or well, 
on Wednesday. You say, 'But, Kate, how foolish! Why did 
you not think and reason?' I did, my darling! I philoso- 
phised as soundly as you could desire. I argued with myself 
on the injustice of coming here and making my dear mother 
miserable by leaving her so soon — on the folly of making my- 
self ill — on the selfishness of wishing to burden you with the 
anxiety and care my presence would entail. But in the very 
midst of such soliloquies, the fact of your being gone beyond 
my reach, the possibility of something happening before we 
could meet again, the possible shortness of the time we may 
have to spend together, and such like thoughts would start 
up, making rebellious nature rise and swell and scorn all re- 
straints of reason, philosophy, or religion. The only comfort 
I could get was from the thought that I could follow you if I 
liked. And binding this only balm tightly to my heart, I 
managed to get a pretty good night's rest. 

" Remember me always as your own faithful, loving, joyful 
little wife, 

" Catherine." 


From York Mr. Booth proceeded to Hull, and he 1855, 
was joined on his way at Selby junction by Mrs. ^^ ^ 
Booth, who had now sufficiently recovered to be able They meet 
to travel. The meetings were of the usual stirring " ^ ' 
and successful character, as may be judged from the 
following report sent to the Nczv Connexion Magazine 
by the Rev. J. Addyman, the local minister: 

" On the Sabbath morning at 7 o'clock, we had a 
glorious prayer-meeting, which spoke well for the 
day. The congregations exceeded our expectations. 
In the evening the chapel was full, and the extra- 
ordinary ministry of the preacher produced an im- 
pression which we trust will not soon be effaced. 
Appropriate and vivid were the illustrations, and the 
appeals for an immediate decision were heart-search- 
ing. Many sighs, groans, and heart-felt responses 
were heard throughout the congregation. Many 
came forward to the altar and sought mercy. Ten 
were blessed with a sense of pardon, and went home 

" On Wednesday evening the meeting was com- a thun- 
menced under a very gracious influence. Brother cannon- 
Booth preached a most telling and effective sermon, prayer. 
Conviction took deep hold on the minds of the people, 
and many literally groaned in spirit. The prayer- 
meeting opened with great power. It was like a 
thundering cannonade. The people came forward in 
rapid, succession. Fourteen professed to find peace, 
while others went away still mourning. 

" The second Sabbath commenced as the previous 
one. At night we had a packed chapel, communion 
rails, pulpit, stairs, etc. On account of the great num- 
ber of people present we had some difficulty in get- 
ting the prayer-meeting into good working order, but 
by the discreet management of our leader we sue- 

202 MRS. BOOTH. 

1855, ceeded. The meeting was pervaded by a hallowed 
and powerful influence, and thirty-eight persons pro- 

eiqht^sp'ek ^^ssed to find peace with God, 

salvation. " Qn Thursday our brother preached his farewell 
sermon, when every part of the chapel, even to the 
top of the pulpit-stairs, was densely thronged. It was 
eleven o'clock before we could bring that truly 'anx- 
ious' meeting to a final close. I never witnessed 
such a scene. Forty-eight persons gave their names 
in as converts. 

Two hun- " During these memorable seasons we have entered 

dred and 

seventii the names of 270 persons. These services have been 


taken, conducted throughout with great order and propriety, 
and attended by people of various denominations. 
Our excellent brother Booth was carried beyond him- 
self, and fears were entertained lest he should break 
down, but God has graciously sustained him." 

After reaching Hull, Mrs. Booth sent the following 
letter to her parents : 

A letter to "My Own Dear Parents: — My dear husband has gone to 
ler lome. (;|-^g^pg|^ r^^^ though I am but ill able to sit up, I will send you 
a line. 

" Well, I got through the journey better than I expected. 
The guard was exceedingly kind and attentive. If I had been 
rich, I should have given him lialf-a-sovcreign. 

" My precious husband met me at Milford, and was de- 
lighted to see me. He is kinder and more tender than ever, 
and is very, very glad I came. Bless him ! He is worth a 
bushel of the ordinary sort. 

" Considering we are only at the start, the work wears the 
most encouraging aspect of anj^ place he has yet visited, and 
he is, therefore, in excellent spirits. 

" I have told William about my dear mother's kindness to 
me and he desires me to send his very warm love and heart- 
felt thanks. As to myself, I feel very grateful for so much 
unmerited kindness. It is indeed sweet to be so cared for. 
God bless you both ! 


" I have every comfort and attention, so be easy about me, 1855, 
and believe me as ever and more than ever, ^S® ^^• 

" Your affectionate and grateful child, 

" Catherine." 

After spending: a short time together at Hull, Mr, Caistor 
and Mrs. Booth went for a couple of days' rest and 
change to Caistor, the scene of the remarkable in- 
gatherings already recorded. Owing to Mrs. Booth's 
continued ill-health, it was decided that she should 
here remain until the conclusion of the work in Hull. 
While staying in Caistor she wrote as follows to her 
mother : 

" I heard from William this morning. They had a trium- 
phant day on Sunday, the chapel packed and upwards of forty 
cases at night, some of them very remarkable ones. He will 
finish up at Hull on Thursday, and come here on Friday for 
a week's rest previous to commencing the services at Sheffield. 
I anticipate his coming much. 

" It is such a splendid country. As I rambled out in the Her love 
green lanes this morning, hemmed in on every side by fields ^{°^j''!,^ 
of golden corn, in which the reapers are busy in all direc- 
tions, and surrounded by the most lovely scenery of hill and 
dale, wood and garden, I did wish you, my dear mother, 
could come and spend a fortnight with me. As for Hull, I 
would much prefer Brixton, and our di'f of garden to the great 
majority of its homes. It is like being in fairy-land here, 
after being there, though I had every kindness and attention 
heart could desire. But you know how precious fresh air is 
to me at all times, or I would not be a voluntary exile from 
my beloved husband, even for a week. Bless him ! He con- 
tinues all I desire. 

" I am glad you changed the boots. Fudge about paying me ! 
I should think you wore an extra pair out in running up and 
down stairs after me, when I located my troublesome self at 
Brixton last. Whether or not, it is all right. 

" We are to have apartments at Sheffield. You cannot think 
with what joy I anticipate being to ourselves once more. It y^^. ^ome. 
will seem like being at home, sweet home. For though I get 



Age 26. 

A message 

to her 


literally oppressed with kindness, I must say I would prefer 
a home, where we could sit down together at our own little 
table, myself the mistress and my husband the only guest. 
But the work of God so abundantly prospers that I dare not 
repine, or else I feel this constant packing and locating 
amongst strangers to be a great burden, especially while so 
weak and poorly. But then I have many mercies and advan- 
tages. My precious William is all I desire, and without this 
what would the most splendid home be but a glittering bau- 
ble? Then, too, by living in different families and places, I 
have much room for observation and reflection on various 
phases of life and character which I hope will benefit my 
mind and increase my knowledge, and thus fit me for future 
usefulness in my family, the church, and the world. May the 
Lord help me ! 

" Tell father that he must not wait for a change of circum- 
stances before he begins to serve God, but seek ^fr.?/ the King- 
dom of Heaven, and then the attending promise will belong 
to him, and I believe God will fulfil it. I wish he could be in- 
troduced into such a revival as that at Hull. God is doing 
great and marvellous things there. 

"'He is bringing to His fold 

Rich and poor and young and old. ' " 

At the same time she wrote as follows to Mr. 
Booth : 

A beauti- 
ful des- 

" My Own Sweet Husband : — Here I sit under a hedge in 
that beautiful lane you pointed out to me. It is one of the 
loveliest days old earth has ever basked in. No human being is 
within sight or sound. All nature seems to be exulting in ex- 
istence, and your moralising little wife is much better in health 
and in a mood to enjoy all these beauties and advantages to 
the utmost. I have had a vegetarian breakfast, and one of 
the most refreshing dabbles in cold water I ever enjoyed. 
And now, after a brisk walk and reading your kind letter, I 
feel more pleasure in writing to you than anything else un- 
der heaven (except a personal interview) could give me. 

" I bless God for His goodness to you on Sunday, and hope 
that for once thou wast satisfied ! If so, it would have been 
a treat to have seen thee ! I feel perfectly at home here and 


experience just that free, sweet, wholesome kind of at- 
mosphere which I have so long been panting for. My natural 
spirits are in a high key this morning. I feel as if I could 
get over a stile just at hand and join the lambs in their gam- 
bols ! My soul also rises to the great and benevolent Creator 
of us all, and I feel stronger desires than for a long time 
past to be a Christian after His own model, even Christ Jesus. 

" Oh, I wish you were here. I think you would rest quiet 
a little tvhile! It is so like what it will be when there is no 
more curse, when they shall not hurt nor destroy in all God's 
holy mountain, but when the lion and the fatling shall lie 
down together, and a little child shall lead them ! Oh what 
a glorious time is coming for the real children of God — to 
those who do His will ! Lord help us ! 

" The bells are ringing and guns firing on account of the news 
that Sebastopol is taken. But I should think it is a delusion. 
Anyhow I cannot enter into the spirit of the victory. I 
picture the gory slain and the desolated homes and broken 
hearts attending it, and feel saddened. What a happy day 
will it be for the world when all Christians shall protest 
against war, when each poor mistaken Peter shall have heard 
Jesus say, 'Put up again thy sword into his place, for all they 
that take the sword shall perish with the sword!' What a 
fearful prediction, if it applies to nations as well as to in- 
dividuals ! And hitherto it has been fulfilled in the history 
of the world. If it is yet Lo be fulfilled in our history, what 
will be our fate as a people? 

" Believe me, as ever, thy own in earth's tenderest, closest, 
and strongest bonds, 

" Catherine." 

Age 26. 


The neivs 
of Sebas- 

Her feel- 
ings in re- 
gard to 


The first 

visit to 



their re- 

DENCE. 1855. 

The visit to Sheffield is so fully described in Mrs. 
Booth's letters to her parents that we hail the oppor- 
tunity of reporting it in her own words. The meet- 
ings lasted for a month, from 23d September to 24th 
October, and included five Sabbaths. No less than 
663 professed conversion during this time, the work 
increasing week by week in power and success. 
Indeed it broke off at its very height, arousing a con- 
siderable controversy in Mr. and Mrs. Booth's minds 
as to the wisdom of abandoning such an opportunity 
when circumstances seemed favourable for an even 
larger ingathering. But we turn to Mrs. Booth's own 
narrative : 

"Sept. 24th, 1855. 
" We arrived here two days ago. The Rev. W. 
Mills (ex-President of the Connexion) met us at the 
station and accompanied us to our host's. So that, 
after all, we are not to be to ourselves. It is, how- 
ever, a beautiful home, in the outskirts of the town, 
within ten minutes' walk of the cemetery, and over- 
looking some splendid scenery. I feel this to be a 
special blessing in my present sickly condition. I 
don't know what I should do if we were located in 
the town, which for smoke, I thought as we entered it, 
must rival the infernal region itself. It appears a 





very large, populous, and thriving city. But of course ^^^55,^ 
I have not seen much of it yet. 

"They had a grand beginning yesterday at the -4^y«|>^ 
chapel, and took twenty names. William is posted «mg. 
on the walls in monster bills in all directions, and 
it appears from the congregations that his fame was 
here before him. I trust the work will be equal or 
superior to Hull. 

"September 27th. — We dined and took tea with Rev 
Mr. Mills, yesterday. This is the same minister who 
was Superintendent of the Hanley Circuit, where 
William had such a glorious revival last year. He is 
a nice man, very gentlemanly and intelligent. He 
gave William his opinion of mc, which I fear was 
very flattering. 

" I have been to chapel two evenings. The work 
is rising in power, influence, and importance, and 
bids fair to become very mighty. On Tuesday even- 
ing seven or eight ministers of different denomina- 
tions were present. The celebrated John Unwin, of 
Sheffield, of whom you have often heard me speak 
and read, as a leading Reformer, and Mr. Caughey's 
host and intimate friend, sat just behind me. 

"Luke Tyerman is in Sheffield, and lives not far 
from our residence. We think of going to see him, 
and intend to hear him preach before Ave leave. 

" You will be pleased to hear that my letter on 
the training of young converts is copied from the 
New Connexion Magazine into the Canadian Christian 
Witness. So it has found a sympathiser on the other 
side of the Atlantic. 

"October 5th.— The work progresses with power. 
We have been to-day to call on Mrs. Thomas Firth. 
It is one of the most splendid homes I ever visited 
and has a very kind and sympathetic lady for its mis- 



Age 26. 


The prog- 
ress of 
the work. 

classes at- 

tress, I have had several interviews with her and 
like her very much. I feel her sympathy to be a 
special boon just now. You know what a great de- 
sideratum this is ztnt/i me. 

"October. — I should love to see you. I never was 
so happy before. My cup, so far as this world goes, 
seems full. With the exception of the drawback of a 
delicate body and being without an abiding home, I 
have all I want. My precious William grows every 
day more to my mind and heart. God is blessing 
him richly both in his own soul and in his public la- 
bours. He is becoming more and more a man of 
prayer and of one purpose. 

" The work progresses with mighty power. Every- 
body who knows anything of this society is aston- 
ished, and the mouths of gainsayers are stopped. 
God's Son is glorified and precious souls are being 
saved by scores. Four hundred and forty names 
have been taken, and to-morrow is expected to be a 
crowning day. There is to be another love-feast in 
the afternoon, making three since we came. 

"October. — The work goes on gloriously. On Sun- 
day night the chapel was packed to suffocation, and 
after a powerful sermon a mighty prayer-meeting 
ensued, in which upwards of sixty names were taken, 
some of them very important and interesting cases. 
People of all grades and opinions attend the services, 
from members of the Town Council to the lowest 
outcasts. Last night (Monday) was what William 
calls a precious night, and Mr. Mills, the ex-Presi- 
dent, says the sermon was both beautiful and effective. 

" I have not been to chapel since I had the doctor. 
I feel it a great privation, but all other trials are 
more than compensated by the kindness and attention 
of my beloved husband. He gets more affectionate 


every day, and often tells me he never dreamed of 1855, 
being half so happy. He has just been up to the ^^ ^ ' 
room in which I am writing, telling me it is the 
climax of his happiness to have me with him, and 
exhausting his vocabulary of kind words and tender 
epithets. I tell you this, because I know your mother- 
heart. Bless the Lord ! My full soul often vents it 
self in asking, 'Whence to me this waste of love?' Oh, 
for more devotedness to God ! Then I should indeed 
be satisfied. 

"October. — William's mother is staying here. I Mr. 
must say I anticipated seeing my new mother with mother. 
much pleasure and some anxiety, but at our first 
interview the latter vanished and I felt that I could 
both admire and love her. She is a very nice-looking 
old lady, and of a very sweet and amiable spirit. 
William had not at all over-estimated her in his de- 
scriptions. I do wish she lived within visiting dis- 
tance of you. I am sure you would enjoy her society. 

" I went to chapel yesterday and witnessed a scene An affect- 
such, as I had never beheld before. In the afternoon ^"^ ^^^"^' 
there was a love-feast, and it was indeed a feast of 
love. The chapel was packed above and below, so 
much so that it was with extreme difficulty the bread 
and water could be passed about. The aisles and 
pulpit stairs were full, and in all parts of the chapel 
persons rose to testify of the power of God in con- 
nexion with the services. It was an affecting time, 
both to me and to William's mother, when some one 
called down blessings on his head, to hear a general 
response and murmured prayer all through the build- 

" At night we got there at five minutes to six, and a forest 
found the chapel crowded and the vestry half full. ""^ ^^'"^^' 
I was just returning home when a gentleman told 


1855, me there was a seat reserved for me in Mr. Mills' 
^^ ' pew, which, after some difficulty, I reached. The 
chapel presented a most pleasing aspect, a complete 
forest of heads extending to the outside of every 
door, upstairs and down. Mr. Shaw opened the ser- 
vice, and William preached with marvellous power. 
For an hour and ten minutes everybody was absorbed 
and riveted. Though scores were standing, they had 
a glorious prayer-meeting, in which seventy names 
were taken, many of them being very satisfactory 
cases. I would have given something considerable 
for you to have been there. 
A mighty " Octobcr 22d. — We had a wonderful day at the 
chapel yesterday, a tremendous erowei jammed to- 
gether like sheep in a pen, and one of the mightiest 
sermons at night I ever listened 'to, from 'Will a man 
rob God ? Yet ye have robbed Me ! ' The chapel 
continued crowded during the prayer-meeting, and 
Jx^names before half-past ten o'clock seventy-six names were 
taken, taken. All glory to God ! 

" My dearest has been very prostrated to-day, but 
is preaching again to-night. They had collections to 
defray the incidental expenses of the services yester- 
day and raised £2^, far beyond anybody's expec- 

"The farewell sermon is to be on Wednesday night, 
when he will finish up five weeks' services, having 
preached twice on Sundays and four nights a week in 
the same chapel. 

" A letter from the Annual Committee this morning 
says he must not visit the other chapel in this town. 
The friends are in a dreadful way about it. They 
talk of calling a meeting of office-bearers and petition- 
ing for it. But I don't think it will be of any use, as 
the committee have arranged for six places between 



now and May, and even this leaves some of the most 
important and needy towns out altogether. 

" My dear William is very mueh harassed about 
having to leave a place before his own convictions of 
duty favour it. It is a solemn thing, and he feels his 
responsibility as he never did before. May the Mas- 
ter undertake for him. I believe that if God spares 
him and he is faithful to his trust, his usefulness will 
be untold, and beyond our present capacity to esti- 
mate. He is becoming more and more effective every 
day, and God seems to be preparing him in his own 
soul for greater things yet. Oh, for grace to surren- 
der our whole selves to do His will ! 

"October 24th. — Your very kind letter is to hand, 
and though I wrote yesterday I cannot forbear send- 
ing you a few lines to-day. You seem low and poorly, 
and I feel that I must try and comfort you a bit. I 
am sorry you were disappointed in not hearing from 
me on Saturda3% but you must never attribute it to 
neglect or indifference when I omit writing. It 
sometimes happens that I cannot /nip it. There are 
many circumstances and arrangements to which I am 
subject w^hicli would be otherwise, had I a quiet re- 
tired home of my own. Yesterday, for instance, I 
had not half an hour at my own disposal. So when- 
ever I don't send you my accustomed letter always 
conclude it is because I cannot, for I assure you, my 
will and heart always prompt me to do so. (It was 
Mrs. Booth's rule to write to her parents at least once 
a week, and throughout life she recommended it to 

" I received all your letters, and although I did not 
mention them, I think I referred to the contents of 
each. Bless you! I have read them through several 
times, and shed some tears over them, too! Don't 

Age 26. 

An unfin- 



ances of 

2 12 MRS. BOOTH. 

i8ss, imagine that because I am so happy in my husband, 
^^ ^ ' and have so many things to claim my attention, that 
I think or careless about you. I don't believe I ever 
loved or valued you so much, and I am sure I never 
longed to see you more. My thoughts constantly 
stray off to you, and I am continually wishing you 
could share my joys and prosperity. 
DonH "Don't worry! I have seen the folly of my former 

worry . j^^g ^^ apprehension, distrust, and sinful despondency 
in regard to the future. Oh, try to learn the lesson 
from me, and don't anticipate evil which may never, 
never come! I consider it nonsense to talk about 
your uselessness! What else can you do? Your 
path at present seems shut to where you are, and it 
may be God is more glorified by your standing still 
and patiently waiting the development of His pur- 
poses, than by a much more active life. I know it 
is hard to trust and hope when we can see nothing. 
I have, as you know, often felt it so. But now the 
clouds have dispersed, and the day shines, how 
plainly I see that I might have been much happier, 
if I had trusted the Lord more. He was doing for 
me the very things which I most desired, but because 
clouds and darkness so often appeared to be round 
about me, you are a witness to my murmurings and 
mistrust. Oh, let us learn to believe His word. 
* Commit thy way unto the Lord, and He will direct 
thy steps.' The Lord help us, for even yet I need 
Trusting much faith in God for the future. I am often dread- 
thefu- fully tempted to entertain gloomy anticipations, and 
to think that my present lot is too happy to last long. 
I suffer muchanxiety about my dear husband's health. 
Luke Everybody predicts his breaking down. Luke Tyer- 
maZs man told him yesterday that neither he nor any other 
opinion. ^^^ could Stand it long, and I often fear. But at 



present God strengthens him wonderfully. How 
true it is we know not what a day may bring forth, 
in regard to our joys no less than with reference to 
our anticipated sorrows. 

" Thursday noon . — They finished up last night 
gloriously. Though it was a very wet night the 
chapel was packed in every part, and scores went 
away unable to get in. The friends described the 
scene to me as very affecting and unprecedented in 
their history when the people took leave of William, 
at near eleven o'clock. They passed in a continuous 
stream across the communion-rail from one side of 
the chapel to the other, while the choir sang, 'Shall 
we ever meet again?' They took forty-eight names, 
making a total of 663." 

At the conclusion of these meetings, the Confer- 
ence Committee, at the instance of the Sheffield 
friends, agreed to a fortnight's rest, which was spent 
at Chatsworth, where Mrs. Booth writes to her mother 
as follows: 

Age 26. 

Six hun- 
dred and 

"Chatsworth Park, October 27th. 
" We arrived here this morning for a few days' rest 
before going on to Dewsbury. The Sheffield friends 
have been exceedingly kind. There was a meeting 
on Thursday night of office bearers, locat preachers, 
and leaders, to hear an address from William on the 
best means of sustaining and consolidating the work. 
It was a very important gathering and was attended 
by a number of influential people. They decided that 
the address should be published. The gentleman 
with whom he had been staying bore a most flattering 
testimony to the benefit his whole family had derived 
from William's stay among them, and styled it a high 
honour to have had the privilege of entertaining us. 

to Shef- 

2 14 MRS. BOOTH. 

185s, The unanimous and kind solicitude manifested was 
Agfe 26 

overwhelming and sufficient to have made any man 

destitute of the grace of God, vain. 
Chats- " I thought and talked much of you on the journey 

Park, here, as I rode over those Derbyshire hills and wit- 
nessed its wild and romantic scenery. It is a splen- 
did spot where we are located, right inside the park, 
where we can see the deer gambolling. I feel a 
peculiar interest in the scenes around, doubtless owing 
to its being my native county, and you will not deem 
it strange that associated with such feelings I should 
think more about the authors of my being. Bless 
you ! I hope the sun of prosperity will yet rise and 
shine upon you, as you descend the hill of life, and 
that I shall be permitted to rejoice in its rays, 
■^^s " 28th October. — This afternoon we walked through 

scenery. ° 

the park right up to the Duke of Devonshire's resi- 
dence. It is one of the most splendid spots I was 
ever in. It is all hill and dale, beautifully wooded 
and bestudded with deer in all directions. The resi- 
dence itself is superior to many of the royal palaces, 
and the scenery around is most picturesque and sub- 
lime. This splendid spot is ours for a week in every 
sense necessary to its full enjoyment, without any of 
- the anxiety belonging to its real owner, 

" This first day of our stay has been a very blessed 
one. I could not tell you how happy we both are, 
notwithstanding my delicate health and our constant 
migrations. We do indeed find our earthly heaven 
in each other. Praise the Lord with me, and oh, 
pray that I may so use and improve the sunshine that 
if the clouds should gather and the storm arise, I may 
be prepared to meet it with calmness and resignation. 

" At present my dearest love bears up under his 
extraordinary toil remarkably well, and seems to be 


profiting already from this rest and change. I never 1855, 
knew him in a more spiritual and devotional condition ^^ ^ ' 
of mind. His character daily rises in my esteem and 
admiration, and I am perfectly satisfied with his affec- 
tion for me. He often tells me he could not have 
believed he should ever have loved any being as he 
loves me. Has not the Lord been gracious to me ? 
Has He not answered my prayers? And oh, shall 
I not praise Him and serve Him? Yea, I am resolved 
to do so with all my heart, 

" November 2d. — Thursday was a fine frosty day, MMieton 
of which we took due advantage. Directly after 
breakfast we started for a walk of four miles to see 
the rocks of Middleton Dale. The scenery all the 
way was enchanting. I could scarce get along for 
stopping to admire and exclaim. The dark frowning 
cliffs on one hand, the splendid autumnal tints of 
rich foliage on the other, and the ever varying views 
of hill and dale before us, all as it were tinged with 
glory from a radiant sky, filled us with unutterable 
emotions of admiration, exhilaration, and joy. 

" William constantly saluted some passer on the a Derby- 
road, and from all received a regular Derbyshire re- ^sponse^ 
sponse. One old man, in answer to a question as to 
the distance we were from the Dale, said he reckoned 
'Welley' four miles, it 'met' be about 'thra' and a half. 
I thought of poor Liz filling the pan 'welley' full of 
potatoes ! 

" Well, we reached the Dale, and were not at all 
disappointed with the scenery. It is a long narrow 
road with cliffs from a hundred to two hundred feet 
high on either side, jutting out here and there like 
old towers of a by-gone age, and frowning darkly on 
all below. I wish I could describe the wild grandeur 
of the place, but I have neither time nor ability. 

2i6 MRS. BOOTH. 

1855, " We walked about half a mile up the dale, and 

^^ ^ ■ then I rested and got a little refreshment at a very 

An an- ancient and comical kind of inn. William walked 

cientinn. ^^^^ ^ ^.^^ further. During this time I had a 

very cosy and to me amusing chat in rich Derby- 
shire brogue with an old man over his pipe and mug 
of ale. 

" After resting about half an hour we bent our steps 
homewards, where we arrived soon after two. I felt 
tired, but considering I had walked at least nine 
miles during the day, I reckoned myself worth many 
dead ones." 

During their stay at Chatsworth, some Sheffield 

Sir Mark f^ieuds Came over for the day. One of them, Mr. 

Firth. Mark Firth, was afterwards knighted on the occasion 

of the visit of the Prince of Wales to Sheffield. Mrs. 

Booth thus describes their visit : 

" This morning we were just preparing to visit 
Chatsworth House and to explore a part of the park 
we had not seen, when to our surprise Mr. and Mrs. 
Fenton, and Mr. Mark Firth, brother to the gentle- 
man named in my former letter, came to the door. 
They had driven over in their phaeton to spend the 
Climbing day with US. So we set off to climb some tremendous 
t e I s. -^^Yls, in order to reach a tower built in the highest 
part of the park grounds. I got about half-way up 
and then my strength failed me, and I begged to be 
allowed to sit down and wait, while the rest of the 
party completed the ascent. After much persuasion 
I carried my point and was left alone, sitting on a 
stone, my eyes resting on one of the loveliest scenes 
I ever expect to witness in this world. I enjoyed 
my meditations exceedingly. I was on an elevation 
about as high as St. Paul's, with a waterfall on one 
side of me, and the most romantic scenery you can 

Mrs. Mumford. 



imagine all around, above and below. The old Duke 
ought to be a happy man, if worldly possessions can 
give felicity. But, alas! we know they cannot. And 
according to all accounts he is one of those to whom 
they have failed to impart it. 

"The ducal mansion is a magnificent building sit- 
uated in the most romantic portion of the park. Sir 
Joseph Paxton's home is between the lodge and the 
Duke's residence. It is a fine building, quite a gen- 
tleman's seat, and yet it is only eighteen years since 
he came here on an equal footing with the man who 
keeps the lodge, and who works still as a plodding 
gardener. They both came on to the estate together, 
and at equal wages, which were very low. And now 
one is 'Sir Joseph,' known all over the world, while 
the other is still but keeper of the lodge." 

For some years past the Salvation Army has cele- 
brated its anniversary in the Crystal Palace, for the 
designing of which Sir Joseph Paxton received his 
honours. How small a world it is, after all, and how 
strangely do its happenings overlap and interlace each 
other ! 

Age 26. 

unable to 




Hersevere Dewsbury was Mr. Booth's next appointment. 
I ness. Yleve Mrs. Booth was prostrated with a severe attack 
of inflammation of the lungs, from which for some 
time serious consequences were feared. She recov- 
ered, however, sufficiently to be able to attend the 
closing meetings of the revival. 

Has re- She ascribcd her improved health to homoeopathy, 

7wmcro" which she had for some time been practising with 
iMthy. increasing confidence and benefit. The system had 
been recommended to her about three years previously, 
and by its means she had succeeded in curing an 
obstinate sore throat, which had long resisted the 
ordinary allopathic remedies. This had induced her 
to make a careful study of several books bearing on 

ff^ff^s^ the subject, with the result that she was still further 
tern. convinced as to the soundness of the fundamental 
principles on which homoeopathy is based. Since her 
marriage she had taken advantage of the enforced 
leisure necessitated by her delicate health to carefully 
study Hahnemann's "Organon," determined that she 
would not rest short of thoroughly mastering what 
seemed likely to prove so useful to her in after life. 
She knew something of allopathy, but it appeared to 
her to be a system rather of palliatives than of cura- 
tives, often substituting graver evils for those which 
it sought to combat. Hence her mind was open to 
receive fresh light, and to study the claims of any 



remedies which professed to afford permanent relief. 1855, 
In subsequent years she largely adhered to the prac- ^^ ^ " 
tice of homoeopathy, acknowledging to have derived 
considerable benefit from its use, both in her own 
case and in that of her family. 

The services commenced in Dewsbury, on Sunday, The Dews- 
the 4th November, and were concluded on Monday, rexivai. 
the 3d December. In the Magazine for January, the 
editor refers to the work in the following terms : 

" Our last number furnished our readers with an account of 
the glorious revival at Sheffield, and the commencement of 
one at Dewsbury, both of which were still going on at the time 
we went to press. As one indication of the good work at 
Sheffield South, we have been called upon to supply three hun- 
dred probationers' tickets. Respecting Dewsbury, the letter 
of the Rev. Saxton affords the cheering intelligence that four „ 
hundred and forty souls have been brought to a religious de- hundred 
cision. This news will gladden the hearts of thousands and "^'^•^5'/^ 
evoke the grateful exclamation. Praise Jehovah ! Hallelujah vation. 
to His blessed Name ! Our beloved brother, Mr. Booth, is now 
at Leeds. The prayer of our heart is that similar signs may 
there attend his evangelistic labours." 

But it is scarcely necessary to quote from Mr. Sax- 
ton's long and interesting report of the Dewsbury 
meetings, since we have Mrs. Booth's letters written 
at the time during the intervals of her illness : 

"November 5th. — We arrived here the day before Mrs. 
yesterday, about 6 p.m. Two preachers met us at ffrfbesthe 
the station, and accompanied us to our host's, where '"^^''"S'^- 
we received a very cordial welcome. 

" The services commenced zve// yesterday, the 
chapel being quite full at night. The faith of our 
friends rilns very high for something glorious. Our 
expectation is from the Lord. May He abundantly 
fulfil it. 

"November 12th. — William got the Wcshyan Times, 



Age 26. 

the ice. 

the gates. 

and read the letter you refer to. The writer is a Mr. 
Little, of Leeds, so he will soon have an opportunity 
of judging as to the genuineness of the revivals attend- 
ant on our mission. Some of his remarks are un- 
questionably just 2,ndi justifiable, when applied to some 
persons assuming the title of Revivalists. I have 
often been distressed by the wildness and extrava- 
gance of such, and am the last to tolerate noise with- 
out influence, or ignorant and profane dealing with 
sacred subjects. Mr. Little appears to be an oppo- 
nent of Mr. Poole, and probably his remarks are 
chiefly directed against him. If so, however, I think 
them severe and unjust. Well, if God gives us 
such a work at Leeds as we had at Sheffield, neither 
Mr. L., nor any other 'little' man, will be able to 
disparage it. 

" The work here is progressing gloriously, though 
we found a people frozen, formal, and quite out of 
harmony with the spirit of a revival. Several of the 
'nobs' still stand aloof, if they don't actually ridicule. 
The excitement, however, is gradually taking hold of 
the town, and sinners are being converted every night. 

" Yesterday was a precious day. In the morning 
the chapel was quite full, and at the love-feast, in the 
afternoon, crowded. Between thirty and forty per- 
sons spoke, and the collection amounted to four times 
the ordinary sum. At night the chapel was so 
densely packed that at about five minutes past six 
William had to request the friends to lock the gates 
in order to prevent any more crushing in. I never 
heard him preach with such liberty and power. The 
congregation appeared literally riveted to their seats. 
In the middle of the sermon, when the subject 
reached a climax and he seemed exhausted, he started 
the congregation singing : 


"'O happy day, that fixed my choice 1855, 

On Thee, my Saviour and my God.' Age 26. 

" This was followed by : 

" 'And above the rest this note shall swell, 
My Jesus hath done all things well ! ' 

" It was like Heaven below, and in the prayer-meet- 
ing that followed they took twenty-seven names. 

" I seldom go on a week-night now, as I cannot 
sit in hot places long together. Last night I could 
scarcely remain till the sermon was over. I am sorry 
for this, as I might often render efficient help at the Helping 
communion-rail, where a certain amount of intelli- pJl'/^nts. 
gence and aptness in dealing with penitents is often 
sadly deficient. But I must rest content at home for 
the present. However, I possess every comfort and 
find a constant solace and a balm for every suffering 
in the unvarying love and attention of my precious 
husband. I often wish you could see how happy we 
are. Oh, it is a precious thing to experience perfect 
satisfaction in the object of one's affection! And I 
believe we both enjoy it! Praise the Lord! 

" 22d November. — I am happy to tell you that I con- 
tinue to improve and am downstairs to-day. My 
cough is much better, and I hope now soon to be as 
well as usual. We remain here till Friday or Satur- 
day week, and then go on to Leeds, where we are to 
spend six weeks, three at one end of the circuit, and 
three at the other. I believe we are to have a very 
nice home where there are no children ; quite a re- 
commendation, seeing how they are usually trained ! 
I hope if I have not both sense and grace to train 
mine so that they shall not be a nuisance to every- 
body about them, that God will in mercy take them 
to Heaven in infancy. But I sincerely trust I shall 

222 MRS. BOOTH. 

1855, be able to do better, and am learning some useful 

A.p'G 26 

lessons from observation. 

The Pilot. "23d November. — Father's letter came to hand this 
morning with the Pilot. We see it every week, and 
know much about its history, present mode of exist- 
ence, and future prospects. Unfortunately it is a 
party affair, and that only of a very small party. 
The editor solicited reports from William for it, but 
l^ontro-° 3,s the first prospectus set it forth as a controversialist, 
versy. ^^ medium of attack upon the Association and Re- 
formers, William declined contributing to it, thinking 
that the title Revival Revived was merely tacked on to 
it to better secure its circulation. I think, however, 
the editor has materially altered his first intention, 
and if he minds what he is about, it may yet succeed. 
" There can be little doubt that it might be made a 
first-rate paper, but the paucity of news of our own 
Connexion is at present an evil. I am sorry the 
majority of the Connexion, both lay and cleric, are 
opposed to it, and chiefly because it is feared it will 
injure the funds of the Book-room. Our objections 
are on no such grounds. We say, never mind if it 
does, if it blesses the Connexion spiritually, and puts 
some steam into it ; but we fear its controversial ten- 
dencies. However, we shall watch its course in this 
respect and act accordingly. I will consider your 
suggestion about the Juvenile, but it requires peculiar 
tact to write for cJiildren. However, I may try. 

Mr. Poole ]y[j. Poole has been very successful at Sheffield. 

Sheffield. He wcut at a good time. There were scores wounded 
who might have been gathered in by our people, if 
the Committee had let us go to the other chapel. 
However that may be, it is a good thing somebody 
has caught them. Poole is a sincere, earnest, good 
man, and we rejoice greatly in his success. 


"My dear William is rather better, though far 1855, 
from well. They had a triumphant day on Sunday, 
such an one as was never known in Dewsbury before, a trium- 
The people flocked to the chapel in crowds, /lun- Sunday, 
dreds being unable to get in. The love-feast in the 
afternoon, I hear, was like Heaven. Many took their 
dinners and teas, and never left the chapel all day. 
To-night William is preaching his farewell sermon- 
in the Wesley an Chapel, lent for the occasion, a spa- 
cious building capable of seating two thousand peo- 
ple, and I have just learnt from a man who has been 
to fetch him some cocoa before the prayer-meeting, 
that it is crowded. I hope they will have a good 
night. Last night they took between thirty and forty 
names, besides children under sixteen. To-morrow 
evening William addresses the office-bearers, and on 
Wednesday night the young converts. On Thursday 
afternoon there is to be a farewell tea-meeting to be 
held in the Wesleyan schoolroom, kindly lent because 
our own would be far too small. We expect a splen- 
did affair. Most of the trays will be given. They 
had collections yesterday which amounted to i^20, 
three times as much as usual." 

Writing the following day, Mrs. Booth says: 

"They did not leave the chapel last night till a 
quarter past eleven o'clock. They had a splendid sixty 

^ -"^ names 

prayer-meeting and took sixty names. I suppose taken. 
there were 2,500 people at the service." 

The following resolution was passed at the Dews- 
bury Leaders' Meeting, in regard to the services, the 
Rev. L. Saxton being in the chair: 

December 6th, 1855. TT^g 

Resolved, That this meeting desires to record its gratitude ^^sohiy 
to the great Head of the Church, for the large measure of tion. 



Age 26. 

A shoiver 
of tears. 



A joyful 

success which has been realised in connexion with the special 
services recently conducted by the Rev.W. Booth in this place, 
and earnestly prays not only that Mr. Booth may be long 
spared to labour in this blessed and glorious work, the work of 
saving souls from death, but that he may be rendered increas- 
ingly happy and successful. The meeting begs to assure Mr. 
Booth that enlisted in his behalf and also in the behalf of 
Mrs. Booth are its warmest sympathies and best wishes. 

George Ward, Secretary. 

"The tea-meeting last night was a first-rate one. 
I do wish you could have heard William's speech. I 
ventured there enveloped in a mountain of clothes, 
and feel no worse for it, except it be zuorsc to feel a 
little prouder of my husband, which I certainly do. 
We took leave of the people amid a perfect shower 
of tears and a hurricane of sobs, and many more are 
coming to take leave of us to-day. 

" As to my own feelings, I cannot describe them. 
My heart was ready to burst as I listened to the sol- 
emn, earnest, and really beautiful address given by my 
dearest William. I felt unutterable things as I looked 
at the past and tried to realise the present. I felt as 
though I had more cause to renew my covenant en- 
gagement with God than any of His children, but oh, 
I realised deeply, inexpressibly the worthlessness of 
the offering I had to present Him. Alas, I had so 
often renewed, but so seldom paid my vows unto the 
Lord, and yet He has so richly filled my cup with 
blessings, and so wonderfully given me the desire of 
my heart. Oh, for grace rightly to enjoy and improve 
my many mercies! Pray for me. 

" I often think that God is trying me by prosperity, 
and sunshine, for I am, so far as outward things go, 
happier than I ever was in my life. Sometimes my 
heart seems burdened with a sense of my unmerited 
mercies, and tears of gladness stream down my 


cheeks. I tremble lest any coldness and want of 1855, 
spirituality should provoke the Lord to dash the cup ^^ ^ * 
from my lips, even while I am exulting in its sweet- 
ness. O my darling mother, you cannot think how 
my soul often luxuriates in its freedom from anxiety 
and apprehension about the future, and how sweetly 
it rests in tranquil confidence where it used to be so 
tossed and distracted by many elements and emotions. 
You know something of its past exercises, but you 
can imperfectly judge of its present satisfaction. I 
tell you of it, however, that you may rejoice with me. 
"We think and talk much about you. I have 
mother's likeness on our bedroom chimney-piece, 
and it gets many a kiss, and many a wiping, bless 
you! I long to see you both. I trust we shall yet 
make a family in Christ on earth, and an unbroken 
family in heaven." 


LEEDS. 1855-1856. 

The Leeds 


" More 
in the 
than the 

The next two months, December and January, 
were spent in Leeds. The services were held during 
the first few weeks at Hunslet, a suburb of the city, 
being afterwards transferred to Ebenezer Chapel, in 
another and more central district. 

Unusual difficulties were encountered at the outset. 
The extension of the term alloted for the Dewsbury 
meeting caused the Hunslet visit to be broken into 
when at its very height by the Christmas festivities. 
Strange and paradoxical as the fact may appear, it is 
ungainsayable that in Christian countries Christmas 
week is probably the worst time in the whole year for 
winning souls. At the very moment when the 
world is supposed to be rejoicing over the birth of its 
Saviour, it is so engrossed in celebrating the historical 
event that it has neither time nor inclination to con- 
sider the object for which He came. Instead of the 
occasion being used as an opportunity for seeking to 
please Him, in the one way which would of all others 
be calculated to win His approbation, the season is 
almost entirely dedicated to fooleries, feastings, and 
merry-makings. A few perfunctory services are 
hurried through, it is true, but these are more for the 
sake of saving appearances than for anything of a 
serious character, and the thoughts of all are so pre- 
occupied with the absorbing trivialities of the hour 
that the claims of Christ upon their hearts, their 




homes, their families, their talents, their time, and 
their possessions are unblushingly disregarded. 
Verily " it is a custom more honoured in the breach 
than the observance." 

We read with sorrowful amazement that our Lord 
was laid in a manger ])ecause there was " no room for 
them in the inn." But is He not treated with even 
greater disrespect in these days, and that by His pro- 
fessed followers? Surely it is a crowning master- 
piece of Satanic ingenuity and bravado which finds 
Him ousted as it were from the celebration of His 
own birthday, while a season, which of all others 
should be regarded as sacred, is desecrated by a very 
climax of gluttony, revelry, and drunkenness! 

Probably it is no exaggeration to say that the drink 
bill of Christendom during Christmas week is at least 
double that for any other week in the year ! How 
much is involved in this single fact ! And m the face 
of so much poverty and suffering, is not the food 
bill equally extravagant and scarcely less excusable? 
And what are we to think of the unbridled buffoonery 
of pantomimes and the countless other follies with 
which Christmas has come to be so intimately asso- 
ciated? Surely we speak within the mark when we 
say that even now at the close of the nineteenth 
century, outside the range of a few humble mangers, 
it would be difficult to find much trace of the Saviour 
among the hostelries of our modern Judah and Jeru- 

To roll back this torrent of worldliness has been 
one of the grandest portions of Mr. and Mrs. Booth's 
mission. They have appealed, and not in vain, to 
the conscience of multitudes to consecrate their 
Christmas holidays, and indeed every other great pub- 
lic festival, to the service of God in seeking the sal- 

Age 26. 

A climax 

of dese- 



back the 



Age 26. 

The true 
ideal of 




vation of their fellow-men. They entered the field 
boldly, and have endeavoured to substitute the attrac- 
tions of a happy religion for the fleeting enjoyments 
of time. They have taught that it is as necessary to 
be religious on week-days as on Sundays, on holidays 
as on work-days, at home as in God's house, in private 
as in public, and they have succeeded in raising up a 
people who count it not only a duty but a privilege 
to surrender their own pleasures for the happiness of 
others, finding in God an enjoyment and satisfaction 
which the world fails to afford. Hence one of our 
most popular refrains : 

"I have a Saviour Who's mighty to keep, 
All day on Sunday, and six days a week ! 
I have a Saviour Who's mighty to keep, 
Fifty-two weeks in the year ! " 

But to return to the Leeds campaign. Despite the 
interruptions of Christmas, a church bazaar, and some 
anniversary sermons, the services were marked with 
the usual success. More than eight hundred conver- 
sions were recorded during the time, and the conclud- 
ing meetings were the most crowded and powerful of 
the series. The revival is referred to as follows by 
the editor of the Nezu Connexion Magazine: 

No mere 

" In Hunslet a glorious work is going on. Hundreds of 
sinners have been converted, many slumbering professors of 
religion have been quickened, and not a few backsliders re- 
claimed. The work has now extended to Leeds, where re- 
sults of a similar character are being experienced. Let not 
anyone attribute these marvellous doings to mere excitement. 
They were preceded by special fasting, humiliation, and 
prayer, and if God's promise be true, conversions and awak- 
enings may be expected as rationally as the husbandman ex- 
pects the joys of harvest to follow the toils of ploughing and 
sowing. We honour the ministers and friends for their self- 
denying efforts, and we honour the devoted evangelist, Mr. 



Booth, whose element of existence is the conversion of souls 
and the spread of true religion." 

In the next monthly review the following editorial 
appears : 

" What a debt of gratitude we owe to the God of all grace 
that His work amongst us continues to revive and extend. 
Long have we mourned our barrenness and depression. Now 
we rejoice because the fertilising showers of heavenly in- 
fluence are descending on our Zion, causing her waste places 
to rejoice and blossom as the rose. 

" In our last number we reported a revival at Hunslet. 
Now it is our joy to tell of the glorious work at Leeds. Old 
Ebenezer Chapel is at this moment distinguished by scenes 
far more interesting than even those of her earliest history, 
when within her walls was laid that platform of ecclesiastical 
government which for sixty years has combined enlightened 
freedom with the spiritual privileges of Methodism. 

" It is quite compatible with our gratitude to God for these 
remarkable outpourings of His Spirit to honour the brethren 
whose anxieties, tears and prayers have brought about this 
glorious result. One of the greatest blessings which could be 
given to our beloved Connexion would be the general diffu- 
sion of the revival spirit. We think highly of ministerial 
intellectuality, but far more highly of those qualifications 
which give large success in the conversion of souls. We do 
not undervalue those things in our community which impress 
respectability on our character and proceedings. But how 
poor are they compared with the beauty of holiness, the 
tenderness of compassion for souls, and the energy of an 
earnest zeal for Divine glory ! " 

We might quote long passages from the eulogistic 
letters sent to the Magazine, describing the meetings, 
but we prefer to draw our material from the private 
letters of Mrs. Booth, containing as they do many 
personal references which are necessarily wanting in 
the published reports. The glimpses behind the 
scenes are of more than ordinary interest, and we 
have the advantage of an autobiography without its 

Age 26. 

A tribute 
to the 



2 3d 


Age 26. 

usual drawbacks, while the racy narrative reads as 
freshly as if it had been penned but yesterday : 

at Leeds. 

The Com 

m it tee 
and the 

"Leeds, December, 1855. 

" We left Dewsbury at fifty minutes past one on 
Saturday, and after less than an hour's ride arrived 
here in safety and comfort. The Rev. Maughan met 
us and accompanied us in a cab to our host's, one of 
the most comfortable houses I have been in since 
my marriage. Altogether we are really snug and at 
home. Our host is a gentleman of independent 
means, a nice jolly old man, and a New Connexionist 
to the backbone. His wife, a thorough motherly, 
good-natured, easy-going, happy old lady. No bairns 
and a warm house — a great matter this cold weather. 
You know what a susceptible being I am. 

" I suppose we shall stay in Leeds seven or eight 
weeks. They say they will £-0 to sec the Annual Com- 
mittee, and shoot some of them with a pop-gun if 
they won't let us remain. It has come to a regular 
fight between the circuits and the Committee, but 
William has given up the controversy. 

" I am much better in my chest, though still trou- 
bled with a nasty cough. I went out for a walk this 
morning, though the ground is covered with snow, 
and we have a sharp frost. I attended chapel yester- 
day morning, a beautiful place, but not nearly full. 
They have been going down for several years, and 
unfortunately there will be a break in the services 
for Anniversary sermons next Sunday. The society 
appears to be very respectable and intelligent. I was 
introduced to several very nice ladies yesterday. I 
receive marked respect and attention everywhere. 
Oh, to exert a right influence, and that only! They 
Solid fire, got somc soHd fire amongst them yesterday from the 


LEEDS. 231 

pulpit, as effective as any at Sebastopol, it strikes me. 1855, 
The balls seemed to lodge in many hearts, and at ^^ ^ * 
night they had twenty good cases." 

" December, 1855. 
" William took the pulpit at night. We had a full 
chapel and a good time. Some of those who came 
forward were young men of great intelligence and 
promise. Over an hour the friends rejoiced with ex- 
ceeding great joy. I do wish you could join us here. 
On Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday night, William 
preached at a small place about five miles off, where 
much good is expected. Yesterday morning between 
twenty and thirty of the young converts came from 
Dewsbury to spend the day at the chapel. They had 
walked a distance of eight miles that bitter morning 
in order to hear their spiritual father once more. 
They beset us like a swarm of bees as we were leav- 
ing the chapel. We went into the vestry with them, 
and William started one of his favourite hymns, and 
they sang like larks. It was a cheering and affecting Singing 

lili^B let 7*1^^ 

sight. I wept tears of gratitude and joy. May God 
keep them till we meet them in a sunnier world, and 
unite to sing a song which shall never end. 

" It will be a dreadfully hard week to my dear hus- 
band. He is quite prostrate to-day from last night's 
exertion. I never heard him preach more effectively, 
but his poor body had need be made of iron to keep 
it up. Bless him ! It will be a happy and crowning 
Christmas to me, I am sure. I often weep for joy 
when I think of all my mercies, and call to mind the 
loving-kindness of the Lord. 

" Oh, I do wish my dear father could hear and see concern 
what I do sometimes. He would be encouraged to father. 
return to Him Whom he has pierced, but Who re- 



Age 26. 

ceiveth sinners still. When I see others saved, and 
hear their blessed testimony to the willingness of 
God to receive returning prodigals, even in old age 
and hoary hairs, I often think of him. But our pray- 
ers shall yet be answered. Then will we sing 'The 
dead's alive, the lost is found.' " 

A hard 

ing truth. 

Getting it 

"HuNSLET, December 24th, 1855. 

" I think I omitted to mention the particulars of 
the work. Hitherto it has been a hard struggle. My 
dearest has been burdened with anxiety and very 
much annoyed with the character of the arrangements, 
so much so that the first night we came he refused 
to work with them as they then stood, and it took the 
preacher and Mr. Crampton till midnight to persuade 
him. The thing was altogether unfortunate, but it 
would require too much time to explain it. The first 
week the work was equal to anything we have had 
anywhere at the commencement, but the Anniver- 
sary interfered with the influences. The sermons 
were clever and pretty, but no more adapted to the 
people, or to the soul-saving work, than those which 
any old country curate, knowing little or nothing about 
conversion, might have preached. Oh, when will 
ministers sufficiently realise their responsibility for 
pressing the truth home upon the consciences of 
their hearers!" 

Referring to this subject in later life, Mrs. Booth 
remarks : 

"One great qualification for successful labour is 
power to get the truth home to the heart. 

" Not to deliver it. I wish the word had never been 
coined in connexion with Christian work. 'Deliver' 
it, indeed — that is not in the Bible. No, no; not de- 
liver it ; but drive it home — send it in — make it felt. 



That is your work ; not merely to say it — not quietly 
and genteelly to put it before the people. Here is just 
the difference between a self-consuming soul-bur- 
dened, Holy Ghost, successful ministry, and a careless, 
happy-go-lucky, easy sort of thing, that just rolls it 
out like a lesson, and goes home, holding itself in no 
way responsible for the consequences. Here is all the 
difference, either in public or individual labour. God 
has made you responsible, not for delivering the 
truth, but for getting it in — getting it home, 
fixing it in the conscience as a red-hot iron, as a bolt, 
straight from His throne ; and He has placed at your 
disposal the power to do it, and if you do not do it, 
blood will be on your skirts. Oh, this genteel way of 
putting the truth ! How God hates it ! 'If you please, 
dear friends, will you listen? If you please will 
you be converted ? Will you come to Jesus ? Shall 
we read just like this, that and the other ?' No 
more like apostolic preaching than darkness is like 

Writing again to her mother from Leeds, Mrs. 
Booth says : 

"The result of the Anniversary has been, as Wil- 
liam predicted, the congregations diminished, and 
the week has been one of toil and discouragement. 
The friends have been up to the ears in preparations 
for the bazaar, and we have had altogether a season of 
anxiety and discouragement. Nevertheless, it has 
not been an unhappy time, by any means. No, thank 
God, I experience nothing of real unhappiness now. 
Underneath all temporary and surface trials there is 
a deep calm flow of satisfaction and comfort, which 
has actually altered the expression of my counte- 

" I was at chapel three times yesterday. The work 

Age 26. 

The dif- 

The gen- 

The' ivork 

A fresh 

2 34 MRS. BOOTH. 

1856, seems to have taken a turn, and things are evidently 
rising. Last night there was a break. A gentleman 
of great importance yielded to the power of Divine 
truth, and decided to be on the Lord's side. There 
were twenty other cases, but this one gave special 
satisfaction. They have taken at present one hun- 
dred and ninety names, and nearly all for our own 
denomination. The friends begin to manifest a strong 
affection, as usual, and if William would visit we 
should be out every day. I need not say that I am 
very glad he won't. 

"January 3d, 1856. 

Mrs. " I am glad you thought about us on the Watch 

thTwcdch Night. The weather was fine here, so I went to the 

Night chapel. I cannot tell you the nature of my feelings 
on again mingling with the great congregation on 
such an occasion and under such new, interesting, 
and happy circumstances. It was truly a thrilling 
hour to my soul, and I trust one to be remembered 
in eternity with gratitude and delight. You know 
what an enthusiastic, excitable nature mine is, and 
can easily imagine the rush of emotion I should ex- 
perience at such a season, while meditating on the 
past, rejoicing in the present, and anticipating the 

Riciiiy " It must have been a time of blessing to all pres- 
ent, and there was a large number. My precious 
husband seemed richly imbued with the Spirit's influ- 
ence, and graciously assisted to speak with power and 
effect to the people. I often wish you could hear him 
in some of his happiest efforts. I think you would 
be surprised. I never cstcaned him so highly as now. 
I never saw so much to admire in his character. And 
when I compare him with the ordinary snailpaced 



professors I continually meet, I cannot but rejoice in 
the possession of one with whom I can so fully sym- 
pathise, and so heartily co-operate. 

" The work here is rising in importance and power 
every day, and after a great deal of arguing the Com- 
mittee have consented to our remaining another week. 
The friends are delighted and are getting fresh mon- 
ster bills out announcing the services. Some of the 
cases here are of the most important and promising 
character. It would have made you weep tears of 
joy to see the other night a gentleman of intelligence 
and influence throw his arms around his wife's neck 
in an ecstasy of gladness when realising the Lord 
had pardoned his sins. The people of God might 
well shout hallelujah, for they recognised in that kiss 
the pledge of their union in Christ, for time and 
eternity. His wife had long been praying for him. 
It was a scene never to be forgotten by those who 
witnessed it. Would to God such scenes were more 
frequent ! 

"There is another fine old gentleman, a constant 
attendant, whose wife has been a member several 
years, who is under deep concern and in whom we are 
all interested. He is a man of considerable wealth, 
lives in a lovely country residence, keeps his carriage, 
and is a member of the Common Council. We break- 
fasted there on New Year's day, and William went to 
see him this morning also, in order to get an oppor- 
tunity for dealing with him about his soul, and we 
think he is sure to be brought in. On our w^ay home 
from his house we called and looked over his mill, 
an immense place, where tons of paper are manu- 
factured every month. We saw the entire process, 
and had it explained to us. 

Age 27. 


A joyful 


236 MRS. BOOTH. 

1856, "January, 1856. 

"I have been to chapel twice to-day, to the preach- 
A high iug this moming, and to the covenant service and 
"^' sacrament this afternoon. So I am at home this even- 
ing, three times a day being too much for me just 
now. It has been a high day at the chapel. I will 
enclose one of the small bills for the day, from which 
you will see the subjects. The chapel this morning 
was well filled, such a congregation as the)^ seldom 
have. My beloved was very poorly and not at all fit 
to preach, but a gracious influence pervaded the con- 
gregation, and at the covenant service this afternoon 
the body of the place was quite full, the new converts 
being admitted by special tickets. It was one of the 
most delightful services I ever attended. 

A hard " I think a few more such struggles as this at Huns- 
let would cause William to completely break down. 
The anxiety has been fearful, but, bless the Lord, 
victory is coming at last, and sinners are being saved 
by scores. I am informed by one who has just re- 
turned from chapel, that it has heenpacked (a glorious 
triumph for t/iis place), and that the people have to 
be allowed to remain in the gallery to the prayer 
meeting. This is a good omen for a large ingathering. 

"January 8th, 1856. 

The Gen- " The work is progressing gloriously. On Sun- 

Zhment!^ day night the sermon was one of extraordinary power 

and influence, and during the prayer meeting they 

Eighty- took fifty uamcs. Last night again they took thirty- 

tim names ^ ^ ,i /- . , -ttt-h- 

in two five, some of them first-rate cases. William was just 

"^*" in his element. But his body is not equal to it, I am 

sure, and I cannot but feel anxious on this point. I 

am often congratulated on having such a husband, 

LEEDS. 237 

and sometimes told that I ought to be the happiest 1856, 
of women. And I am happy. Nevertheless I have ^^ 
anxieties peculiar to my own sphere. I see the im- 
certainty of health and life and all things, which I 
trust keeps me from being unduly elated by present 

" We are invited to dinner on Friday next to meet He unii 
the preachers at the gentleman's I mentioned (the 
Coimcillor). I intend going with Mr. and Mrs. 
Crampton, but William will not visit under any pre- 
text. The people would pull him to pieces to visit 
them if he would go, but he cannot accept one invita- 
tion without accepting others, and, besides, he wants 
retirement. Thus one of my hidden fears about the 
future is dissipated, viz., that he would love company, 
and lose his relish for home and domestic joys. Bless 
him ! He seems to want no company but mine, when 
he is not engaged in his work. 

"January i6th, 1856. 

" The finish at Hunslet was grand ! Five hundred Five hun- 
names were taken in all. The gentleman I mentioned <Jnf.f T/' 
in my two last letters (the Councillor) was one of the 
last sheaves of this glorious harvest; he gave in his 
name on the last night. Another gentleman of tal- 
ent and influence, a backslider, was restored on the 
Thursday night, making glad the heart of a devoted 
wife, who had been praying for him for a long, long 

" The commencement at Ebenezer Chapel on Sun- Ebenezer 
day was most encouraging. The influence in the lS.' 
morning was very precious ; the people wept and re- 
sponded all over. The muster of leaders in the ves- 
try after the preaching was better than at any previous 
place, and many of them were evidently very superior 

2 38 MRS. BOOTH. 

1856, men. We were quite surprised at finding such a staff 
of workers. At night the chapel was packed, and 
upwards of twenty names were taken. Amongst those 
in distress was a gentleman well known in the soci- 
ety, and brother to two of the principal families in it, 
as well as three or four more very respectable and 
intelligent individuals. The two last evenings the 
congregations have been excellent, and about forty 
names have been taken. 
A divided " There is a prospect of an unlimited work in Leeds, 
ciurci. -^vgj-g not the building so small. The circuit has for 
some years been in a divided state about the erection 
of a new chapel, for which a splendid piece of ground 
has long been purchased, but alas! the broils and 
dissensions of the leading men have hindered. It is 
to be hoped that this revival will raise the spiritual 
tone of all concerned and thus help to overcome the 

"Leeds, January, 1856. 
A power- " The work here is one of the best we have yet 

^ul TVOT'k 

witnessed. Above a hundred names have been taken 
on the week, and some of them very important. Yes- 
terday was a glorious day. At the love feast many 
were unable to get in, and at night (I was present) 
hundreds went away. So great were the numbers 
outside that it was given out that there would be 
preaching in the schoolroom. I never saw human 
beings more closely packed than the poor things who 
stood in the aisles. My heart ached for them. The 
chapel was crowded above and below till near ten 
o'clock. I think everybody was delighted with the 
sermon, I mean the saints, the sinners felt something 
besides admiration ! I should think this is one of the 
most intelligent and wealthy societies we have yet 

LEEDS. 239 

visited, but hitherto it has been crippled and cursed 1856, 
by local disputes and dissensions. 

"Leeds, January 29th, 1856. 

"The work continues here with more tJian usual a frarfni 
power. On Sunday the crush was fearful, and the 
confusion on the stairs and outside the chapel so great 
that the gates had to be locked. Serious apprehen- 
sions were entertained of some accidents, and a gen- 
tleman was obliged to get up in the congregation and 
insist on some men getting down from a position they 
had secured, where I believe there was nothing but 
a half-inch board to sustain them. 

"The people come from Hunslet night after night Night 

111 after 

With as much eagerness as strangers, though they night. 
have been hearing him now almost eig/it zvecks. 
Some of them almost idolise him, so great is their 
love toward him, but, bless the Lord, amidst it all he 
is kept humble, and often suffers from despondency 
and self-distrust. I only attended once on Sunday, 
in the morning, and returned home with a full heart. 
William was so poorly and yet exerted himself so 
much that I could scarce bear it. 

" I often think I am better away, for I picture all 
sorts of sad scenes in the future, and I feel as though 
I could not make so great a sacrifice, no, not even for 
souls! And yet my inmost heart cries out, 'Thy will 
be done.' However, I am thankful to say he is going 
to rest a week prior to going to Halifax. It will be 
thirteen weeks on Saturday since we left Chatsworth, 
and he has had no rest since, so I have taken the mat- 
ter into my own hands, and for no power on earth will 
I consent to any more toil until he has recruited a bit. 
We leave here (all well) next Friday, and go to Huns- 
let to spend a week at one of the principal friends." 

240 MRS. BOOTH. 

1856, "HuNSLET, February 5th, 1856. 

" Your welcome letter is to hand, and though I have 
Electrify- but time for a few lines I will send you one lest you 
people, should be anxious. The finish up at Leeds was glori- 
ously triumphant. The tea-meeting at Hunslet sur- 
passed anything we have yet experienced. I would 
have given a good deal for you to have been present. 
My precious William excelled himself, and electrified 
the people. You would indeed have participated in 
my joy and pride could you have heard and seen what 
I did. Bless the Lord, O my soul!" 
Here Mr. Booth breaks in : 
A curtain " I have iust come into the room where my dear 

lecture. . 

little wife is writing this precious document, and 
snatching the paper have read the above eulogistic 
sentiments. I just want to say that the very same 
night she gave me a curtain lecture on my 'block- 
headism, stupidity,' etc., and lo, she writes to you 
after this fashion. However, she is a precious, in- 
creasingly precious treasure to me, despite the occa- 
sional dressing-down that I come in for." 

Mrs. Booth resumes: 
Therepiy. "We havc had a scuffle over the above, but I must 
let it go, for I have not time to write another, having 
an engagement at two o'clock, and it is now near one. 
But I must say in self-defence that it was not about 
the speech or anything important, that the said cur- 
tain lecture was given, but only on a point which in 
no way invalidates my eulogy. 

" We came here on Saturday where we are treated 
in the most kind and hospitable manner, and where 
I hope William's strength will get nicely recruited." 




From Leeds Mr. and Mrs. Booth removed to Hali- The Hali- 
fax, where the next two months were spent. The ^^i'yai' 
Rev. J. Stacey, who was superintendent of the cir- 
cuit, and afterwards President of the Conference, re- 
ports that no less than 641 names were taken, and 
that of these nearly 400 became members of his 
church. Another leading minister writing at the 
same time says: 

" A few days ago I called at Halifax to see our truly de- Three 

voted friend and brother, Mr. Booth. I was delisfhted to find thousand 

that the same holy power was attending his labours there, m a year. 

that has been vouchsafed in other places. I fear, however, 
his health is endangered by his exhausting labours. Such is 
his ardour, that he feels he cannot do enough in the glorious 
work of saving souls. What a year of toil and glorious suc- 
cess has our brother passed through ; and what delightful 
showers of holy grace have fallen on our churches! I sup- 
pose nearly 3,000 persons have been spiritually awakened 
since our last Conference, besides the quickening power that 
God has diffused through the souls of our ministers, office- 
bearers, and members, and the interest excited in revival work 
both in our own and other churches. I hope the ensuing 
Conference will continue our dear brother in his revival 
efforts, but it will be needful for him to have periods of entire 
rest, or he will work himself to death." 

It is interesting to find the same extraordinary what is 
energy and power of endurance which characterise 9'^""'*" 
General Booth's present labours, distinguishing him 
16 241 



Age 27. 

A half 

ing the 

A suicid- 
al policy. 

in these early days. It has been said that genius con- 
sists in a capacity for hard work. This is indeed a 
half-truth. And yet to be a successful leader of men 
the faculty of doing more than others, and of doing 
it better, must be combined with the far rarer and 
more difficult art of setting others to accomplish ob- 
jects that are beyond the reach of any individual 
power. It has been the combination of these qualities, 
that has been the secret of General Booth's subse- 
quent success. 

The skill that can subjugate and utilise the im- 
mense forces of mankind's Niagaras, will necessarily 
outstrip the mental and moral achievements of the 
mightiest Samson if destitute of this gift. The head 
cannot dispense with the body, any more than the 
body can dispense with the head. Each is mutually 
dependent upon the other for its very existence. The 
separation of either is suicidal to both. The genius 
that divorces itself from the people whom it was meant 
to bless and serve, eclipses its own brilliance and 
paralyses its powers. On the other hand the society 
that guillotines those whose mental and moral worth 
exceed its own, limits its capacity for good and in- 
jures itself. It clips the wings that would enable it 
to fly aivay from the evils that are pressing on its 
steps, onward to the accomplishment of some greater 
good. Renouncing the privileges proffered to it by 
Providence, it runs where it might soar, it fails to 
rise because it fears to fall, and having escaped the 
dangers of the sky, it becomes the miserable victim to 
its short-sighted jealousy and finds in the mediocrities 
of its own choice perils that exceed those which it 
seeks to avoid, and tyrants whose yoke is the more 
galling from its stupidity. 

The dangers of despotism are doubtless bad enough 


and need to be guarded against, but the dangers of ^^^56, 
lack-leaderism are greater still. The tyrannies of ^^ 
unsanctified genius have involved the world in some The tyr- 

1 i • 1,1 J 1 annii of 

of Its worst miseries, but we question whether these foUy. 
have not been altogether outnumbered by the tyran- 
nies of brainless ignorance and its foolhardy esca- 
pades, or equally provoking inaction. 

The visit to Halifax was prolonged by an event. The birth 

of thciv 

the birth of Mr. and Mrs. Booth's eldest son William eldest son. 
Bramwell, the present Chief of the Staff of the Salva- 
tion Army. Writing the next day to announce the 
event to Mr. and Mrs. Mumford, Mr. Booth says: 

"Sunday, March 9th, 1856. ''' 
" Halifax. 
"My Dear Mother and Father: — It is with feelings of 
unutterable gratitude and joy that I have to inform you that 
at half-past eight last night my dearest Kate presented us 
with a healthy and beautiful son. The baby is a plump, 
round-faced, dark-complexioned, black-pated little fellow, 
a real beauty. The Lord has indeed been very good to us. 
Poor Kate has had a dreadful time, but the Lord in mercy 
has brought her safely through. Believe me as ever, 
" Your very affectionate son, 

"William Booth." 

A few days later we find Mrs. Booth herself send- 
ing the following pencilled note to her " precious 

" By a little subtlety I have succeeded in getting hold of a Hmv Mrs. 
bit of paper and a pencil, and now I am going to whisper a f^n^ 
few words into your ear. Bless you! I do indeed think much 
about you. I now know what it is to be a mother, and I feel 
as though I had never loved you half as well as I ought to have 
done. Forgive all my shortcomings and be assured I now 
appreciate all your self-sacrifice on my behalf. My soul is 
full of gratitude to God for having brought me through! I 
am doing better than I could have expected, considering how 

244 MRS. BOOTH. 

1856, very ill I have been. My precious babe is a beauty and very 
Age 27. good. Farewell, till I can get hold of a pencil again. ' 

The In a later letter she does not give quite so favour- 

'''hah^i- able an account of the good behaviour of the future 
hood. Qiiigf ^ and one is agreeably relieved to find that in 
his early days he was capable of being "restless" and 
" fretful," after the manner of ordinary babes. He 
became a special object of interest at Mr. Booth's 
next halting-place, Macclesfield, where he was pre- 
Presented sented by twenty-four young women working in a 
Bible, factory with a Bible containing the following inscrip- 

" Presented to William Bramwell Booth by a few of his 
father's friends. 

"May this blest volume ever lie 
Close to thy heart and near thine eye ; 
Till life's last hour thy soul engage, 
Be this thy chosen heritage. " 

The The presentation took place at a farewell tea-meet- 

fuifliied. ing, which was attended by nine hundred persons, 
and the friend who represented the factory lasses said 
that the gift was intended " as a slight acknowledg- 
ment of the spiritual benefit they had received from 
Mr. Booth's labours, and in the earnest hope that his 
infant son might be spared to imitate his father's 
character and career." The prayer has been more 
than fulfilled, and we discern in that band of working 
girls the embryo of the Hallelujah Lasses, who were 
to play so important and prominent a part in the sub- 
sequent history of the Salvation Army, and who were 
to present on behalf of a sinful world not merely 
their Bibles, but themselves, as living epistles known 
and read of all men. 

Mrs. Booth's recovery was not so rapid and satis- 



factory as had been expected. Owing therefore to 
her continued sufferings, she was joined by her 
mother at Macclesfield. Hence there are but few 
letters existing which were written by her at the 
time, and the only accounts of the Halifax and Mac- 
clesfield meetings are those contained in the Nczv 
Connexion Magazine. From these it is evident that the 
work was as powerful and sweeping as in other 
places, and that the same blessed results accompa- 
nied the effort. The permanent character of the con- 
versions may be judged from the impressive service 
held at this very time in Sheffield, when 180 new pro- 
bationers were received into the church as the first 
fruits of the revival there. 

Some may, however, be tempted to doubt the 
genuineness of such " sudden conversions." Speak- 
ing on this subject in after years, and expressing her 
matured convictions in regard to it, Mrs. Booth re- 
marks : 

Age 27. 

Joined by 



The ivork 

Booth on 

" Given the same temperament and calibre of being, I 
would rather have a sudden conversion than a tardy one. Of 
course for purposes of comparison you could not fairly place 
two different natures in juxtaposition. It would not be right 
to judge a plastic and emotional mind by the standard of a 
phlegmatic temperament. 

" When men are seen to be wrong, it must be very desirable 
to get them right. And what is conversion but a process by 
which those who are wrong are put right? As for the method 
by which it takes place, or the length of time it occupies, I 
have always been puzzled to understand why persons who 
believe in conversion at all should object either to the em- 
ployment of any reasonable means, or to the speed with which 
they operate. Here is a man who has developed a fixed habit 
of evil-doing, of falsehood, impurity, drunkenness, or some 
other sin. The great end in view is to persuade him to 
abandon his evil course, and surely the sooner you can persuade 
him to do so the better. 


object i 



Age 27. 

Not so in 





the better, 

The spe- 
cial ivork 
of the 

No hin- 
drance to 
its j)er- 



" I have been very much struck with the different manner 
in which people argue about temporal and spiritual things. 
In regard to the former, supposing a friend is about to adopt 
some mistaken course, you ply him with the best arguments 
you can command, and the more quickly these take effect the 
better yoii are pleased. You praise his candour and say, 'This 
man is not only open to conviction, but acts spontaneously 
upon the light he has received. ' You do not think any the 
worse of him, because of the readiness with which he has ac- 
cepted the truth. Nor do you for a moment imagine that he 
must go through a long preparatory process, before he can 
act upon his convictions. Why then in the religious world 
should the exactly similar phenomenon be doubted, simply 
on account of its suddenness? Surely it should be even less 
a subject of surprise, when we remember that the special 
operation of the Spirit of God is to convince of sin and to 
present the most momentous motives and sentiments that can 
be laid before the human mind, in favour of its abandonment. 

" The idea is, I know, that owing to its suddenness the 
change will not be permanent. But this is a mistake. The 
permanence of a conversion is not determined by the gradual 
process which produces it, or by the speed with which it is 
accomplished, but by its reality, by the intelligence of the 
subject, by the surrounding circumstances, by the temptations 
the convert meets with, and by the care that is taken to nurse 
his spiritual life. 

" No doubt there was and is a great deal of surface work — 
easy-come-easy-go-ism — just as there is much blossom that 
never comes to fruit in the natural world. But even regrets 
in regard to evil, and desire for improvement, and transitory 
resolutions to amend, are better than no yearnings after good- 
ness and God, or an undisturbed sleeping in evil. Who can 
tell what benefits in after days the soul may reap from the 
memories of such hours of Divine influence and impression? 

"'There go 's mushrooms,' a minister once tauntingly 

remarked, referring to some new converts, and mentioning 
the name of the Evangelist through whose labours they had 
sotight salvation. 'Well,' replied one of them, who happened 

to overhear the observation, 'I would rather be one of 's 

mushrooms than one of the devil's toadstools!' 

" One specially singular circumstance is that the very people 
who object to sudden conversions often belong to societies, 



Troops of 

the founders of which believed in and defended the doctrine, 1856, 
their very successes being based upon its truth. And yet ^S^ 27. 
we find their followers and professed disciples cavilling and 

Referring to the Macclesfield meetings in later 
years, Mrs. Booth says : 

" I was still very weak, and unable therefore to at- 
tend many services, but those at which I was present 
were very blessed times. Perhaps in no town that I 
had yet visited was there so intense an excitement, 
such crowded audiences and such large numbers seek- 
ing mercy. One striking feature of this revival con- 
sisted in the crowds of women from the silk factories, 
who attended the meetings and came forward for 
salvation. It was a touching sight to watch them on 
their way to the chapel with their shawls over their 
heads. They were especially kind to me and the 
baby. Sometimes they would come in troops and 
sing in front of my windows. 

" Bramwell was baptised during our stay in Mac- 
clesfield, his father performing the ceremony. There 
were about thirty babies baptised at the same time. 
Not wishing the ceremony to interfere with the re- 
vival services, we had them all postponed to one day, 
making it the occasion for a special demonstration, 
and an appeal to parents to consecrate their children 
to the service of God. 

" I had from the first infinite yearnings over Bram- 
well. I held him up to God as soon as I had strength 
to do so, and I remember specially desiring that he 
shotild be an advocate of holiness. In fact we named 
him after the well-known holiness preacher, with the 
earnest prayer that he might wield the sword with 
equal trenchancy in the same cause. I felt from the 
beginning that he was ' a proper child.' At an early 



An advo- 
cate of 

A proper 



Age 27. 



Early ac- 

Toil re- 

C'h ester 

age, he manifested signs of intelligence and ability. 
He resembled me especially in one particular, that was 
in taking upon himself responsibility. As he grew up 
I always felt that he was a sort of father to the younger 

He was very conscientious too. I remember once 
letting him go to a friend's house to tea when he 
was only three years old, telling him that he must not 
take more than two pieces of cake. I was not pres- 
ent, and the friends tried to persuade him to take 
more, but he would not disobey me. This character- 
istic grew with him through life. I could always 
trust his word. I cannot remember his ever telling 
me a falsehood. If at any time he got into mischief 
he always came to me and confessed it. He was of 
a very active and restless disposition. I do not think 
he ever sat five minutes at a time on anybody's knee. 
His energy as a child was something marvellous." 

Those who have attended Mr. Bramwell Booth's 
holiness meetings, or who have witnessed his patient 
and laborious toil at the International Headquarters, 
as the General's right hand and Chief of the Staff of 
the entire Salvation Army, will testify to the fact that 
the prayerful toil of his sainted mother has indeed 
reaped a rich reward. 

While the meetings were still continuing in Mac- 
clesfield the Annual Conference met at Chester. 
" After maturely considering the case of the Rev. W. 
Booth, whose labours have been so abundantly blessed 
of God in the conversion of souls, it was again re- 
solved that he continue to labour in the capacity of 
an evangelist for the next year, with suitable inter- 
vals of rest. May our brother be more than ever suc- 
cessful in the great and glorious work in which he is 


Mr. Booth's next appointment was Yarmouth. 1856, 
Here the cause was very low, and the counter-attrac- ^^ ^^" 
tions of the seaside caused the struggle to be a pecu- 4 /j^,.^; 
liarly uphill one. And yet the outcome might well ^^^'^'JOi*'- 
have satisfied those less accustomed to witness the 
remarkable results which attended Mr. Booth's 
labours during the past two years. 

In writing to her mother Mrs. Booth says : 

" Your little darling is well and growing like a willow. It Grotving 
is really astonishing how he comes on. We have bought him iviUow. 
a doll, which pleases him vastly. He talks and laughs to it 
in style ! He gets more and more interesting. The people 
stop to admire him in the streets, and though Yarmouth 
swarms with beautiful babies, he does not suffer by compari- 
son with any, thanks to his grandmamma's nursing and care ! 
I hope you are taking the medicine the doctor prescribed for 
you. I believe more firmly than ever in homoeopathy. Your 
unbelief in it is only the result of not understanding the 
principle on which it works. But never mind that. If you 
get well, it matters not how. 

" The work here continues to be very harassing. The The value 
Connexion has next to no influence in the town, and there are '^■^ ■'^ouis. 
also other difficulties. Nevertheless the congregations have 
steadily improved from the first, and already forty names 
have been taken, some of whom are very superior cases. Oh, 
the value of souls ! They are worth all the trouble and sacri- 
fice involved — yea, a thousand times over!" 

This conviction deepened as years went by. "How spiritual 
shall you feel," said Mrs. Booth in addressing one of ^^^''^'■^*^- 
her audiences long afterwards, " How shall you feel 
when you gather the spiritual family which God has 
given you round the throne of your Saviour, and say, 
' Here am I and the children whom Thou hast given 
me? ' — the children won through conflict, and trial, 
and strife, such as only God knew; 'children begotten 
in bonds,' as Paul says — in chains — children born in 
the midst of the hurricane of spiritual conflict, travail, 



Age 27. 

in the 

aged in 
the Lord. 

and suffering, and cradled, rocked, fed, nurtured and 
brought up at infinite cost and rack of brain, and 
heart, and soul. But now; here we are, Lord. We 
are here through it all. 'Here am I and the children 
whom Thou hast given me.* How shall you feel? 
Shall you be sorry for the trouble ? Shall you regret 
the sacrifice? Shall you murmur at the way He led 
you? Shall you think He might have made it a little 
easier, as you are sometimes tempted to think now? 
Oh! no, no! — the children! the children! You 
shall have spiritual children! Won't that be reward 
enough ? 

" Oh ! sometimes, when I am passing through con- 
flict and trial, in connection with a work which brings 
plenty of it behind the scenes, I encourage myself 
in the Lord, and remember those who have gone 
home sending me their salutations from the verge of 
the river, telling me they will wait and look out for 
me, and be the first to hand me to the Saviour when I 
get home. Will not this be reward enough? Even 
so, Lord. Amen." 



From Yarmouth Mr. and Mrs. Booth proceeded to North 
Sheffield. The New Connexion had established two fls£d!^ 
circuits in this city, the Northern and the Southern. 
The latter had already been visited during the previ- 
ous year, and the marvellous results accomplished 
had made the Northern Circuit equally anxious to re- 
ceive Mr. Booth. After several postponements the 
Annual Committee had at length decided to gratify 
their request. Mr. and Mrs. Booth were welcomed in 
the warm-hearted fashion so characteristic of the 

Why it should be so, is difficult to explain, but Variety 

■' of mil. 

there can be no doubt that certain towns, districts, 
and indeed countries, are peculiar for their receptivity 
of Gospel truth, while others are precisely the oppo- 
site. London, it will be acknowledged, has a special 
reputation for being a hard and barren soil. Sheffield, 
on the contrary, has responded with remarkable readi- 
ness to the call of the revivalist. Towards the end 4 recep- 

t'iVB soil 

of the previous century it was the scene of the success- 
ful labours of the great holiness advocate, William 
Bramwell, and in 1844 it was greatly stirred by a visit 
from Mr. Caughey, the American evangelist. It is 
possible that such awakenings, both in Sheffield and 
elsewhere, have exercised a softening influence, long 
after their direct results have disappeared. The 
traditional memories of such stirring times are 




Age 27. 





and tribal 

Head ver- 
mis heart. 

doubtless handed down from generation to genera- 
tion, accustoming the popular mind to the existence 
of these phenomena, and preparing the way for their 
repetition. In these favoured localities a public 
opinion already exists, instead of having to be created. 
The ordinary prejudices and misunderstandings 
which hinder revival work have been dissipated. The 
ground has to some extent been cleared of its forest 
"lumber" and is therefore more prepared to yield its 
bosom to conviction's plough. There is scarcely time 
to scatter the seed in the virgin soil, before it com- 
mences to spring up and bear fruit, some thirty, some 
sixty, some a hundred-fold. 

No doubt other causes contribute to this result. 
There are national, tribal, and local peculiarities of 
disposition which are just as distinct as those of in- 
dividuals. We talk familiarly of English John Bull- 
ism, Yankee smartness, French polish, German 
philosophy, Scotch sense, Irish eloquence, and other 
similar characteristics. Similarly we might speak of 
counties or towns, were we sufficiently familiar with 
their idiosyncrasies. Who has not experienced the 
difference that a few miles of railroad can create in 
the moral and social atmosphere of all around? 

To speak generally, some are all head and others 
are all heart, while more rarely we come across a 
happy combination of both. The tendency of modern 
civilisation is to cultivate the head at the expense of 
the heart, forgetting that knowledge is but a poor sub- 
stitute for affection, either from an individual or na- 
tional point of view. Hence some of the finest speci- 
mens and most influential centres of braindom suffer 
from atrophy of the heart. What is wanted is a 
simultaneous cultivation of both. 

But before there can be cultivation, there must be 


recognition. Who can calculate the mischief that 1856, 
arises from the almost total eclipse of this luminary ^^ 
from our modern sky ? Society, in our days, with all Tixe 
its education and scientific paraphernalia, is tending the^heart. 
fast in the direction of a society without a heart, and 
might fitly be compared to a firmament without a sun, 
or a body without a soul. It tries ±0 bask in political 
and social rays of its own creation, and to thaw its 
frigidity and illumine its darkness with lesser lights, 
more perhaps after its own taste. But its great need 
— the crowning need of the nineteenth century— is a Heart 
restoral of heart-pulsation to the nation, the family ^"*"*^'*- 
and the individual. 

How sickening is the spectacle of a man without a a sicken- 
heart! What a danger is he to the community at spectacle. 
large ! The more brain power and knowledge he 
possesses, the greater becomes his capacity for evil! 
You cannot appeal to his heart, for he has none — 
to his emotions, for they have been stifled long ago 
— to his moral sentiments, for he has thrown religion 
on one side as fit only for women and fools! He is a menace 
capable of any crime — that he can practise with '° *^'"^'' ^' 
safety to himself. He will not commit a murder, it 
is true, but he will convulse nations in blood, or he 
will establish a "corner" that takes the bread from 
the mouth and the clothes from the back of the starv- 
ing poor. He is a standing menace to society. 

And yet he is the intellectual hero of the day, the The intei- 
model after which childhood is fashioned, till the hero of 
family, school, community, and nation is converted in- ^ "^' 
to a patent heart-crushing, head-developing machine, 
which manufactures humanity into a hideous carica- a hideous 
ture of what it ought to be. Such is the tendency of ture. 
the age. We ridicule the Chinese taste which cramps 
the feet of its womanhood into narrow and unnatural 



Age 27. 


Her quar- 
rel ivith 

A hearty 

The Shef 


moulds, and yet we allow ourselves to be dominated 
by a craze that cramps our very vital powers and 
destroys the tenderest and most beautiful side of our 

Upon this very subject Mrs. Booth remarks: 

"All the mischief comes from upsetting God's 
order — cultivating the intellect at the expense of the 
heart; being at more pains to make our youth cUi'cr 
than to make them good ! For what is the highest 
destiny of man ? I say that the highest type of a man 
is that in which the purified and ennobled soi// rules 
through an enlightened intelligence, making every 
faculty of the being subservient to the highest pur- 
pose — the service of humanity and the service of 
God ! And all education that falls short of this seems 
to me one-sided, unphilosophical, and irreligious. 
And t/iat is my quarrel ivitJi modern edueation.'" 

While Sheffield certainly was not lacking in intel- 
lectual force, its people were distinguished by a large- 
heartedness and a warmth of affection, which made 
the task of ministering to their spiritual wants the 
more agreeable. They welcomed Mr. and Mrs. Booth 
with open arms. Many of the converts of the previ- 
ous year flocked round them, helping to inspire them 
for the fresh efforts which they were about to put 
forth. The results of the next six weeks' campaign 
were glorious. The chapel was crowded, hundreds 
being frequently turned away for want of room, and 
six hundred and forty-six names were taken. 

Describing the meetings to her mother Mrs. Booth 
writes : 

" My precious husband is tugging at it, full of anx- 
iety and greatly exercised as to the success of the 
effort. Many things have transpired to discourage 
him. Nevertheless God honours him in the conver- 


sion of souls day by day. The work is rising glori- 1856, 
ously, chapel full every night and packed on Sundays. ^^ ^'' 
It is worth making sacrifices to minister bliss and 
salvation in Jesus' name. We are trying to lose 
sight of man and second causes and to do what we do 
more exclusively unto the Lord. I realise this to be 
the only way to find satisfaction and peace in the 
prosecution of our mission. But I am not nearly such 
an apt scholar at it as my beloved. He can bear non- 
appreciation and opposition much easier than I can. 
Perhaps I could endure it better, if it did not concern 
him. But I am trying to rise. May the Lord help me. 

" It is a cause of great rejoicing to us to find such qu con- 
numbers who turned to the Lord when we were in steadfast. 
Sheffield before, standing fast and adorning their 
profession, some of them giving promise of great 
usefulness. All glory to God. 

" Monday afternoon. — They had a glorious time at 
the chapel last night, forty-nine cases, many of them 
men, and stout-hearted sinners. 

" 15 th vSeptember. 
"William is working hard and with wonderful Agior- 
results. The chapel was crowded out all day on work 
Sunday, and sixty-three cases at night, a large pro- 
portion of them men. The work up to the present 
surpasses that of last year. Notwithstanding all this 
he is very much harassed in mind regarding his future 
course. Reports are continually reaching us of the 
heartless manner in which the preachers let the work i^i down. 
down after we are gone, so that so far as our com- 
munity is concerned, it is almost like spending his 
strength for naught. The cold, apathetic, money- 
grubbing spirit of some preachers and leading men 
is a constant thorn in his side. Oh for a church of 

2 56 MRS. BOOTH. 

1856, earnest, consistent, soul-saving men! But alas! alas! 

^^ such is indeed difficult to find." 
whxj the This letter contains the earliest reference to what 
startedT was ultimately one of the chief reasons for the crea- 
tion of the Salvation Army. The question has often 
been asked, why it does not confine itself to evange- 
listic effort in connection with the churches, handing 
over its converts to be cared for by the ordinary pas- 
toral agencies? It is everywhere acknowledged that 
the Salvation Army is peculiarly adapted to the task 
of awakening and converting sinners, but it is sup- 
posed that the churches are better qualified for build- 
ing them up. Is it, however, reasonable to conclude, 
that those who fail in the former will succeed in the 
latter? The church that cannot make its own con- 
verts can hardly be expected to successfully train the 
converts made by others. 

The The fact that it cannot convert, if such be the case, 


the natu- is surcly proof presumptive that it is incapable of 
'^dian?^ affording them that spiritual nourishment which is 
so necessary. Besides, who more suitable to be the 
guardians of the new life, than those who have 
been the means of bringing it into existence? The 
parent movement is bound to its offspring by special 
ties of affection. It possesses an authority peculiarly 
its own, and which is perhaps incapable of being del- 
egated to another. Is it, then, too much to say, that 
the mother organisation must, if able, suckle her own 
converts ? 
Looking It was bccausc the New Connexion and other 

after the 

converts, churchcs, to whom Mr. and Mrs. Booth for some years 
to come entrusted the care of their converts, fell so 
far short of their ideal in this respect, that they were 
ultimately led to consider whether they could not im- 
prove upon the existing methods in regard to the 



training as well as the gaining- of converts. But it 
was not till a subsequent period that the possibility 
or advisability of such a course dawned upon them. 

Meanwhile the work in Sheffield went forward 
gloriously. Towards the end of the visit, Mrs. Booth 
writes to her mother : 

" I wish you could be present in some of William's 
best times. The other night the people could scarce 
refrain from clapping. 

" I accompanied him to chapel this morning, a 
splendid congregation, a melting sermon, and a glori- 
ous influence. The people wept all over the place. 
There were shouts of 'Glory! ', 'Hallelujah!' from all 
directions. I have no doubt they will have a grand 
night, though the weather is very unfavourable. 

" It will be a trying day for William. He preached 
hard this morning, and for an hour this afternoon 
never ceased talking, and I don't expect him home 
before ten or half-past. It astonishes everybody how 
he holds out. It is without doubt a glorious work. 
Let this comfort us in the sacrifices we are called upon 
to make. Yes %vc, for you share in them. It would 
indeed be nice to live nearer together, to enjoy more of 
each other's company. I wish it could be, but as it 
cannot, there is something consoling in being able to 
say 'Lord, I do this for Thee.' Always remember 
this, my dear mother, when tempted to think it hard. 
Remember it is to help spread the Redeemer's King- 
dom that you have lent me to this wandering life. 
And perhaps if we do it cheerfully, the Lord will yet 
cast our lot together in sunny places. 

Age 27. 

r/ie Shef- 
field re- 




"October loth. 
" Our farewell tea-meeting went off gloriously. 
Upwards of twelve hundred sat down for tea, and 

The fare- 
ivell tea. 

2 58 MJ?S. BOOTH. 

1856, scores were sent away with money in their hands, be- 
^^ ^^* cause they had not tickets and the friends were afraid 
there would not be room for them. It is calculated 
that there were more than two thousand people in the 
hall after tea. I sat on the platform, next to the star 
of the assembly, a prominent and proud position, I 
assure you. It was a splendid sight, such a dense 
mass of heads and happy faces ! I would have given 
a sovereign willingly for you to have been there. I 
have been in many good and exciting meetings, but 
never in such an one as that. I never saw an assem- 

The au- 
dience en- biy^ so completely enthralled and enchanted as this 

thralled. j r j . -^ , 

one was while my beloved was speaking. He spoke 
for near two hours, never for one moment losing the 
most perfect control over the minds and hearts of the 
audience. I never saw a mass of people so swayed 
and carried at the will of the speaker but once or 
twice in my life. The cheers were deafening, and 
were prolonged for several minutes. I cannot give you 
any just idea of the scene. I will send you a paper 
^ containing an account of the meeting. It was a trium- 

triumph. p^^^t finish, and has given me considerable comfort 
and encouragement, amidst many things of a trying 
and discouraging nature, I mean of a connexional 
character. If the Lord continues my dear husband's 
life and health, I have no fear for him under any cir- 
cumstances. He need not brook any swaddling- 
bands, and if I mistake not certain parties begin to 
see the policy of giving him plenty of room." 

A Jealous ^u incident occurred at the close of the Sheffield 


visit, which, while it proved the affectionate esteem 
in which Mr. Booth was held by the people, served to 
accentuate the jealousy with which a certain section 
of the preachers had begun to regard his increasing 
popularity. Anxious to give expression to their 


gratitude and to perpetuate the memory of his visit, ^i8|6,^ 
the Sheffield friends had decided on presenting Mr. ^ 
Booth with a large lithographic portrait of himself. Presenia- 

° o i t. on of a 

The proposal was in accordance with the common portrait. 
custom of the Connexion, the presentation meeting 
being presided over by the President himself, the 
Rev. H. Watts, and a report being duly published in 
the Magazine. We turn, however, for an account of 
the meeting to Mrs. Booth's letters: 

"October 27th. 
" I know vou will be anxious to hear all about the a perfect 

■^ 1 • r J triumph. 

presentation meeting, so I seize a very brief and un- 
certain opportunity to send you a few lines. I was 
not well enough to go to the tea, but drove to the 
meeting just in time to hear the speaking. The 
meeting was a perfect triumph. There were as many 
present as on the last occasion. The speaking was 
very good, and the portrait best of all. I like it 
much, although I do not think it flatters my beloved 
in the least. Indeed it would not be possible to 
transfer to paper that which constitutes his particu- 
lar charm when speaking. It lives and dies with the 

"The portrait gives universal satisfaction. The what the 

• Pvcsiclciit 

meeting was in a perfect tumult of applause when it thought. 
was exhibited. John Unwin said, 'Well, they have 
caught a live man and stuck him on paper ! ' But I do 
not think so. I still prefer the original! The Rev. 
J. Paton (the well-known Congregational minister) 
spoke like a friend and brother. He said he had made 
a great effort to be present, but he was determined to 
testify his friendship for Mr. and Mrs. Booth. It 
was a noble and generous recognition of the good ac- 
complished in the town by the services. The Presi- 



Age 27. 


The Mag- 
azine re- 
ports the 

Why testi- 

dent came out first-rate, and set his official seal in 
full upon the whole affair. There was no milk and 
water about him." 

The copy of the portrait presented to Mr. Booth 
bore the following inscription : 

"Presented to the Rev'd William Booth, whilst labouring 
as an Evangelist in the Methodist New Connexion by his 
friends in Sheffield, in affectionate appreciation of his arduous, 
zealous, and successful labours there and in other parts of the 
community. Presented Nov. 26th, 1856, at a large meeting 
assembled in the Temperance Hall, the Rev'd H. Watt, Pres- 
ident of the Conference, in the chair." 

The Magazine contains the following reference to 
the meeting: 

" Mr. Booth, who was received with enthusiastic applause, 
replied in his usual fervent and effective manner. He said: 
'I rise to respond to the expression of your esteem and affec- 
tion with feelings almost overpowering. Such periods as the 
present are to some the proudest moments of their history, 
and I know not that the man does wrong who highly estimates 
and boldly rejoices in the acknowledged esteem of his fellows, 
especially if they be among the wise and the good. And yet 
I confess to you, that although I highly prize and shall ever 
hold in grateful remembrance the kindly estimate my Shef- 
field friends have put upon my services, and of which this 
presentation will be a lasting memorial, nevertheless I never 
more fully felt the many imperfections that have marked my 
efforts than I do to-night, and the unworthiness of that short 
career which has called forth this spontaneous, enthusiastic, 
and generous acknowledgment. I feel that in this respect 
" the labourer" is not " worthy of his hire." ' After speaking at 
some length on the importance of aggressive efforts on the 
part of the church, Mr. Booth sat down amidst protracted ap- 

And yet, singular as it may seem, the most interest- 
ing aspect of this presentation was that it afterwards 
led to the entire suppression of the system of testi- 
monials in the organisation of the Salvation Army. 


Mr. and Mrs. Booth were always sensitive to a fault 1856, 
lest any personal gratification should prove an unin- se 27. 
tentional stumbling-block to the work in which they 
were engaged. They were themselves quite taken by 
surprise at the ministerial ill-feeling aroused by the 
presentation of the portrait. Had they dreamed that 
such would have been the result, they would have 
certainly put their foot on the proposal as soon as it 
was made. They were sorry afterwards that they 
had not done so, although it is by no means certain 
that this would have prevented the determination of 
an increasing party in the Conference to place the ex- 
tinguisher upon Mr. Booth's growing popularity by 
relegating him to a circuit where his efforts would 
be limited to the ordinary pastoral routine. 

But there w^ere other evils connected with the sys- other 
tem which Mr. and Mrs. Booth afterwards more fully ^the'syL 
realised. The public presentation of personal testi- '^'"' 
monials was calculated, they found, to do more harm 
than good. In the first place it was difficult to decide 
of what they might properly consist. Equally diffi- 
cult would it be to settle who should be the recipients, 
without giving rise to endless heartburnings and dis- 
satisfaction, which would go far to neutralise any 
good that might have been accomplished. The ordi- 
nary nature of such gatherings, with their flattering 
speeches in regard to what, after all, had been but the 
performance (often too imperfect) of a sacred duty, 
was likely to do harm. There was also the danger 
that officers would be tempted to aim rather at pleas- 
ing the people than doing them good. For these and 
similar reasons such presentations have been forbid- 
den, and the Salvation Army officer has learned to 
glory in what might at first sight appear to be an irk- 
some and unnecessary restriction. 




A low 


A power- 
ful aivak- 

The final 

From Sheffield Mr. and Mrs. Booth proceeded for 
a six weeks' campaign to Birmingham, the results of 
which are summ.ed up in a long and interesting re- 
port from the pastor, the Rev. B. Turnock. The 
cause had hitherto been very low inthis town, so that 
the visit was anticipated with eager expectation. A 
specially interesting feature of the work here consisted 
in the open-air meetings, which were carried on in 
connection with it. Mr. Turnock writes: 

" Some of our praying men formed themselves into a band, 
and about an hour before the evening service went through the 
streets singing, giving short addresses at the corners, warning 
sinners and inviting people to the house of God. This roused 
the attention of the people and they began to say 'V/hat is 
the meaning of this? What are these Methodists about? " 

" For a period of nearly six weeks the good work has gone 
on, and oh, what scenes have we beheld! Penitent sinners 
have come up the aisle so overcome with emotion as to be 
hardly able to reach the rail. Fathers and sons, mothers and 
daughters, have knelt side by side at the communion rail, 
weeping tears of joy. 

" The services have exerted a powerful influence upon our 
members, rousing the careless and quickening the cold and 
formal.- There seems to be new life and energy all around us. 
The people are anxious for the salvation of souls. 

" The last Sabbath is one which will never be forgotten. 
The whole place was packed and yet crowds kept rushing on- 
ward like a stream, and we were obliged to lock the chapel 




gates, leaving hundreds outside. It was truly delightful to see 
the huge mass of people rise to sing. The preacher was again 
earnest, terrible, melting, full of pathos. The word was with 
power. What a glorious night this was, such as I had never 
seen before ! Seventy-tivo souls professed to find peace with 
God. I need not say there was deep excitement, but it was 
holy, pure, such as I hope often to see." 

Age 27. 

Regarding the subject of religious excitement here 
referred to, Mrs. Booth made the following observa- 

Booth on 


tions at the close of her prolonged ministry, with its ment. 
multitudinous opportunities for observation : 

" It has always been a cause of amazement to me how it is 
that intelligent people can fail to perceive the connection be- 
tween feeling and demonstration. How utterly unphilosophi- 
cal is the prevailing notion that persons can be deeply moved 
on religious subjects, any more than on worldly ones, without 
manifesting their emotions ! This insane idea has done more, 
I doubt not, to grieve the spirit of God and discourage and 
extinguish vital religion than almost anything else. It has 
always seemed to me better to have wild fire than no fire at 
all. Certainly it would be more in keeping with the spirit 
and practice chronicled in the Bible, to allow individuals too 
wide an expansion of joy and sentiment, rather than to damp 
the light and extinguish any manifestation whatever. 

" The cold, formal services of the Protestant church have 
done more to shut out from it the sympathy and adhesion of 
the masses than any other cause, or indeed than all other 
causes put together. The people will forgive anything better 
than death and formality. Had I my time to go over again, 
I would not only be far more indulgent toward the natural 
manifestation of feeling, but would do more to encourage it 
than I have done before. 

" Not that I would advocate a rowdy and boisterous manner. 
But the attitude of many churches seems to me to be illus- 
trated by some families, where the father is so austere, and 
keeps at so great a distance from his children, that they 
hardly dare speak or breathe in his presence. There is no 
natural spontaneous expression of either thought or feeling, 
but the whole family seem to live, move, and have their being 

Eril effect 
of for- 

No advo- 
cate of 




Age 27. 

Mr. Booth 
visits tiis 



tains mis- 

His fears 

in a constrained atmosphere of awe, whereas if you follow the 
same children into the nursery, or see them where they are 
alone with their mother and free to act out the impulses of 
their nature, you would hardly believe they were the same 
creatures. But in a rightly regulated family, while the 
parents will maintain their proper respect and authority, 
there will be a suitable afid natural expression of feeling." 

The next town visited was Nottingham, Mr. Booth's 
birthplace. With the exception of a few days spent 
from time to time with his mother, he had seen noth- 
ing of it since leaving for London in 1849. He 
observed in his journal : 

" Sunday, November 30th, 1856. — My native town. Concern- 
ing this place I must confess I have entertained some fears. 
Being so well known and remembering that a prophet is not 
without honour save in his own country, I had dreaded the 
critical hearing of those for whom I had in my youth con- 
tracted that reverence which in after life perhaps never fully 
leaves us. However, my confidence was in my message and 
my trust was in my Master." 

A little later he is able to summarise the six weeks' 
work in the following encouraging terms : 

" I concluded in a most satisfactory manner. About seven 
hundred and forty names have been taken, and, on the whole, 
the success has far exceeded my expectations and has been a 
cause for sincere gratitude. My great concern is for the fu- 
ture. Oh that preachers and people may permanently secure 
the harvest and go on to still greater and more glorious tri- 
umphs ! " 

When it is remembered that Mr. Booth was only 
twenty-seven at the time of this visit, and that he had 
been but two and a half years in the New Connexion 
ministry, the result of these meetings will appear the 
more remarkable. 

Mrs. Booth sends the following account to her 
parents : 



December 15th, 1856. 

" The work here exceeds anything I have yet witnessed. 
Yesterday the chapel, which is a very large one, seating up- 
wards of twelve hundred people, was full in the morning and 
at night hundreds went away unable to get in. It was so 
packed that all the windows and doors had to be set wide 
open. Sixty-seven came forward in the prayer-meeting. 

" The movement is taking hold of the town. The preacher 
and his plans are the topics of conversation in all directions. 
Numbers of William's old Wesleyan friends come, and the 
infidels are mustering their forces. The Mayor and Mayoress, 
with a family of fine young men, are regular attendants and 
st&yed to the prayer-meeting the other night. The folks 
seem as if one of the old prophets had risen or John the 
Baptist come again. It is so different to their ordinary 
routine. I never saw so respectable an audience, and yet one 
so riveted in their attention. How ready the Lord is to work 
when man will work too!" 

Age 27. 

Booth'' a 
of the. 
ham re- 

The toivn 


Mr. J. Harvey, the Society Steward, writing to the 

Magazine, says: 

" We had our commodious chapel nearly filled every week- 
night and crowded to excess on the Sunday evening, so that 
hundreds had to go away. Mr. Booth is certainly an extraor- 
dinary man. I never passed such a six weeks in my life. The 
services were kept up with thrilling interest night after night. 
His appeals and arguments were such as uprooted the deep 
prejudice and hatred of the infidel, made gospel-hardened sin- 
ners tremble, and caused many to exclaim, 'What must I do 
to be saved?' 

" The general results of the services are these. The chapel Every sit- 
is filled. Every sitting is let, and many persons have applied ^^"^ '^*' 
whom we have not been able to accommodate for want of 
room. The classes are greatly increased, and some new ones 
formed. The prayer-meetings are crowded to excess." 

Nevertheless the superintending minister, the Rev. opposi- 

P. J. Wright, although he had concurred in sending ^^i^perin- 

the invitation, received Mr. and Mrs. Booth in the *«^i^«*^*- 
coldest possible manner, and soon made it manifest 

266 MRS. BOOTH. 

1857, that he was no friend to them or their work. He was 
^^ ' unable, however, to give vent to his feelings, owing 
to the all but unanimous manner in which the society 
and congregation supported the movement. The 
tide was too deep and strong for him to offer it any 
open resistance, so that to all outward appearance he 
went with the stream of popular feeling. His opposi- 
tion to the movement became more manifest when 
the meetings had drawn to a close, and a promising 
work was thus checked and suffered to languish. He 
afterwards became one of the chief opponents in tiie 
Conference of Mr. Booth's evangelistic labors, and 
was in a large measure the cause of his being ulti- 
mately compelled to leave the Connexion. 
A visit to From Nottingham Mr. and Mrs. Booth proceeded to 
London for a fortnight's rest, spending the time with 
Mr. and Mrs. Mumford. We cull the following note 
from Mr. Booth's diary: 

"Saturday, January loth, 1857. — We cameonto London for 
our rest. 

"Sunday, January nth. — Heard Mr. Spurgeon, and was 
much pleased and profited — a truly simple, earnest, and faith- 
ful sermon. I doubt not he is doing a very great work." 

Mr. Booth 

Leaving Mrs. Booth and the baby with her parents 
at in London, Mr. Booth proceeded to Chester, where he 

Chester. , ^ . -„ , . . 

encountered difficulties of a somewhat novel nature. 

The minister, the Rev. D. Round, gave him a most 

hearty reception. The people also co-operated. But 

some time after the meetings had commenced a news- 

passaye P^pcr Came out with an attack on the revival, and 

''with"a ^^^^y for tfie moment, checked the progress of the 

news- -work. It was a new and therefore painful experience 

to the young preacher, whose sensitive nature tempted 

him to shrink from the encounter. A kindly Provi- 



dence, however, prevented his foreseeing the inky 
oceans of misrepresentation and calumny through 
which his bark was yet to sail, or perhaps the pros- 
pect would have utterly discouraged his heart. But 
keenly as he felt the slanders and deeply as he re- 
gretted their influence in preventing penitents from 
coming forward with their usual readiness at his 
meetings, he fought his way resolutely through and 
achieved a complete success, which was only rendered 
the more striking by the temporary pause. More 
than a hundred persons came forward during the last 
three days, and the farewell meeting and tea were as 
enthusiastic as any that had gone before. More than 
four hundred names were taken during the five weeks 
of his stay. 

The newspaper opposition produced another effect, 
which was altogether unexpected by its author, in at- 
tracting to the meetings crowds of persons belonging 
to a very different class to the regular chapel-goers 
who had hitherto composed the bulk of Mr. Booth's 
congregations. For the first time in his ministerial 
experience, he found himself face to face with a god- 
less, mocking crowd of young men. He was taken 
quite by surprise and considerably disconcerted. In 
writing to his wife he says : 

" We are damaged in the prayer-meetings by lookers-on. I 
fight them as closely as I can. But some of them are very 
impudent. May the Lord undertake for us! " 

Writing a few days later he adds : 

" We had one of the most painful disappointments yester- 
day I ever had to encounter. The night congregation was 
overwhelming, hundreds going away unable to get admission. 
There was some influence in the prayer-meeting, but we only 
took fifteen names. You see this abominable and lying article 
in the newspaper causes swarms of people to come out of 

Age 28. 

A strik- 





A mock- 

268 MRS. BOOTH. 

1857, sheer curiosity, and they stand and gaze about, some of them 
Age 28. actually laughing during the services! However, we must 
fight it out," 

A dis' Mr. Booth had not yet learned to rejoice at being 

7m^rSe. ^ble thus night after night to attract the most godless. 
His first encounter with the very people whose special 
chaplain he was destined to become came upon him 
as a disagreeable surprise. But he quickly rose to 
the occasion, and grappled in his own masterly, inimi- 
table fashion with the consciences of the Christo-hea- 
then audience, who had begun so strangely to take 
pleasure in the chapel services, which they had so long 
looked upon with scorn. How he dealt with them 
and brought the thunder and lightning of the law to 
bear upon their hearts, we are able to gather from 
his correspondence with Mrs. Booth. Unfortunately 
her replies to him are missing, or they would un- 
doubtedly have supplied an important link in the 
historical chain, showing how she seconded and en- 
couraged him in his new and perplexing position. 

"We had a tremendous struggle at the chapel," Mr. Booth 
writes on February i8th. " I never saw anything like it in my 
life. We were crowded above and below, and having been 
out all day, I was poorly prepared in mind and much fatigued 
in body, yet I was pressed in sj>/n't and the Lord helped me to 
preach as I very, very seldom do ! Oh, the words seemed like 
Jagged jagged daggers running into the hearts of the people! And 
daggers. ^^^^ though the great mass of them stayed to the prayer-meet- 
ing, we had only twenty-one souls. We ought to have had 
fifty or more. That abominable paper has helped to raise all 
this opposition. It has encouraged a lot of ignoramuses to 
come and mock. They have no shame. You cannot make 
them feel." 

In another letter he writes : 

" W e had a good night. I preached from ' What must I do to 
be saved?' We had not much power during the first part of 



Age 28. 


the sermon, but during the appeal 'What must I do to be 

damned?' I don't remember ever having more. In fact Mr. 

Round said this morning that he never felt so much under 

any appeal before in his life, and that he could have knelt mustYdo 

down and wept his heart away at the conclusion. George , '^^^'.a 
• -,, ^1 , r ■ X -ii •/- damned? 

Pox said he could not sleep after it. It was indeed terrijic. 

I felt astounded at it myself. Of course I can only talk in 

this way to my wife." 

A rough 

It was a significant moment, when William Booth Reaching 
and the rough churchless elements of England's pop- masses. 
ulation first found themselves face to face in close 
encounter! He did not remain long on the defensive, 
just time enough to measure his antagonist with his 
eye, and then closed with him in the life-grapple which 
has resulted in such glorious accomplishment. Not 
with a single blow, or round, however, was this en- 
counter to be completed. It was scarcely more than a 
skirmish, a rough fisticufi^, in which each party began 
to test its powers. Nevertheless the champions of 
ruffianism realised ere long that some one had entered 
the ring who was to meet them on their own ground 
and to prove more than a match for them, aiming re- 
sistless blows at their hearts and consciences, and com- 
ing off conqueror on many a hard-fought field. 

Thus Mr. Booth caught the eye and ear of the The mod 
masses, just as previously he had riveted the atten- GoUath. 
tion of the Christian Church. He was still but a 
stripling — this latter-day David. But he lodged a 
stone in the forehead of the modern Goliath, the 
effects of which have not yet ceased to be felt. He 
obtained a hold which he has never lost. Whatever 
faults the rougher masses of the world's population may 
possess, they admire a man who has the courage of 
his convictions, and who is not afraid to beard them 
boldly in their dens of sin, misery, and desperation. 



Ag6 28, 

ial oppo- 

But the opposition manifested by a certain minis- 
terial clique, who viewed with jealousy the rising 
popularity and success of the young minister, was 
now beginning to take shape. The perplexity and 
sorrow which this occasioned to Mr, Booth may be 
gathered from the following extract from one of his 
letters to Mrs. Booth : 

An " Our secretary was through here this morning," writes Mr. 

enigma. gQQ^j^ " jje did not please me. I can't understand it. A 
certain knot of the ministers are an enigma to me. They 
seem to have very little sympathy and appear only to use me 
to get up revivals to push their machines, and to help them 
when all other means fail. The great, high, and holy view I 
have of the movement does not seem to enter into their calcu- 
lations. Well, I gave him a broadside or two, and then left 
him. Mr. Round is worth a laneful of such cold, icy-hearted, 
all-brained folk. But my little wife must not talk in this 
way. She must only listen to her husband ! " 

Mr. Booth There is an interesting reference in these letters 

Wl ^6 ts JJ^t* 

Reginald to Mr. Booth's first meeting with the well-known 
c iffe. gyangelist, Mr. Reginald Radcliffe : 

" 13th February. 
" Mr. Radcliffe, a solicitor from Liverpool, was here last 
night. He is a rather singular, and at the same time a very 
devoted, man. He consecrates his life and efforts and fortune 
to the great work of saving men. I am informed that he goes 
up and down the country preaching the gospel anywhere that 
Preach- he can obtain an opening. He especially attends races, ex- 
^exicution. ecutions, and such like large gatherings of people. For in- 
stance, the other day a man was hanged at Chester. Mr. Rad- 
cliffe came over two or three days before the day fixed, drew 
up a plan of the different routes by which people would ap- 
proach the gallows, and when night came he placed a man 
with a large supply of tracts at each road, and thus put some 
papers on Salvation into the hands of every person who came. 
In addition to this he had four or five preachers at work be- 
sides himself. 



" It appears that he had heard about me at Macclesfield and 1857, 
Nottingham, and last Sunday he sent one of his preachers to ^^^ ^^• 
see me with an invitation to Liverpool. He proposes taking 
for me a large theatre, capable of holding between two and Liverpool. 
three thousand people, the effort to be unsectarian and no 
collections, he undertaking to meet all expenses, and allowing 
the New Connexion to take the converts. He is a nice fellow, 
a brave man, and a true Christian. I like him much. But of 
course I cannot at present entertain anything of this char- 

Mr, Radcliffe has since proved a long and consistent 
friend of the Salvation Army, frequently attending 
its meetings and inviting its leaders to his own. Of 
late years his special interest has been concentrated 
upon the foreign mission field, on behalf of which he 
has labored indefatigably, urging Christians to give 
themselves up for the salvation of the heathen. 

The Chester revival exercised a powerful influence 
on the surrounding villages. 

" I never was better pleased with people," writes Mr. Booth, 
" than I am with the poor country folk. They come four, five, 
six, seven, eight, and nine miles night after night, and many 
of them have found the Lord. Thank God, the common peo- 
ple hear me gladly. I believe I should be a great deal more 
useful among the simple-hearted country people than I am 
among the fashionable, hard-hearted, half-infidel townsfolk, 
with their rotten hearts and empty heads, and yet full-blown 
conceit and pride ! " 

An interesting case of conversion from among the 
former class is recorded in the Magazi)ic : 

" A man, verging on sixty, whose best deeds for many years 
have been poaching and drunkenness, with its almost invari- 
able accompaniment, cruelty to those who claimed his love, 
and from whose presence the street children fled, and men 
and women turned in silent fear, came to the house of God. 
He was attracted by the fame of the preacher, heard the truth, 
felt its power, bowed to its influence, sought and found mercy 

His atti- 
tude to the 

and for- 
eign mis- 

city of the 



1857, in Christ. Now, accompanied by his wife, who has also given 
Age 28. j^gj- heart to God during these services, he regularly attends 
the meetings, clothed and in his right mind! " 

Personal- But wc tum from the account of the Chester meet- 
ings to some personal and domestic passages con- 
tained in Mr. Booth's letters, sent to Mrs. Booth at 
this time : 

" How is baby? Bless his little heart! Tell him his papa 
prays for him and hopes that God will make him a Luther to 
pull down the dreadful abuses under which the church groans. 
O Kate, ours is a solemn and important vocation, the training 
of that boy ! 
Home dis- " So you had to whip him to obtain the mastery, and now he 
cipline. jg king, seeing that you are ill ! I often think about him and 
imagine I see him lifting up his little arms to me. Bless him ! 
Oh, may he indeed be 'great in the sight of the Lord,' and 
whether esteemed or not by men, God grant that he may be 
holy and useful. 
Growing " May God bless you with every earthly and heavenly bless- 
in enthu- -^g ^^^ shelter you under His spreading wings from all evil! 
So most devoutly prays the father of your darling boy, and 
the beloved of your soul ! You see, I am making progress in 
enthusiasm, as I grow in years and continue in absence! 
Well, I love you ! And the love I bear you and my sweet 
little son is a constant joy to me. I would not part with you 
for worlds — for naught, save in submission to the will of our 
Holy Father. But God grant that day may be very far dis- 

In a later letter he writes: 


" I am glad little 'Sunshine' is better. lam anxious to hear 
more about him. He is a joy to me. I often bless God for 
bestowing such a treasure upon us. Let us regard him as a 
loan from Heaven, and ever remember that it may please the 
Lender at some tmexpected season to resume the gift — to 
call in the loan. May he be continued to us, but oh, how im- 
portant to be in a measure prepared for such an emergency." 

There are some flippant allusions to homoeopathy. 



Age 28. 

The Gene- 
ral on 

The General could not extend his faith to believe in 
the little charmed tasteless globules ! However, he 
was troubled with a bad face, and writes to say: 

" If it does not get better I shall go to the homoeopathic 
doctor. Chester is either blessed or cursed with three of them. 
But as you deem it a blessing, I am fain in this, as in many- 
other respects, to pin my faith to your sleeve, and with me 
there the controversy ends ! So I throw up my cap and shout 
'Hurrah for homoeopathy! ' with its infinite quantity of infini- 
tesimal doses, in whatever society I may be where the ques- 
tion is mooted. All because I have such a blessed little wife, 
in whose judgment I can confide on matters physical." 

Ag-ain he writes, making Mrs. Booth the receptacle a dark 


of his confidence, during a season of depression: 

" I have not been in very good spirits to-day. I have been 
looking at the dark side of myself. In fact I can find no other 
side. I seem to be all dark, mentally, physically, spiritually. 
The Lord have mercy on me! I feel I am indeed so thoroughly 
unworthy the notice of either God or man. My preaching is 
more than ever, or as much as ever, at a discount in my es- 
timation. And yet I cannot be blind to the fact that it 
answers the great end of preaching better than the efforts of 
many. Still this yields me but little comfort. I must try 
again. My sermons arouse and attract attention and create 
conviction and alarm, but they don't push men sufficiently into 
the fountain. God help me ! " 

The letters contain tender assurances of affection 
such as the following : 

" Continue to love me. Aye, let us love, as God would 
have us love one another, and let us realise on earth in spirit, 
what Swedenborg said he saw in his vision in Heaven, that 
man and wife there melted into one angel. Let us be one. I 
am quite sure that we do now realise far more of this blissful 
union, this oneness, than very many around. I meet with but 
few who think and love and hate and admire and desire a/ike 
to the same extent that v/e do, and also with very few who 




1 857, 
Age 28. 

The dis- 
souls that 

dwell in 

ances of 

realise as much domestic and conjugal felicity. And yet there 
are many things in me that want mending. God help me ! 

" I care less for so-called society day by day. For instance 
in this house there is not a congenial soul, except those dis- 
embodied ones that dwell in books! I feel more than ever 
the worth of your society, and that with it and my work I am 
content. The converse of others profits me very little, and 
pleases vie less. 

" I intend arranging for a second visit to this city next 
year, so that you will have the opportunity of seeing it. 
However there is not much to look at save a fine race-course, 
some ancient walls, and your old-fashioned, queer, eccentric, 
go-ahead husband. 

" I reciprocate your desires most ardently for an interview. 
I think about you. I can't say I dream about you, for I have 
not done so since we parted. I wish I could. I should love 
to see yoti, if it were only in imagination! Affection cer- 
tainly grows with absence. I am sure my affection has in- 
creased since we parted. How strange is the feeling that 
binds us together, and makes us single each other out from 
the wide, wide world, and makes our hearts fly to each other 
like two magnets ! I think my heart beats as proudly and 
truly to you as ever, — aye, more than ever. Oh, how many 
blessings God has bestowed upon us ! Let us praise Him with 
all our powers and serve Him all our days ! " 



As soon as the Chester meetings were brought to a Bristol 
conclusion Mr. Booth took train for London, where "'^etrnGrs. 
he rejoined Mrs. Booth and started with her for Bris- 
tol. The comparative dependence of a preacher upon 
his building here forced itself painfully upon his at- 
tention, as it had previously done in York, where the 
echo was so distressing that it was almost impossible 
to be understood beyond the first few rows of listen- 
ers. In the present case the architect had paid more 
attention to the outside appearance of the chapel than 
to the comfort of its worshippers. The building had ^ 
obtained so evil a reputation for draughtiness that it draughty 
was difficult to secure an audience. Mrs. Booth 
mentions in her letters that each time her husband 
went to the meeting he seemed to take a fresh cold. 
The present incumbent was one of the cold perfunc- 
tory sort, and felt no particular interest in the success 
of the meetings. Since the departure of his more 
popular predecessor, the cause had languished and 
their only preacher had left them. 

Under these circumstances it was not to be wondered a check 
at that Mr. Booth, during his short stay of three ''suits'^''' 
weeks, did not witness results so great and glorious as 
had elsewhere been his privilege. And yet, as was 
afterward proved, there were few cities in the king- 
dom so capable of being powerfully stirred as Bristol. 
Here, as in Sheffield, there was a deep undercurrent 


2/6 MRS. BOOTH. 

1857, of religious sentiment that only needed to be success- 
Age 28. £^j2y tapped by the Divine Hand to send forth an ample 
A hopeful stream of living water. But though the source was 
•^^^^' not far from the surface, its discovery was for a sea- 
son delayed, and despite the fact that considerable 
good was accomplished, it was with feelings of no little 
disappointment that Mr. Booth concluded his meet- 
ings and started off with Mrs.^ Booth for his next ap- 
Checks to And yet it was a useful experience, proving as it did 

(z vcvivctl 

that no matter how good and efficient the instrument 

might be, it was possible for the best laid plans and 

most ceaseless toil to be obstructed by adverse circum- 

Tivo com- stances. There are two opposite, but common errors 

errors, in regard to successful work. The one supposes that 

no matter what measures may be taken and efforts put 

The Pro- forth, a revival is a special interposition of Providence, 

Theory, which can no more be commanded than a shower of 
rain. The other takes it for granted that it can be 

The all- brought about without labouring for the fulfilment of 

theory, the necessary conditions. Both conclusions are equal- 
ly mistaken. It is as fatally possible to check and 
even extinguish a revival as it is blessedly possible to 
create one. There are churches, societies, and indi- 
viduals which have either drifted into a condition, 
or voluntarily placed themselves in a position, that 
makes a revival a moral impossibility. The work of 
the evangelist is to establish communication between 
the human and the Divine, between the soul and its 
Maker ; and in doing so it is unhappily possible that the 
surrounding circumstances, or the condition of the 
church, may be such as to paralyze his best efforts. 
To this day — alas, that it should be so!— there are 
Chorazins and Bethsaidas, which, though exalted to 
Heaven by their privileges and opportunities, are 


doomed, by their resistance to Divine influences, to be 1857, 
cast down to hell. Refusing to hear the voice of the ^^ ^ ' 
spiritual charmer, charm he never so wisely, they close 
the door of mercy against themselves, seal their own 
doom, and condemn themselves to destruction. " Woe 
unto them ! for they have gone in the way of Cain, and 
run greedily after the error of Balaam for reward, and 
perished in the gainsaying of Korah." 

From Bristol Mr. and Mrs. Booth proceeded to Truro, t^^^ Jour- 

. ney to 

by tram as far as Plymouth, and thence by coach. Truro. 
The latter part of the journey was especially trying. 
The rain descended in torrents. There was barely 
room for Mrs. Booth inside. She was too ill to take lit- 
tle Willie, who soon, however, fell asleep in his nurse's 
arms upon the box, equally unconscious of the storm 
and of the dye from his nurse's bonnet strings, which 
smothered his face with blue, causing him to present 
a somewhat ludicrous appearance on reaching his 
journey's end. 

"It was a wearying affair, lean assure you," Mrs. Booth 
writes a few days afterwards. " I have not yet got over it, 
though considerably better than I was yesterday. William 
also is very poorly with his throat and head. I fear he took 
cold on the journey. 'Babs' seems to have stood it the best 
of any of us. Bless him ! he was as good as a little angel, 
almost all the way through. He has just accomplished the 
feat of saying 'Papa.' It is his first intelligible word. 

" Truro is a neat, clean, little town, and surrounded by very Truro 
lovely scenery. The climate is much milder than that of ^^^seribed. 
Bristol. The vegetation is much more advanced, flowers in 
full bloom, and hedges in leaf. It reminds me somewhat of 
Guernsey. There is just the same softness 'and humidity 
about the atmosphere. 

" You will be glad to hear that my precious husband had a A good be- 
good beginning yesterday. There was a large congregation (/''"'^"^S'- 
in the morning, and at night the chapel was very full. I trust 
there will be a glorious move. If so, it will be worth all the 

2 78 Mi^S. BOOTH. 

1857, toil, and I shall be amply repaid. Bristol has been a heavy 
Age 28, (3^ag upon his spirits. There was something mysterious 
about the whole thing, and he never had his usual liberty in 
preaching. Yet I never knew him in a better state of soul. 
Now here he seems full of faith and power. To God be all 
the glory ! " 

The i^iih- What a mysterious phenomenon is the " liberty " 

he sjjeak- •' ^ 

er's lib- here referred to, the spiritual afflatus, the unde- 
finable influence, the human electricity, which flashes 
the thought currents from the mind and heart of the 
speaker into his audience, until they are carried away 
with they scarce know what. There is a momentary 
self-annihilation. Both speaker and listener are lost 
in the subject, transported for a season beyond the 
limits of the petty trivialities that usually bound the 
horizon of each heart's little world — transferred in 
the fiery chariot of the hour's illusion, they think not, 
care not, where. 
The ad- In this respect the preacher has special privileges 
vanhiyes ^^^ advantages over the politician, the actor, or the 
preacher, ciemagoguc. He is able to play upon a higher set of 
compared motives. The appeals of the public orator are usually 
^outic-'^ directed to some natural instinct which, when exam- 
ian. ined, resolves itself into the merest selfishness. Even 
patriotism is but a refined and distilled form of self- 
interest. Trade, commerce, land and labour disputes, 
all partake of the same. Vote for me, because I will 
do the best for you, is the stock argument of the poli- 
tical platform. Defend your own interests, take care 
of your own rights, is the language of the world. 
The Powerful appeals can doubtless be based upon such 

'a''"/!? grounds, and rightly so. It is a side of human nature 
''ppcai, which cannot be ignored by the preacher himself. 
Self-preservation is one of the most widespread and 
readily appealed to of all human instincts. The re- 


ligious reformer avails himself of it. But he has ^^^57,^ 
something more. Even in this particular respect he 
appeals to eternity as well as time. He lifts the veil 
and compares the tiny interests of this world with 
those of a boundless hereafter. He goes further. He 
plies the emotions, the affections, the hopes, the fears 
of his audience with a ceaseless fusilade of entreaties, 
storms the reason with resistless arguments, and 
awakens the ally, whom he is certain of possessing in 
every man's bosom— Conscience, the Heaven-ap- 
pointed watchman of the soul. 

Over the actor, he possesses the unspeakable ad- '^^X^f 
vantage of reality, and of dealing with an immediate actor. 
present and a never-ending future instead of a dead 
past. Sincerity lends force to his utterances. And 
when all these are crowned with the Divine unction, Unotion. 
with the visible face-illumination which marked Moses 
when he descended from the mount, and which now 
distinguishes those and only those who have personal 
converse with their God, he is able at times to carry 
the hearts of his hearers before him as with a whirl- 
wind. This at least is what Mrs. Booth here refers to 
by the expression "liberty." This is the high ideal AUg}. 
of what a preacher should be and do— the privileged 
position to which he may and ought to attain. True, 
there will be fluctuations in the degree, and at times ^^^ 
it may be unaccountably missing. But the utter or degree, 
continued absence of this element, where such is the ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
case, shows that something must be radically wrong, <^ontM 
and until it be gained or recovered, as the case may tiiej^en- 
be, it were better for the time that the speaker closed 
his lips and betook himself to his knees. 

It was the possession of this peculiar influence and Exempli- 
power that constituted the special potency m Mrs. Mrs^ 
Booth's own subsequent ministry. By the time she 

2 8o 


Age 28. 

to time. 

llieir first 

■visit to 



had finished her address she was usually bathed in 
perspiration with the intensity of the exertion. Her 
theme and her audience would make her oblivious to 
time and every other consideration, and amid the 
deathlike silence the musical cadences of her voice 
seemed to make every heart in the vast throng vibrate, 
while she reasoned v/ith them of " righteousness, tem- 
perance, and judgment to come." 

To return, however, to the narrative. " This was 
our first visit," Mrs. Booth tells us, "to Cornwall, and 
we both regarded it with no little interest. We had 
heard much about Cornish Methodism. Indeed, it 
was said to be the religion of the county. The peo- 
ple were saturated with Methodistic teaching. Chap- 
els were to be seen everywhere, in the towns, on the 
moors, by the sea-coast. There they stood, great 
square buildings, often with scarcely a house in sight, 
apparently equal to the need of districts with three 
times the population. But people or no people, there 
stood the chapel, and it was usually a Wesleyan one. 
Not only so, but the congregations were there, crowd- 
ing it to the doors each Sunday. The parent Wesleyan 
church was very much in the ascendant. Our cause 
was extremely low. In fact, it was confined to Truro, 
and a single outpost at St. Agnes, a small town in 
the neighbourhood. 

" We had heard a good deal about previous Cornish 
revivals, and the excitability of the people at such 
times. Hence we expected to find them eager to lis- 
ten, easily moved, and ready to be convinced. But 
in this we were at first a good deal disappointed. 
Although after a time we found ourselves in a perfect 
hurricane of excitement, yet nowhere had the people 
evinced at the start such a capacity for resisting the 
claims of God and steeling their hearts against all 


persuasions. Pure children of emotion, when once 1857, 

A o-A 28 

carried away by their feelings, it was difficult to place 
any curb upon their expression. 

" For the first four or five days, however, we could WaiUny 
not persuade them to get saved. For one thing they feelings. 
objected to the penitent form. It was to them a new 
institution, and they regarded it with suspicion. They 
were waiting, too, for the feelings under the influence 
of which they had hitherto been particularly accus- 
tomed to act. The appeals to their judgment, their 
reason, and their conscience were not sufficient to in- 
duce them to come forward. They did not see the 
value of acting upon principle rather than on motion. 
However, at length the break came. It was the Fri- 
day following the Sabbath on which the General com- 
menced his meetings in the town. It was a Good 
Friday, loth of April, the anniversary of our engage- 

Mr. Booth describes the meeting in a letter written 
the next day to Mr. and Mrs. Mumford : 

" We had a very glorious stir last night — such a An excU- 
meeting for excitement and thrilling interest as I '"^ scene. 
never before witnessed. The people had been re- 
straining their feelings all the week. Many of them 
had been stifling their convictions. But it burst out 
last night, and they shouted and danced and wept and 
screamed and knocked themselves about, until I was 
fairly alarmed lest serious consequences might ensue. 
However, through mercy all went off gloriously, 
twenty-seven persons professing to find salvation. 
Praise the Lord for ever! I am happ5% but weary. 
I have had nine public services this week, have to 
attend a meeting to-night, and three more to-morrow." 

Of those who came forward that night were some , 

. . ° Ministers- 

promismg young men, several of whom afterward to-be. 

2 82 MRS. BOOTH. 

1857, became ministers, one of them occupying a very 
prominent position. From this time the work went 
forward in a most encouraging manner. 

Ahias- "William finished up at Truro, triumphantly," 

convert- writcs Mrs. Booth from St. Agnes on the 8th of May. 
" Crowds were unable to get in and above thirty names 
were taken. Amongst them was one very respectable 
man, who had cautioned his wife a week before against 
going out to the communion rail and making a fool 
of herself. He now went up himself and got glori- 
ously saved. He had been a vile blasphemer. Many 
are under deep impressions, who will not yield to the 

Ojyposi- rail. We never were in a place where the opposition 

penitent- to it was SO great. If we return to Cornwall we shall 

go back to Truro, and I have no doubt shall see far 

greater things than any yet. 

Ade- "We left Truro on Tuesday, coming half-way by 

of St. train, and the remainder in a cart of the ancient stamp, 

" 9"^«^^- enough to shake one to pieces. I feel the effects of 
it yet. The place is a desolate, and yet not an unin- 
teresting, spot, not above half a mile from the sea, 
and surrounded by the celebrated tin mines of this 
county. We can hear the machinery at times, and 
in our walks see some of the operations through which 
the ore passes. The coast is a wild and picturesque 
one, presenting some scenes of beauty and grandeur. 
The people are, as at Truro, strange in their dialect 
and manners. They talk about a revival in the same 
way that we should about a fair, a sale, or any other 
worldly business. We expect to stop here a fortnight. " 

A .'strange An incident occurred during this time, of which Mrs. 

"'a/iou.* Booth, in later years, gives the following account: 

" The General had a good time here, and would 
doubtless have reaped a rich harvest, but for a mis- 
take which he made and which he afterwards very 


much reeretted. We had heard a great deal about the 1857, 
way in which the Cornish people jumped and danced. 
But at Truro, notwithstanding the excitement, we had 
seen nothing to which the most fastidious could object. 
They told us, however, that if anything moved at St. 
Agnes, the people would 'go off,' as they called it, in ''Gmng 
this form of manifestation. I believe the General had 
set his face against anything of this description before 
he went to Cornwall. Indeed, he prided himself on 
conducting his meetings on the highest level of the 
'decency and order' platform. He had told me how, 
on one occasion, in the Staffordshire Potteries, he had 
stopped some women from clapping their hands and 
slapping the forms in a manner which he fancied 
was contrary to proper worship, adding that he always 
put down his foot on such manifestations and con- 
trolled them with a firm hand. 

" He was not a little shocked, therefore, one night, "GZorj//" 
when the feeling in the meeting was beginning to get 
warm, to see a dear woman spring to her feet in an 
ecstasy, and begin to jump up and down with a meas- 
ured rhythm, keeping exact time to the tune we were 
singing, with a little shout of 'Glory!' every time she 
went up. There was nothing that I could see con- 
trary to either Scripture or decorum in the method 
by which this simple woman manifested her joy, 
though it was certainly opposed to the cold, cut-and- 
dried notion of church order. The General, however, ^^'^ J^'^'^-^, 
feeling the responsibility of the meeting to be resting misiake. 
upon him, and fearing lest the excitement might get 
beyond bounds, gave orders for her to be stopped. 
In the carrying out of his instructions the exercise of 
some slight physical force was necessary. This was 
perceived by the congregation and the influence of 
the meeting was thus destroyed. From that time the 



Age 28. 


the jjvin- 


It is 

It will 

and the 


work dragged heavily, and, although there was an 
encouraging spurt at the end, yet the General came 
away realizing that he had made a mistake, and de- 
termining that in future, instead of stamping out the 
excitement, he would content himself with guiding it." 

" And why not allow a manifestation of feeling?" remarked 
Mrs. Booth on another occasion. " A gentleman once said to 
me, 'I never did shout in my life, but to-day upon my word I 
couldn't help it.' I said, 'Amen. It's time, then, you be- 
gan. ' I hope it may be the same with many of you. When 
the Lord comes to His Temple and fills it with His glory you 
won't know what to do. You must find vent somewhere, or 
you will be as the poor old negro said he was, 'ready to 
burst his waistcoat.' We feel so about temporal things. 
People drop down dead with joy. People shriek with grief. 
People's hearts stand still with wonder at the news they have 
heard, perhaps from some prodigal boy. I heard of a mother 
not long ago, whom some one injudiciously told of the sudden 
return of her son, who drojDped down dead, and never spoke. 
And when the Master comes to His Temple, that glorious 
blessed Holy Saviour, whom you profess so to long after 
and to love, and who has been absent so many years, and 
whom you have been seeking after with strong crying and 
tears, do you think it will be too much to shout your song, 
or go on your face, or do any extravagant thing? Oh no, 
if there is reality, you cannot help yourself. 

" The manifestation will be according to your nature. One 
will fall down and weep in quietness, and the other will get up 
and shout and jump. You cannot help it. Like the two martyrs, 
one rejoiced in the realisation of God's presence; the other, 
who was in darkness, yet did not deny his Lord and turn his 
back upon Him. He continued in the way of obedience, 
and the other was encouraging him to hope and believe the 
Master would come ; but He did not come until they started 
from the dungeon to the stake ; so they fixed i:pon a sign, 
and the one said to the other, 'If He comes you will give me 
the sign on the road. ' The Master did come, but the martyr 
could not confine himself to the sign. He shouted, raising his 
arms, to his fellow-martyr, ' He's come. He's come. He's 
come.' He couldn't help it. When He comes, you won't be 



ashamed who knows it. When you really get a living Christ 
for your husband, you will be more proud than the bride is 
who has got a husband worth being proud of, and you will 
love to acknowledge and praise Him ; and the day is coming 
when you will crown Him before all the host of Heaven. The 
Lord help you to accept Him, and put away everything that 
hinders His coming. Amen." 

From Truro Mr. and Mrs. Booth next proceeded to 
Stafford, a long and wearying journey. The increas- 
ing difficulty of these frequent changes, and the dis- 
tance between some of the appointments, gave rise to 
a proposal for little Willie to be sent for a time to his 
grandmother. Mrs. Booth speaks of the plan in a 
characteristic letter, from which we take the following : 

May 15th, 1857. 

" William intends going to meet the Annual Com- 
mittee before entering on any more labour, having 
had his mind much pained and unsettled by informa- 
tion lately received. He wants to have a clearing up. 

" Much as I should like to have a settled home, you 
know my objections to leaving William, and they get 
stronger as I see the constant need he has of my pres- 
ence, care, and sympathy. Neither is he willing for 
it himself. He says nothing shall separate us, while 
there is any possibility of our travelling together. 
Nor can I make up my mind to parting with Willie, 
first because I know the child's affections would in- 
evitably be weaned from us, and secondly, because 
the next year will be the most important of his life 
with reference to managing his will, and in this I 
cannot but distrust you. I know, my darling mother, 
you could not wage war with his self-will so resolutely 
as to subdue it. And then my child would be ruined, 
for he must be taught implicit, uncompromising 


• Age 28. 

The 1,1 
travel in 




part with 

her boy. 

Afraid of 
an indul- 

2 86 J//?S. BOOTH. 

\%S1', Thus we see how early Mrs. Booth commenced the 

^^ ^ ■ training of her family, and how resolutely she put 
A wise from her any proposal, however advantageous in other 
decision. j.ggpg(.|.g^ which seemed to clash with the highest 
spiritual interests of her children. Had she adopted 
a different course it is very probable that the over- 
indulgence of a kind-hearted and well-meaning grand- 
mother would have inflicted irreparable injury upon 
the character of the one who was to play so im- 
portant a part. While Mrs. Booth was no advocate 
for undue severity with children, she never failed to 
call attention to the incalculable harm that was inflicted 
upon them by the over-indulgence of their little whims 
and by the lack of that firm, faithful, and yet affec- 
tionate training so necessary for their future welfare. 


While Mr. and Mrs. Booth were at Stafford an was it nn 
incident occurred, insignificant in itself, but which o"""'^- 
seemed somewhat prophetic of the future. There 
was a garden attached to the house in which they 
were staying, and in this little Willie, though but fif- 
teen months old, delighted to run about, while Mrs. 
Booth would sit with her work in a sheltered corner 
from which she could keep her eye upon him. One 
day to his joy he discovered, on the border of the 
pathway, a nest with the mother bird sitting on the 
eggs. He was soon taught to respect his newly found 
treasure, and to keep his little hands off. But many 
were the peeps that he indulged in from time to time, 
and it seemed that the birds became accustomed to 
the presence of their baby visitor, understanding that 
it boded them no harm. 

One morning Willie had toddled off, as usual, for The 
his accustomed look, when a startled cry attracted his "^*™^'^*'- 
parents to the spot, where they found the eggs lying 
broken on the pathway, while the nest, which had 
been deserted by the birds, was in the possession of 
a large beetle. 

Mr. and Mrs. Booth could not but wonder whether The Con- 
the occurrence had been intended to prepare them for /^o^J^J^e 
some approaching sorrow. Was it that their plans ^i^^wq^!^' 
and hopes and anticipations for the future were to be 
ruthlessly disturbed? They were not kept long in 



Age 28, 

and send 
Mr. Booth 
to a cir- 

The prin- 
cipal op- 

A friend 

suspense. The Conference were sitting in Notting- 
ham, and the next morning brought them the follow- 
ing letter from their old friend, Mr, Josiah Bates, who 
attended the meetings in the capacity of Book-Room 
Treasurer : 

Nottingham, 6th June, 1857. 

" My dear Sir : — Your case has just been decided after a 
discussion which commenced in the forenoon and terminated 
with the day's sitting. You are to take a circuit, 40 in favour 
of your present course, 44 in favour of your taking a circuit. 
The feeling was strong against you. It was yesterday pro- 
posed that I should be added to the Annual Committee in the 
place of Mr. Heaps. But the Doctor (Dr. Crofts) opposed it on 
the ground that I was too much mixed up with you. Nor did 
they call me before them, although I requested it. 

" The principal speakers against you are Crofts and P. J. 
Wright. I tried hard to be the last speaker, but P. J. evi- 
dently held back, and therefore I was obliged to speak. I re- 
plied to every charge that had been contained in all the pre- 
vious arguments, and am told I made a capital speech. How- 
ever, we lost it. 

" I cannot go into the details of the discussion for want of 
time. I have no doubt the decision will spread wide dissatis- 
faction, and I should not be surprised if it has to be revised. 

" Make up your mind to the decision. It will work together 
for our good. Of this I have not the shadow of a shade of 
doubt. May God direct you into His will ! 

" With kind regards to Mrs. Booth, I remain in haste, 

" Yours truly, 

"Josiah Bates." 

One of the leading officials of the Nottingham Cir- 
cuit wrote at the same time as follows : 

" I have no doubt that you will have had communicated to 
you the decision of the Conference in respect to your future 
labours. There were 40 for you remaining another year in 
your present position, and 44 for your taking a circuit. 

" I feel very much in my mind upon the subject, not so much 
the decision, as to have seen and heard the determined oppo- 



sition of some of the leading ministers. I can see the jealousy 
lest you should become more useful than they. They seem to 
assume the position as judges of the working of men's hearts 
and motives. It touches their dignity. Though they wish to 
say and do as they like, they cannot bear you to have the same 
liberty. I cannot put on paper what my views are of the con- 
duct of our Superintendent (Mr. Wright). He has done all he 
could to lower you. He has lowered himself very much in 
the eyes of many. His conduct at this Conference has served 
to show that he will not scruple to do anything to gain his end, 
" I am of opinion that if you take a circuit the Lord will open 
your way and bless your labours. . . . You have many sin- 
cere friends. I hope you will not be cast down, but still look 
to God as you have done hitherto. I never yet saw a man 
stand higher than his fellows, but envy soon arouses opposi- 
tion. It always endeavours to pluck the finest fruit and to 
destroy it. But your works are before God." 

A formal letter was at the same time received by- 
Mr. Booth from the Secretary to the Conference con- 
veying the intelligence of the recent decision. To 
this Mr. Booth replied as follows: 

"June, 1857. 
" To THE Secretary of the New Connexion Conference. 

" My dear Sir : — Yours containing the decision of Confer- 
ence on my case is to hand this morning, and I must confess 
it has caused me very considerable surprise. Looking at it 
merely as affecting my personal comfort I make no complaint, 
as a year or two's respite from the anxious toil I have been 
engaged in of late, will be welcome to both body and mind. 
But regarding it as the wish of the Conference that I should 
cease from a path of labour to which it first appointed me, and 
which has been so signally owned of God, and so constantly 
eulogised by the wisest and best men in the Connexion, is to 
me a matter of gravest import. 

" And further, sir, no reasons are assigned for this desired 
change. The Conference, I am sure, would not act without 
reasons, and surely my brethren deem me worthy to be made 
acquainted with them. 

" Does the Conference take exception to the character of my 

Age 28. 

Take a 

The Sec- 



290 MRS. BOOTH. 

1857, mission altogether, or is it the manner in which I have dis- 
Age 28. charged it during the past year that has given offence? If the 
former, I have nothing to say, but if fault has been found with 
anything I have said or done, I claim the privilege of self-de- 
fence. Surely in the New Connexion Conference flying re- 
ports are not permitted to find utterance, and speeches un- 
favourably affecting character are not listened to, without 
giving the defamed an opportunity of defending himself. 
A " So conscious was I of the integrity of my motives, utter- 

siirprise. ^^^q^^ ^^^ actions, so satisfied was I that the bulk of the Church 
was with me, and so certain did I feel that I was taking the 
surest course to promote the highest interests of the Connex- 
ion, that in looking forward to the Conference I never dreamed 
it would for a moment entertain the proposition which you 
forward to me as its prayerful and deliberate decision. 
The ap- " During the two and a half years that I have travelled as an 
'^^°fhe Evangelist my opinions have undergone no change; they 
churches, have ever been outspoken. During that time every church 
with which I have laboured has expressed most publicly and 
unanimously its approbation of my labours. With two excep- 
tions, the ministers have been as friendly and cordial as the 
laymen. During this time no individual has met me with an 
accusation, or made any objection to my measures in the 
prayer meeting, or to my utterances on the platform and in the 
A strange pulpit. It seems strange that after such uniform approbation 
course. Qf j-j^y mission, and method of discharging it, that the Confer- 
ence should be five hours debating the propriety of its con- 
tinuance. You say in yours that the value of my special 
labors have been 'fully and gratefully acknowledged,' but 
that looking at the subject in all its important bearings it is 
deemed best, on the whole, that for the present I receive the 
appointment of a regular circuit. Now, all I ask, nay claim 
as my due, is to know what these important bearings are for 
which my special labours, acknowledged to be of value, are 
to be discontinued. 

" Believe me, to remain, dear sir, 

" Yours very respectfully, 

" William Booth." 

In a letter written at the same time to Mr, and Mrs. 
Mumford, Mr. Booth says; 



" You will have been expecting a line from us containing 
Conference information, and now that our suspense is ended 
in certainty, or nearly so, I take the first opportunity of send- 
ing you a line. For some time I have been aware that a party 
has been forming against me. Now it has developed itself 
and its purpose. It has attacked and defeated my friends, 
and my evangelistic mission is to come to an immediate con- 
clusion. On Saturday, aftei a debate of five hours, in which I 
am informed the bitterest spirit was manifested against me, 
it was decided by 44 to 40 that I be appointed to a circuit. 
The chief opponents to my continuance in my present course 
are ministers, the opposition being led on by the Rev. P. J. 
Wright and Dr. Crofts. 

" I care not so much for myself. A year's rest will be very 
acceptable. By that time, God will, I trust, make plain my 
way before me, either to abide as a circuit preacher, or by 
opening me a door which no man or number of men shall be 
able to shut. My concern is for the Connexion — my deep 
regret is for the spirit this makes manifest, and the base in- 
gratitude it displays. However, I leave the matter with the 
Lord. My work and my reputation are in His hands. I wait 
the manifestation of His will, and wherever He points there 
will I try to go." 

Mrs. Booth, however, did not take so calm a view, 
as will be seen from the following letters addressed to 
her mother: 

" You will see from William's letter what has been the sub 
ject of our thoughts, and the cause of the anxiety we have ex- 
perienced during the last few days. I have felt it far more 
keenly than I thought I should ; in fact, it is the first real trial 
of my married life. 

" Personally considered I care nothing about it. I feel that 
a year's rest in one place will be a boon to us both, and espe- 
cially a relief from the wearying anxiety which my dear 
husband has experienced of late. But as a manifestation of the 
spirit of a handful of ministers towards him in return for his 
toil — as an exhibition of the cloven foot of jealousy, and as 
a piece of rank injustice in allowing lying reports to be reiter- 
ated in open Conference, and this without any formal charges 
having been brought or any inquiry as to their truthfulness 

Age 28. 

How it 


for his 

feels it 

Her in 





Age 28. 

A sug- 

The ques- 
tion of 

instituted, I regard as little better than an old priestly persecu- 
tion over again, and am ready to forswear Conferences for 
ever! However, we shall see. We can afford to wait. A 
year's rest will be an advantage to William's mind and body. 
Time will do great things — the people will be able to look at 
and contrast the year's returns. Our friends, whom this dis- 
cussion has proved to be neither few nor feeble, will spread 
their own report of the matter, and perhaps next Conference 
the trumpet will sound on the ot/ier side. Anyhow, if God 
wills him to be an evangelist. He will open up his way. I 
find that I love the work itself far more than I thought I did, 
and I am willing to risk something for it, but we shall see." 

Writing again next day, Mrs. Booth says : 

" Doubtless you will feel anxious to hear further particulars 
after yesterday's budget. This morning's post brought us 
several letters from Conference, causing lis considerable ex- 
citement and anxiety. It appears tlaat the conduct of Mr. P. J. 
Wright and others towards my dear husband has evoked a very' 
strong feeling against them, and numerous voices of dissatis- 
faction have been raised as to the manner in which our mis- 
sion has been put down, and the way in whieh the votes were ' 
taken. There is to be an attempt this morning at a compro- 
mise ; to send him to a circuit and yet let him visit several 
places during the year, sending a supply to act for him, but 
William will not agree to it. He will be either one thing or 
the other, and if unworthy to be an evangelist altogether, he 
declines to take the anxiety and responsibility of being one 
at all. 

" It appears that one of his opponents mooted the travel- 
ling expenses as an argument against him, and made some 
false statements which Mr. Bates has compelled him to re- 
tract. Hereupon Mr. Woods, the old gentleman you heard 
me talk about, and who was so kind to us at Nottingham, has 
instructed the delegate for Nottingham to inform Conference 
to-day that if it is a money question he will guarantee ,£50 for 
the next year's travelling expenses — a larger sum than all 
our present year's expenses put together. He is a noble old 
gentleman. I always believed in him from our first interview, 
I wrote to him last night myself, William being too much 
pressed for time. 



" William has asked for Derby as an appointment. To this 
his opponents are not likely to agree, for though it is one 
of the poorest places in the Connexion, it has only one 
preacher, and therefore no superintendent to shackle him. 
Mr. Bates wanted them to send for him yesterday to speak 
for himself, bi:t, no thank you! They have no desire to 
measure swords with him ! I must say I feel intensely an- 
xious. Great interests are involved — far more than are seen 
at first sight, but it is God's cause. I believe He will order 
all for the best. I have no fears for the future. I have con- 
fidence in my husband's devotion and capacity for something 
greater yet, and I have confidence in God's over-ruling Provi- 
dence. Pray for us that we may not err, but be guided into 
His perfect will." 

"June loth. 
" Yours came to hand this morning. Thanks for all your 
sympathy and counsel. It is very seasonable. William has 
just returned from Nottingham. The arrangement that we 
take a circuit stands good, and perhaps, all things considered, 
it is best for one year. There seems a firm determination 
that it shall not be for longer. Our appointment is to Halifax 
circuit, and wafare to live at Brighouse." 

Age 28. 

ed to 

Among the additional reasons urged for this deci- 
sion besides those vv^hich have been already noticed, 
one was that Mr. Booth was gaining too great an 
influence in the Connexion for so young and untried 
a man. Another was that the following Conference 
would be called upon to decide as to his capacity for 
doing the work of a regular circuit preacher, and how 
could they come to a just conclusion concerning him 
unless he went through the ordinary routine? All 
combined in holding out the most absolute certainty 
of his being recalled to the evangelistic sphere at 
the conclusion of the year. Mrs. Booth, however, 
doubted the sincerity of the promise. 

"I felt in my soul," she tells us, referring to the 
matter at a much later period, " that it was the spirit 


of a re- 


294 MJ^S. BOOTH. 

1857, of envy which had closed the sphere, and I could not 
^^ ^ ■ but anticipate that the same spirit would keep it 
closed so far as the Connexion was concerned. I 
knew too much of Church history to expect that a 
denomination, sunk into stereotyped forms, would 
ever be wise enough to see the grandeur of such an 
opportunity for getting out of its swaddling bands 
and becoming a great national movement, instead of 
remaining a little sectarian concern. They neither 
had the wit to see their chance, nor to estimate the 
qualities of the agent whom God's Providence had 
thrown across their path. 
A vision " That momiug as I lay in bed, for I was too ill to 
future, leave the room, there dawned upon me a vision of 
success, which has been marvellously realised in later 
years. And I could have risen from my couch, bid 
good-bye to the Connexion, and walked out with my 
husband into the wide world without a fear. But I 
could not make the General see with me^ He believed 
in his simplicity that this clique of ministers would 
repent of their action and that Conference would re- 
call him to the work at the end of the year. He 
Mr. Booth replied to my arguments that he loved the Connexion, 

loved the ^ ^ ^ 

Connex- that he had been useful in it, that he wished to live, 
and labour, and die in it, and that he hoped yet to be 
the means of helping to build it up and make it a 
great power in the world. A year, he urged, would 
soon fly away, and it was possible that he might com- 
pletely regain the confidence of his ministerial breth- 
ren by thus submitting to their wishes. I predicted 
that such would not be the case, and my forecast 
proved in the end to be correct. For the time being, 
however, I acquiesced in his decision, and we packed 
up as quickly as possible and removed to our new 




Among his numerous friends were n°t ^■^"''"g 
thos^who had less respect for authority than Mr, 
Booth, and who urged him to break loose frorn th 
Connexion, rather than submit to their de.s.on. 
From one such he received the following letter. 

•• I feel much concerned on your account, for it is not possi- 

God and -iswherever you find an open doo. ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
cJnlTeLetard to -aTM:. clu^Jy, and fiad he con- 

^:ntdT;.e a ^^ ^^^^:^:^i^i:z 

::t IrtheTcSlhr do!: al^st M™. But an the 
'harm .h! actli^ was to enlarge his heart, and to cause him to 
en™ nto other chapels besides those of Wesleyans. 
'"m; opinion is that if you resolve to follow the Lord fully 
you will have to pass through the -me ordea I behe^e tto^ 
L far as the preachers have power, they will close the JNew 

Colnexln^'lpits against you^ ,«""- f^J '^: T^ 
i„ every Conference, whether Episcopalian Wesley n New 
ronnexion Primitive or Quaker. And tne oniy w<i> 
men Is you and Caughey to escape the mental rack and hand 
^,ff. is to take out a license to hawk salvation from the great 
Ma^istrlte *ove. and absolutely refuse to have any other 

"" 'oBrother Booth, if I could preach and floor the sinners 
„ke°you can, I would not thank Queen Victoria to he ^y aunt 


Ca'gh'ey excepted, who has eqnaUed you ,r — -. eoii- 
sidering the short time you have been at it. Ana 10 y 
Iw the decrees of the New Connexion Confer^nc ^ or o^ 
any other conclave of men, to turn you -"^ «'°^j°^'°*;",| 
the guidance of the Holy Spirit, is what I ''^"'"°\°ff'° 
ZH. I know what you feel and f also, have shed he big 

-?at^\?t:'o:d"?aifn:wAtnd?:inkeep so. Vou 


Age 28. 

ing coun- 

A hearty 



Age 28. 

Why he 

would not 

do it. 

The value 
of organ- 

a new 

The ne- 
cessity for 

know what the wolf said to Towser, 'Half a meal with liberty 
is better than a whole one without it!' 
" With love to Mrs. Booth, 

" I remain yours as square as a brick." 

But Mr. Booth saw what his friend did not: that 
the weak point of evangelistic efforts such as those of 
Mr, Caughey was the want of connexion with some 
suitable organisation which would give cohesion and 
continuity to the work. His evangelistic experience 
had taught him that some storage was necessary for 
the Divine floods of influence and salvation that de- 
scended in such abundant measure at these times, in 
order to prevent them from evaporating, disappearing, 
and being worse than lost. He was disappointed and 
perplexed, it was true. The New Connexion had 
promised to be just such a reservoir as he had desired. 
He loved it. He had labored for it. And visions of 
the world-wide organisation it might yet become had 
inspired his heart. He could not believe that he was 
to be disappointed, nor was there another people to 
whom he could turn. 

The daring idea of creating a people for himself 
had not yet dawned upon his mind. The time for it 
had not perhaps come. The requisite experience had 
not been gained. The profound despair with what 
existed had not yet sufficiently taken possession of his 
soul to induce him to try his hand at anything better. 
But the necessity of organised and united effort, as 
distinguished from the minister-do-everything plan, 
was a conviction of his soul. Never in his grandest 
moments of success had he felt that he could dispense 
with the service and assistance of others. His con- 
stant complaint had been that he could not lay violent 
hands upon a sufficient number of qualified persons 
to help him at such times, but those whom he could 


command he had gathered behind the communion 1857, 
rails to form a praying band, or to deal with the pen- 
itents, or had sent them out singing into the streets, 
or visiting from house to house. 

The idea of a church in which he was to be head His plan 

of cam- 

and tail, centre and circumference, alpha and omega, paign. 
beginning and end, was foreign to his idea. It might 
suit his less disciplined friends, but for his part he so 
realised the value of law and order that he would 
rather submit to a wrong order occasionally than have 
no order at all. He would rather obey an envious 
head than have none, and rather co-operate with jeal- 
ous brethren than stand alone. He only aspired to 
serve, providing he could serve successfully. 

Mrs. Booth, as we have seen, was more of a radical. The Wes- 
She had weighed up the Conference and had found it whUfieid 
wanting. Her inclination would have led her rather '^day*! 
to have chosen a lonely path than to have submitted 
to a restricted one. Unlinked to Mr. Booth, she 
would doubtless have been more of a free-lance Whit- 
field than an organising Wesley. It was a happy 
design of Providence which bound the Wesley and 
the Whitfield of the present generation in so close 
and indissoluble a union. For the present, however, 
the die was cast, and Mr. and Mrs. Booth proceeded 
to take up their appointment at Brighouse. 

BRIGHOUSE. 1857-1858. 
A gloomy The year spent by Mr. and Mrs. Booth at Brighouse 


was, perhaps, the saddest and most discouraging of 
their whole ministerial career. In fact, there was 
scarcely a single circumstance to relieve the gloom of 
the situation. In the first place, they started with 
heavy hearts, feeling that they had been unjustly 
dealt with. Nor was there anything in the appoint- 
ment itself calculated to compensate for the disap- 
pointment. The superintendent was a sombre, fune- 
real kind of being, very well-meaning no doubt, but 
utterly incapable of co-operating with Mr. Booth in 
his ardent views and plans for the salvation of the 
* people. 
No For Mrs. Booth the situation was peculiarly pain- 

kmared » , 01 i ^ r- 

spirit. ful. She had not in Brighouse a single lady friend 
with whom she could have sympathetic communion. 
Moroever, it was peculiarly trying to see her husband 
spending and being spent on a small and struggling 
cause, when the same amount of effort might have 
resulted in the attraction of enormous crowds and in 
the salvation of hundreds of souls, had they pursued 
their evangelistic career. She writes the following 
letter to her mother soon after her arrival : 

"July, 1857. 
The first " William preached here twice yesterday and led a love- 
meetings. feast. Good congregations, and all seemed very well satisfied 
except himself. There were three souls at night. Of course 



he cannot help making comparisons between this and his 1857, 
former sphere of usefulness, and though this is unquestionably ^^^ ^8. 
much easier, // is far less congenial. I don't think he will 
ever feel right in it, neither do I believe the Lord intends that 
he should. He generally adapts His instruments to the work 
He marks out for them, and He has undoubtedly adapted my 
dear husband for something very different to this. But we 
will wait awhile. 

" I can't say I like the place. It is a low, smoky town, and 
we are situated in the worst part of it. However, we shall 
make the best of it." 

There was, however, a domestic event which served The hhth 
perhaps, more than anything, to brighten the dull %diiing- 
tedium of the Brighouse days. They had scarcely ^""" 
settled in their new home when Mr. and Mrs. Booth 
received for a second time, in the birth of their son 
Ballington, the peculiar token of Divine favour which 
only a parent's heart can fully appreciate. It was 
indeed as a Gilead-balm to their wounded spirits, 
cementing freshly the domestic bliss of their union, 
which seemed but the brighter in contrast with the 
present gloom of the outward prospect. How much 
greater would have been their joy could they have 
anticipated the still distant and uncertain future ! 

The history of the Salvation Army has been largely j^j^^ f^j^_ 
the history of its founders and of their family. It toryofa 

■' -^ family. 

presents the altogether unique spectacle of a great 
religious organisation that has attained to world-wide 
proportions, of which the embryonic germ was con- 
tained within the four corners of a family, long before 
it had burst into public notoriety. The earliest, and, 
to this day, among the most effective of General 
Booth's recruits, have been his own children. He The Gen- 
wished, at first, that they had been less numerous, first re- 
but when they came to take their places in helping 
him to bear the burden and heat of the day, he was 



Age 28. 

A super- 

Israel a 


only sorry, he tells us, that " instead of eight there 
were not eighty!" Trained from childhood to obey, 
in an age whose tendency is to overleap the traces of 
parental authority, they have formed a valuable nu- 
cleus, round which Mr. and Mrs. Booth have been 
able to gather their recruits. Inspired from infancy 
with the passion for souls which animated their pa- 
rents, they have constituted an object-lesson to all 
who have since joined them beneath the Salvation 
Army flag. 

It is true there are some, who are so difficult to 
please and ready to find fault, that they raise objec- 
tions to what is at once the strength and glory of the 
movement, complaining that undue prominence has 
been given to the members of the family. But it is 
a singular fact that those who hold this opinion are 
usually those who are the least acquainted with them, 
and who therefore speak on such superficial grounds 
that their opinion is entitled to but little weight. 
They forget that one of the chief reasons why Abra- 
ham became the recipient of the Divine promises was 
the knowledge that he would "command his house," 
and that Eli became the object of a special curse for 
his laxity in this respect. The whole house of Israel 
was, after all, in a far stricter sense, a " family affair." 
The priestly house of Levi was the same. The Bible 
abounds with examples of a similar character, and 
contains numberless commands and promises to pa- 
rents regarding the training of their children, and 
the rewards that should accompany obedience. Their 
" sons" and their " daughters" were to prophesy, as in 
the case of Philip the Evangelist. 

In modern days the history of the Quakers has 
furnished most remarkable instances of a heredity of 
holiness running through many generations and ex- 


tending over a period of two hundred years. Indeed, ^1^57.^ 
had Mr. and Mrs. Booth failed in this respect, it is 
probable that such critics would have been the first irjoM/ 
to point the finger of scorn. But because they have foMcdf 
succeeded to so marvellous a degree in persuading 
their children to forego the pleasures and emoluments 
of the world, when to do so has meant shame, reproach, 
and suffering, some must needs cavil. Truly the 
mysteries of criticism are unfathomable and its ways 

past finding out! • . rr 

"I will not have a wicked child," was the passionate ^J^^ 

and oft-repeated declaration of Mrs. Booth, who used ation 
to pray in the very presence of her children that she ^^^^ 
might rather have to lay them in an early grave than Termer. 
to mourn over one who had deserted the path of 
righteousness. Her petition was more than granted, 
and she had the satisfaction of seeing them all fully 
consecrated to God's service. Indeed, it was one of 
the peculiar powers of Mrs. Booth's ministry that she ^^^ 
could drive home her appeals to others by pointing to ^,.„^,.„„. 
the example of her own family. The argument was 
unanswerable. She was able to show that it was no 
mere accident of nature or of circumstance that made 
them differ so widely from others, but that by the 
proper use of the necessary means others might 
achieve what she had herself accomplished. 

It is said of the celebrated violinist, Paganini, that 'n.e ^, 
he could draw more music out of one string than mm. 
others could out of five. But the monotone of the 
one could not, after all, have equalled in the master s 
hand the harmony of the five, and its music would 
have been altogether marred had the remaining chords 
been out of tune. Indeed the discord would have 
been too painful to have been endured. And is it 
not so with the family? How often is the domestic 

302 MRS. BOOTH. 

1857, harmony jarred by the fact that the majority of the 

^^ ^ ■ strings are out of tune. True that one string is better 

Domestic than none, and in some instances one string is all that 

harmomj. ^^^ ^^ gained. But surely this renders only the more 

striking and delightful the music of a family of which 

each member is harmoniously attuned to the service 

of God. Verily, it is one of the divinest spectacles 

under Heaven, and one of the grandest trophies of 

redeeming grace! In dealing with this subject Mrs, 

Booth has remarked : 

Putting " 'They have put their children into the movement,' people 
then- chil- ^^ Yes, bless God! And if we had twenty, we would do so. 

dren in. ■' ■' 

But I stand here before God, and say that it is all from the 

same motive and for the same end — the seeking and saving of 

the lost. But I ask, How comes it to pass that these children 

all grow up with this one ambition and desire? Is not this the 

v,^. finger of God? Some of our critics don't find it so easy to 

eas]i. ////their children where they want them to be! Could all the 

powers of earth give these young men and women the sj>irit of 

this work, apart from God? Some of you know the life of 

toil, self-sacrifice, and devotion this work entails. What 

could bring our children to embrace it without a single 

human inducement such as influences other young people the 

world over? As spirits are not finely touched but to fine 

issues, so surely God hath fashioned their souls for the work 

He wants them to do ; and though all the mother in me often 

cries, 'vSpare them!' my soul magnifies the Lord, because He 

hath counted me worthy of such honour." 

^^'■s- In spite of its numerous drawbacks, the prolonged 

Booth ^ . . 

lends a stay in Brighouse was not without its advantages. 

The .short time they were able to spend in the places 
visited during their evangelistic tours, had afforded 
Mrs. Booth but little scope for the exercise of her tal- 
ents. Now, however, that they were settled down for 
a year in a circuit, one of the first announcements 
made by Mr. Booth to his office-bearers was that Mrs. 



Booth would shortly take the leadership of a class 
among the female members who attended the chapel 
in Brighouse, and would also teach some of the girls 
belonging to the Sunday-school. 

She describes her first meeting with the latter as 
follows : 

Age 28. 

" I commenced teaching a class of girls on Sunday after- 
noon in our own back parlour. I had a dozen selected out of 
the Sunday-school for that purpose, the room being too close 
for me to go there. I got on well, and the children seemed 
very pleased. I am to have another girl on Sunday next— one 
who has pleaded very hard to come. So you may picture 
me on Sunday afternoons from two o'clock to half-past three 
surrounded by thirteen girls, striving to sow the seeds of 
eternal truth in their hearts and minds. Pray for my success. 
T feel as though I am doing a little now, but oh, I want more 
grace ! Gifts are not graces. Pray for me ! " 

The Sun- 


She refers to her commencement with the senior 
.class in the following letter: 

" I begin my duties as a class-leader next Thursday after- 
noon. Do remember it in prayer and meet me in spirit, and 
ask wisdom and grace according to my great necessity. It 
is an old established class, containing twenty-nine members, 
many of them elderly people. It is against my judgment and 
inclination. I wanted a new one consisting of young people. 
But this class is distressed for want of a leader, and nothing 
would do but that I must take it. So William introduced me 
to them last Thursday, and led it for me for the first time. I 
spoke and prayed and felt it good, but it seemed rather new 
to me, after so long an interval. I don't know how I shall 
get on. I don't fear anything but lack of spiritual power. It 
will be a beginning, and perhaps I shall gain confidence to 
undertake something more important in another circuit." 

Writing a few days later Mrs. Booth says: 

" I met my class yesterday for the first time, and got on 
better than I expected. There were twenty-two members 



Her first 




Age 28. 

ing on a 


for a 


present. I felt it to be a good time, and so I think did they, 
at least I heard some expressions of satisfaction and pleasure. 
I felt very tremulous at first, but gained confidence and free- 
dom as I went on. I feel a good deal exhausted, but other- 
wise no worse. 

A little later Mr. Booth sends a further account of 
these meetings: 

" Kate had a very good class yesterday afternoon, twenty- 
three present and all full of glory. The people speak very 
highly of her. She seems to be far more successful in pleas- 
ing the folks than poor me. It has been very hard work, but 
I have managed so far, and I shall go on until Conference. 
Labour in this circuit is the most like ploughing on a rock of 
anything I ever experienced in my life. I concluded the 
special services on Monday night. They are the most im- 
pregnable people I ever attempted to impress. The last night 
was, however, a good one. We took twenty-six names, some 
of them very good cases, making about 120 during the ser- 

" Since then for three nights I have been preaching in a small 
village about two miles from here. We have had good con- 
gregations and have taken above thirty names. However, I 
am, after all, only happy in a flood-tide of salvation, and I fancy 
I am best adapted to serve God, the church, and my genera- 
tion as an evangelist. I wish I was independent of all con- 
claves, councils, synods, and conferences. I would then 
evangelise after my own heart's plan and to my heart's con- 

first pub- 
lic effort. 

The tem- 

If, however, Brighouse had been remarkable for 
nothing else, it would have been memorable as the 
place where Mrs. Booth made her first public effort. 
As early as January, 1857, the idea had occurred to 
Mr. Booth that Mrs. Booth, being so deeply interested 
in the temperance question, might with advantage 
to the work give a series of lectures. He was quite 
certain that she possessed the requisite ability, the 
only question being as to whether she could sufficiently 


overcome her constitutional timidity. While in Brig- ^1^857,^^ 
house, however, an opportunity presented itself for 
making an experiment in this direction with the 
Junior Band of Hope connected with the chapel. 

Referring to this proposal, Mrs. Booth writes to 
her father as follows : 

"December 7th. 1857. 
" Thanks for your hints for my meeting. (Mr. Muraford j^^f^'^^_ 
was himself a temperance lecturer.) If I get on well and find ing'of'the 
I really possess any ability for public speaking, I don't intend Mure. 
to finish with juveniles. If there is any reasonable hope of 
success I shall try at something higher. When we were in . 
Cornwall, I went to hear a popular female lecturer, and felt 
much encouraged to make an attempt. If I could do so, I 
should be able to fit in with William's effort on his evangelis- 
tic tours nicely. I only wish I had begun years ago. Had I 
been fortunate enough to have been brought up amongst the 
Primitives, I believe I should have been preaching now. You 
laugh! But I believe it. The cares of a family and the 
bothers of a house now preclude any kind of labour that re- 
quires much study, but I don't think lecturing on temperance 
would need much." 

"23d December, 1857. 
" I addressed the Band of Hope on Monday evening, and got g^^-^g ^t 
on far better than I expected. Indeed, I felt quite at home on home^on 
the platform, far more so than I do in the kitchen ! There platform. 
were a few adults present, and they seemed quite as much 
interested and pleased as the children. One of them, Wil- 
liam says, is the most intelligent gentleman in our congre- 
gation. I got abundantly complimented, and had the most Abun- 
pleasing evidence of the gratification and delight of the eom2}li- 
children. Our next meeting is on Tuesday, the 29th. I ex- mented. 
pect a large increase in the attendance. If I get on I shall 
give a lecture to the females of Brighouse first, and then to a 
mixed audience. But I must not be too sanguine. Perhaps 
I may lose my confidence next time. I am so anxious to suc- 
ceed for the cause's sake. I hope my dear father will not 
forget his promise to help me by sending me some hints. 4 ;,^„^,j^ 

" The coming week will be a heavy one. We have a tea- iveek. 



Age 29. 


No retri- 



meeting here on Monday, the Band of Hope on Tuesday, out 
to spend the day at Elland on Wednesday, my class on 
Thursday, and a tea-meeting at Halifax on Friday, to which 
they want me and Willie to go. So you see I shall be quite 

" 6th January, 1858. 
" It is my Band of Hope meeting to-night, and I have not 
above an hour to prepare. I did not get on so well last week, 
because William and Miss Newbury were there, making me 
feel less self-possessed. Still, I did not flounder, nor talk 
incoherently. Miss Newbury and William both think I ought 
to be very much encouraged, but I find it so difficult to 
sufficiently abstract myself from household matters for the 
necessary study." 

How complete was their domestic happiness may 
be judged from the following letter of Mrs. Booth to 
her mother : 

" The children are well. They are two beauties. Oh, I 
often feel as though they cannot be mine ! It seems too much 
to be true that they should be so healthy, when I am such a 
poor thing ! But it appears as if the Lord had ordered it so, 
while many whom I know, who are far healthier and stronger 
than ourselves, have delicate children. I sometimes think it 
is a kind of reward to William for his honourable fidelity to 
me, notwithstanding my delicate healt hand his many tempta- 
tions before we were married. I believe in a retributive 
Providence, and often try to trace domestic misery to its 
source, which is doubtless frequently to be found in the con- 
duct of men towards their early loves. God visits for such 
things in a variety of ways. Bless the Lord, we are reaping 
no such fruits. The curse of no stricken heart rests on our 
lot, or on our children, but in peace and domestic happiness 
we 'live and love together. ' ' Praise God from whom all bless- 
ings flow!' 

" Willie gets every day more lovable and engaging and 
affectionate. He manifests some very pleasing traits of char- 
acter. You would love to see him hug Ballington and offer 
him a bit of everything he has! He never manifests the 
slightest jealousy or selfishness towards him, but on the con- 


trary he laughs and dances when we caress baby, and when it 1858, 
cries he is quite distressed. I have used him to bring me the "£^ ^9- 
footstool when I nurse baby, and now he runs with it to me 
as soon as he sees me take him up, without waiting to be 
asked, a piece of thoughtfulness I seldom receive from older 
heads ! Bless him ! I believe he will be a thoroughly noble 
lad, if I can preserve him from all evil influences. The Lord 
help me ! I have had to whip him twice lately severely 
for disobedience, and it has cost me some tears. But it has 
done him good, and I am reaping the reward already of my 
self-sacrifice. The Lord help me to be faithful and firm as a 
rock in the path of duty towards my children !" 




Her plans 




The commencement of the new year was darkened 
for Mrs. Booth by an exceptional cloud of suffering. 
She was threatened with a return of the spinal malady 
which had previously afflicted her, and entertained 
serious thoughts of placing herself under galvanic 
treatment, from which she had formerly received 
great benefit. 

" I have only been to chapel twice during the last 
month," she writes to her mother, "and had to come 
away each time, once being carried out, I was so faint 
and ill. It is the Band of Hope meeting to-night, but 
I dare not go. I have not been able to attend it for 
six weeks. So are my plans frustrated with a be- 
crippled body ! I must say I am almost weary of it, and 
sometimes feel that if it were not for the children it 
would be nice to lay this troublesome, crazy body down. 

" William was talking the other day about the dif- 
ferent bodies we shall have after the resurrection. 
I replied that I hoped so, for I should never want to 
find mine any more. I would leave it to the worms 
for an everlasting portion, and prefer to live without 
one ! It is much harder to suffer than to labour, es- 
pecially when you have so many calls on your atten- 
tion. It is so different lying ill in bed now, with two 
children, perhaps one crying against the other, to 
what it used to be with no responsibility or care, and 
a kind, loving mother to anticipate every want! But 



enough ! The cup which my Father hath given me 1858, 
shall I not drink it? Especially seeing it is so-much ^^ ^^' 
better than I have merited." 

In February, however, Mrs. Booth had sufficiently Mr. 
recovered to accompany her husband to Sheffield, bc^usVs 
where it had been arranged for the baby to be bap- ^"ton,^ 
tised by Mr. Caughey, who happened to be visiting 
England at the time. The early and solemn dedica- 
tion of their children to the service of God had always 
appeared to Mr. and Mrs. Booth both a duty and a 
privilege, and although the ceremony of baptism was 
afterwards abandoned for reasons which are elsewhere 
explained, the obligation to publicly consecrate them 
to a life of holiness, sacrifice, and warfare, was ad- 
hered to. Indeed, some of the most powerful and 
successful meetings held in the Salvation Army are 
those in which parents dedicate their children to God, 
the occasion being utilised for seeking the salvation 
and sanctification of all present. 

Mrs. Booth describes the visit to Sheffield and her 
impressions of the famous evangelist in the follow- 
ing letter : 

Sheffield, February. 

" There was a very large meeting on Tuesday night. Up- Mrs. 
ward of twelve hundred sat down to tea. We were at the Booth de- 
same table with Mr. Caughey, and William had some conver- Caughey. 
sation with him. On Wednesday we dined with him at the 
house where he is staying, and enjoyed a rich treat in his 
society. He is a sweet fellow, one of the most gentle, loving, 
humble spirits you can conceive of. He treated us with great 
consideration and kindness, conversed with William on his 
present and future position like a brother, and prayed for us 
most fervently. 

" On Thursday morning he called at Mr. Wilkins' and a solemn 
baptised our dear Ballington in the presence of a few friends. <'^''^"^o"!/- 
It was a very solemn and interesting ceremony. He asked 
for him the most precious of all blessings, and dedicated him 



Age 29. 

Mr. Cau- 

to God most fervently, afterwards placing his hand on his head 
and blessing him in the name of the Lord. He wrote me an 
inscription for my Bible, and took leave of us most affection- 
ately, expressing the deepest interest in our future, and a de- 
sire to know the proceedings of the next Conference in 
William's case. I cannot describe — I must leave you to im- 
agine, the effect of all this on my mind. After almost ador- 
ing his very name for ten years past to be thus privileged was 

Rev. James Caughey. 

well nigh too much for me. When he took leave of me, I 
pressed one fervent kiss on his hand, and felt more gratified 
than if it had been Queen Victoria's." 

Hearing him preach and speak encouraged Mrs. 
Booth to hope for an equally useful career for her hus- 
band, and it was natural that Mr. Booth should con- 
.sult Mr. Caughey as to his future. The latter had 
passed through a very similar experience with the 
American branch of the Wesleyan body, resigning 
his position as a pastor rather than be confined to a 


circuit. He counselled Mr. Booth to wait patiently 1858, 
until he had been ordained and received into full con- ^^ ^^* 
nexion by the Conference, since the time for doing so 
was now close at hand, and Mr. Caughey considered 
that this would give him a special status, both in Eng- 
land and America, which might prove of service to him 
in the future. At the same time he assured Mr. Booth 
that whether in the Connexion, or out of it, there was 
undoubtedly awaiting him a career of wide-spread 

Thirty years later, as General of the Salvation The Gen- 

,, _ 1 -!• 1- ••,• A • 111 end meets 

Army, Mr. Booth, durmg his visit m America, called canghey 
upon Mr. Caughey, who had then for some time retired y"ari 
from active labour owing to old age and increasing ^"*^''' 
infirmities. It was with tears of joy that the veteran 
embraced his former friend, and, after an affecting 
interview — the last they were destined to have upon 
earth — Mr. Caughey laid his hands upon the head of Mr. Cau- 
the fellow-laborer to whose life his own had served blesses the 
to lend an added inspiration, and with his eyes lifted 
to Heaven, gave him his solemn and farewell blessing. 
Since that remarkable interview Mr. Caughey has 
gone to his reward, but before his death the baby boy 
whom in Sheffield he had dedicated to God had grown 
to manhood, and, in company with a devoted and tal- 
ented life-partner, had taken his place at the head of a 
widespread and powerful organisation in the United 

There was little else of an exceptional character factory 
that marked the remainder of the stay in Brighouse, qMs. 
but there is a reference in one of Mrs. Booth's letters 
to the condition of the factory girls in the town, and 
as the subject is one that has considerably exercised 
the public conscience for some time past, and is likely 
to occupy the attention of the legislature, her early 



Age 29. 

views on the question are of more than passing inter- 
est. As usual, she strikes directly at the root of the 
evil and seeks to devise some remedy for it : 


Booth 's 



A pitiable 

tion . 

The Con- 

" I wish you could see the troops of young girls who turn 
out of these Yorkshire factories and mills, with their blue 
smock pinafores, handkerchiefed heads, and beclogged feet. 
They begin to work as half-timers when they are seven or 
eight years old, and after a little while are able to earn eight or 
nine shillings a week. In a family of three or four girls, with 
perhaps a drunken father, it is a great temptation to the mother 
to let her girls go to the mill. Indeed, parents seem to lose 
sight altogether of the demoralising and unwomanising influ- 
ence of the system. I never met with such a 'pounds, shill- 
ings, and pence' people in my life. They seem to have lost 
sight of every consideration — comfort, respectability, and 
everything else — for the 'brass,' as they call it. I know peo- 
ple, whom to look at in their homes you would think to be 
quite poor, who are really worth hundreds of pounds. 

" I was out for a little walk with a friend yesterday, when 
we met a troop of factory girls going to dinner. I observed 
that it augured discouragingly for the future of our country, 
this horrible system of employing our young women in fac- 
tories. What pitiable wives and mothers they will make ! 
Mothers! Alas, I should say bearers of children, for we have 
lamentable evidence that in everything desirable to the sacred 
relationship they are awfully deficient. I see no help for it 
but a law prohibiting young girls under twenty from working 
in factories before one o'clock. This would oblige them to 
attend to domestic matters in the forenoon, and in numbers 
of instances to seek situations as household servants. I wish 
some one would begin to agitate the subject in the news- 

But the time for the annual meeting of Conference 
was drawing near, and the all-absorbing question as 
to its probable attitude in regard to the future en- 
grossed the attention of Mr. and Mrs. Booth. They 
approached some of their ministerial opponents, but 
found them no more willing to agree to the evangel- 



istic work than they had been a year ago. Judging 
from the attitude of even the more friendly preachers 
it was easy to gather that the hopes that had been 
held out by the previous Conference, and which had 
formed so strong a part of the inducement to acquiesce 
in the decision, would probably fall through. Mrs. 
Booth writes to her parents as follows : 

" William was at Halifax on Sunday and opened the service 
for Mr. Cooke, who was preaching there and who called to see 
us yesterday. We were rather disappointed with him. He 
does not seem so thorough on the subject of William's work 
as we expected. Well, we must trust in the Lord, and seek 
to know His will, for cursed is he who trusteth in man and 
maketh flesh his boast. Mr. W\ Mills told William at 
Sheffield that he believed him better adapted for the evangel- 
istic work than Mr. Caughey— but, but! Ah, I know 7vhat, as 
Mr. Caughey says!" 

In a subsequent letter Mrs. Booth adds: 
" We have no fresh news of a Connexional character. We 
don't anticipate William's reappointment to the evangelistic 
work. All the whispers we hear on the subject seem to pre- 
dict the contrary. No, the spirit among the opposing few 
who put him down is, I fear, as rampant now as it was then, 
and his having gone through a circuit with all its usual rou- 
tine will not appease it. The opposition party will, however, 
have to make it manifest what manner of spirit they are of. 
for the question this time will be thoroughly thrashed out. 
We are seeking direction from above, and are endeavouring 
to consecrate ourselves freshly to God, promising that if He 
but clearly shows us His will in the matter, we will walk in 
it at any cost. If we go to a circuit it will probably be Hali- 
fax, for they seem determined to have us." 

Although the Brighouse circuit had, in the first 
instance, extended to Mr. and Mrs. Booth but a cool 
reception, when the time for the Conference drew 
near the local officials met together and presented a 
unanimous request for the prolongation of their stay 

Age 29. 


to keep 




The ap- 
proach ■ 
ing con- 

The cir- 

cv. it invite 

them to 




Age 29. 

But then 

Mr. Booth 

j.s or- 




during another year. Mr. and Mrs. Booth, however, 
declined the offer, believing that, whether they re- 
turned to the evangelistic work or not, a change of 
appointment would be beneficial. 

The Conference met in May at Hull. Mr. Booth 
was unanimously received into what is termed full 
connexion, his four years of probation now having 
expired. He was accordingly summoned to present 
himself for ordination. This was a somewhat for- 
midable ceremony. The President for the year, and 
the ex- Presidents of former years, stood upon the plat- 
form for the purpose of " laying hands" on the candi- 
dates, who were previously called upon to give an 
account of their conversion, and of their reasons for 
seeking ordination. 

Mr. Booth had stipulated with some of those in 
whose piety and devotion he thoroughly believed, 
that he should be near them and reap whatever ad- 
vantage might accrue from their faith and prayers^ 
while there were others whom he studiously avoided, 
feeling that if the laying on of their hands involved the 
impartation of the character and spirit they possessed, 
he would rather dispense with it! 

The question of his re-appointment to evangelistic 
work had not as yet come up for the consideration of 
the Conference. A number of circuits had petitioned 
in favour of the proposal, and Mr. Booth's friends 
were prepared to push the matter vigorously when it 
was brought forward for discussion. The following 
characteristic letter from him just after he had re- 
ceived his ordination describes the situation: 

" 29th May, 1858. 
J^J^ " I have just been to Hull to receive the rite of ordination. 

Booth's I understand that my reception into full connexion was most 
cordial and thoroughly unanimous. The service was an in- 


teresting one. I was surprised to find so large a number of 1858, 
revival friends at the Conference. John Ridgway, William Age 29. 
Mills, William Cooke, Turnock, and many others are anxious 
on the question of my re-appointment to evangelistic work. 
Birmingham, Truro, Halifax (my own circuit), Chester, 
Hawarden, and Macclesfield have presented memorials pray- 
ing Conference to reinstate me in my former position. The 
discussion had not come on when the business closed last 

•' I understand I have won golden opinions by my deport- Winning 
ment during the year. I cannot understand this, because I ^^^^f^^ns 
am conscious that I have not served the Connexion to any- 
thing like the extent I have done formerly. But I have kept by keep- 
quiet, and that for a young man is very proper! " ^"^ ^^"^*' 

At this juncture a Mr. Halliwell, who had been one a com- 
of the most rabid opponents of the evangelistic work suggistTd. 
at the previous Conference, came forward and sug- 
gested a compromise. His proposition was that Mr. 
Booth should agree to go to a circuit for another year, 
at the end of which he should be recalled to revival 
work by the unanimous vote of the Conference. Mr. 
Halliwell offered himself to propose this resolution, 
which was to be drawn up by Mr. Booth's friends. 
The compromise was accepted, though at a subsequent 
date Mr. Booth was not a little chagrined to find that 
the resolution in question made no mention of the 
stipulated restoration to the evangelistic sphere. 

Meanwhile, no sooner had it become known that Gates- 

. , 1 head 

Mr. Booth was likely to take a circuit, than the lay claims his 
delegate from Gateshead put forth his utmost influ- 
ence to secure his services. Not that the prospect 
was a specially inviting one. The cause in Gateshead 
was very low. Nominally there were some ninety 
members on the rolls of the town chapel (Bethesda, as 
it was called), but few of these attended class, and the 
ordinary Sunday-night congregation only numbered 


3i6 MJiS. BOOTH. 

1858, about one hundred and twenty. Still, these were 
Age 29. (jig^c^ii-igs which did not daunt Mr. Booth. The 
The in- people were anxious to have him, and this in itself 
accepted, promised well for their hearty co-operation in any 
efforts that he might put forth. The town was a 
large one, numbering at that time a population of 
about 50,000. And just across the waters of the Tyne 
was the mother city of Newcastle. Realising, there- 
fore, that the town and neighbourhood afforded so 
large a scope for his labours, Mr. Booth consented to 
the appointment. 
Mrs. To this arrangement Mrs. Booth reluctantly agreed. 

luctantiy She could uot but feel the injustice of the action of 
agrees. ^-^^ Conference, nor fail to doubt the future fulfilment 
of their present pledge. Nevertheless, having disin- 
terestedly committed her cause to the One whose will 
she sought above all else to follow, she started for 
Gateshead with the settled conviction that the ap- 
pointment would prove to be among the "all things" 
that "work together for good." 




The change from Brighouse to Gateshead was like ^4 wann- 
a transfer from the North Pole to the Equator. Al- peojoie. 
though the members were not numerous, they were 
warm-hearted. In bygone years the cause had been 
a flourishing one, but it had been wrecked by a min- 
ister who had previously been most useful. From 
being an earnest and successful preacher, he had so 
completely backslidden as to become an infidel lect- 
urer, and although before his death he gave true signs 
of genuine penitence, he was never able to undo the 
mischief that his conduct had wrought. How true 
is it that 

" The evil that men do lives after them ! 
The good is oft interred with their bones !" 

Not only so, but even during life, it is found easier An uphui 
to undo the good we have done, than to remedy the 
evil. At any rate it was so in the present case. The 
Gateshead circuit had received a blow from which it 
had hitherto been unable to recover. Its membership 
had dwindled, soul-saving had become almost un- 
known, debts had been contracted, and pastor after 
pastor had vainly striven to lift it out of its slough 
of despond with little or no success. Nevertheless a 
faithful few had struggled on in the dark, believing 
that a brighter day would sooner or later dawn. By 




Age 29. 


at the 




these the appointment of Mr. Booth was hailed with 
unfeigned delight. 

"They had a social tea-meeting last evening," 
writes Mrs. Booth to her parents, as soon as she 
could put pen to paper in her Gateshead home, " to 
welcome us into the Circuit, and we were highly grat- 
ified, I can assure you. In fact, you could hardly 
conceive a more marked contrast than between our 
reception here and at Brighouse. It is all we can de- 
sire. The leading men say they have got the best 
appointment in the Connexion. I wish you could 
have heard Mr. Firbank's speech, the gentleman who 
went to Conference as their delegate. He told us 
afterward some of the remarks made to him by several 
of the leading members of the Conference, when the 
first reading came out with our names down for 
Gateshead, such as 'Don't you wish you may get it!' 
'It's too good to stand!' etc. It enlightened us 
much as to the estimate in which, after all, the bulk of 
the Conference hold William's ability and value to 
the Connexion. 

" Well, the people here seem unanimous in their sat- 
isfaction and cordiality. I like them much, so far as 
I have seen them. They appear intelligent and warm- 
hearted. The chapel is a beautiful building, and 
seats 1,250, they say. I have consented to meet a 
class again, provided I can have it at home, as the 
chapel is more than half a mile distant, and it is up- 
hill coming back." 

The bright anticipations with which the people met 
their new pastor were more than realised. The con- 
gregations began rapidly to increase. At the very 
first Sunday-night meeting six persons professed sal- 
vation, and the occasion was made the more interest- 
ing by what was then an unheard-of novelty — the 



minister's wife leading off in prayer at the conclusion 
of the sermon ! 

Before many weeks had passed the attendance at 
Bethesda Chapel had doubled and quadrupled, till at 
length not only was every seat taken, but it was not 
uncommon for the aisles and every available spot to 
be occupied so that some two thousand persons were 
crowded within the walls. The fame of the work 
spread all around and gained for the chapel the sou- 
briquet of the "Converting Shop." If the title was 
not dignified, it was at least very significant, and 
served, perhaps, to pave the way for the similar com- 
monplace epithets which were to distinguish the poor 
man's cathedrals of the Salvation Army. The public- 
houses which cater for the taste of the very classes 
whom the Salvation Army was afterwards to reach, 
have long recognised the value of this peculiar species 
of nomenclature, and it is interesting to trace thus 
early the introduction of the dialect of the common 
people. Neither was it to be confined to the names 
of places. The familiar phraseology of the taproom 
was hereafter to be adopted to an extent that caused 
considerable alarm among those who confound rever- 
ence with refinement, and who are more afraid of 
vulgarity than of sin. To such it has seemed little 
vShort of blasphemy to dub a church a "barracks," to 
speak of a preacher as a "Hallelujah lass" or "lad," 
a " Happy Eliza," or a "Glory Tom," — to call a meet- 
ing a "free-and-easy," and, in short, to adopt the 
every-day language of the poor. 

It is worth noting, however, that nearly every such 
expression has been coined by the people themselves, 
often by the unconverted roughs who form the bulk 
of our open-air congregations. They have suited the 
popular taste, and thus have spread from one place to 

Age 29. 


The Con- 

The value 
of si^ich 

not sin, 
nor irrev- 

by the 



Age 29. 

The Gel- 



and Bat- 



'Hie lan- 
guaqe of 


another, in exactly the same manner as the early- 
Christians were derisively nicknamed in Antioch, or 
the Quakers, Methodists, and Teetotallers in later 
days. In Ceylon a Salvationist is familiarly known 
among Buddhists as a " Gelavoonkaraya" — Saviour — 
while in South India, in expression of the same idea, 
the Hindoos reckon that he belongs to the Ratchagar 
caste. PAX popular movements are bound more or less 
to partake of this character. Nor is it complained of 
in politics, where we tolerate the existence of Whigs, 
Tories, Jingoes, Mugwumps, and similar vulgarities. 

There can be little doubt that the adoption of a 
stilted, unnatural, highflown, bookish phraseology in 
matters pertaining to religion has served largely to 
alienate the lower classes from its pursuit. Ministers 
talk a foreign language, largely learned from books. 
Theology has long since been divorced from the 
vulgar colloquial of the common people, and has been 
united in matrimony to the language of a bygone age. 
Hence it has had to content itself for its conquests 
with those who have been sufficiently educated to un- 
derstand its terms. 

A deep principle underlies this fact. To become 
familiar with the thoughts and feelings, the sorrows 
and aspirations of the multitude, we must speak their 
language, and surely without such familiarity we 
cannot hope to grapple with their circumstances, and 
convince them of the truths we proclaim. True, lan- 
guage is but a vehicle for expressing our thoughts. 
It is the spirit embodied in our words that makes or 
mars our efforts. Nevertheless, if the right spirit 
exists, it necessarily follows that it will invariably 
lead to the choice of such language as will the most 
readily convey its meaning. Why should it select 
the high-flown phrases of conventionality, when it 



finds ready for its use expressions full of force, mean- 1858, 
ing and vitality, any more than we should prefer a trip ^^ ^^' 
across the Atlantic in the facsimile of Christopher .4 mod- 
Columbus's galley rather than in a modern steamer. to\mYin. 
It is true there are those who regret the exchange 
from the spotless decks and snowy canvas of the for- 
mer to the coal dust, noise, and machinery of the lat- 
ter. But when it comes to the question of a voyage 
there are few who would prefer even the most recent 
versions of the sailing ship to its more grimy but 
swift competitor. If, indeed, men were bent on recre- 
ation rather than business, it might be otherwise. 
And perhaps this may be the explanation of the 
strange perversity with which, in religious matters, 
an opposite course is pursued, that so few make the 
salvation of the masses the business of their lives and 
the subject of absorbing study. 

But, however this may be, Bethesda Chapel certainly 
took a new lease of life from the time that it was pop- 
ularly christened the "Converting Shop." 

The first year spent by Mr. and Mrs. Booth in The birth 
Gateshead was signalled by the birth of their eldest Mnr^- 
daughter, Catherine, now Mrs. Booth-Clibborn, better '^*"^' 
known to the public as the " Marechale." This inter- 
esting event took place on the i8th of September, 
1858. "Baby is a little beauty," reports Mr. Booth 
to Mr. and Mrs. Mumford, "a perfect gem, healthy 
and quiet, and is altogether all the fondest grandfather 
or grandmother could desire. I am sure you ought 
to send us a vote of thanks, passed unanimously, for 
conferring such honor upon you." 

The vote of thanks asked for by Mr. Booth was The vote 
to come from quarters of which he had then not the ^•^"'""'''^• 
faintest suspicion. The baby girl that Mrs. Booth 
clasped with such fondness to her heart, telling her 

322 MRS. BOOTH. 

1858, mother that she loved her better than the rest, be- 

^^^ ^^' cause the others being boys were better able to look 

after themselves, was to be the first missionary of the 

family, and the love and blessing of thousands of 

French and Swiss converts were yet to be hers. 

Writing to her mother Mrs. Booth says: 

The habii. " ^s to the baby, I suppose yot: will think me like all 
mothers when I say she is a little beauty! Her hair is ex- 
actly the color of mine. She has a nice nose and mouth, a 
fine forehead, and a plump round face. William thinks she is 
more like me than any of them. She is the picture of health 
and happiness and thrives daily. Now I hope this description 
is particular enough even for a grandmama." 

^„ ^11 A series of revival services were inaugurated, com- 
daji of mencing on Whit-Monday with an entire day of fast- 
and ffist- {ng and prayer, lasting from seven in the morning 
till ten at night — the first " all day of prayer" of which 
we have any record, and the precursor of the many 
"all days," "all nights," and "two days with God," 
which have since been made a blessing to so many 
thousands. And yet, from the very commencement 
of Mr. Booth's ministry, Sunday had been practi- 
cally spent as an " all day. " The possibility of extend- 
ing the idea to week-days, and especially to holidays, 
was, however, a later development. Hence the first 
experiment in this direction is of special interest. 
A s2oeciai It was followcd by ten weeks of special services, the 
^ ' whole town being previously canvassed with bills 
which were distributed from house to house, Mrs. 
Booth herself undertaking one district which con- 
tained about a hundred and fifty houses. As a result 
Three of this effort more than three hundred persons pro- 
penitents. fessed to be converted, many of whom were young 
men who not only became useful members of the 


church but afterwards rose to positions of distinction 1858, 
as mayors, aldermen, magistrates and ministers. ^^ ^^' 

At the commencement of the revival Mr. Booth A-praxi- 
made out a long list of names of those for whose sal- "'^ ^*^' 
vation he was specially solicitous, and it was with 
great joy that he found at the conclusion of the meet- 
ings that nearly all of them had been converted. In 
one case there was a family of sixteen members, all of The 

1 11 r T . /- T 1 ii famihf of 

whom had professed to rind peace, and there were sixteen. 
several other entire families of six or eight members. 
In one large workshop on the Tyne, the men in the 
cooperage department — an exceptionally drunken set 
— all professed conversion, with one solitary exception. 
And a number of men employed in a cement factory 
gave a similar testimony. 

The meetings are described by Mrs. Booth in the 
following letter: 

" William is to conduct a union prayer-meeting next Friday r/jg 
nisfht in the Wesleyan Chapel. The whole town is moved, chairman 
His name is a regular topic of conversation m tne large iron and-casy. 
and railway works, some of which employ 1,200 men. On 
Tuesday night they had one man at the rail who said he 
was chairman of a public-house 'free-and-easy,' but that he 
should drop it, go home, and burn ail his song books. One of 
our people saw him the other day, in the place where he 
works, surrounded by a lot of rough fellows, who were 'chair- 
ing ' him (carrying him round the works in a chair) in honour 
of his conversion. But, though they jeer and ridicule him 
in every possible way, he still holds on. May the Lord 
strengthen him. 

" We were never in a work where the cases were so satis- The 
factory. Nearly all are adults, and many are intelligent, edu- converts. 
Gated, and respectable. Some single instances would satisfy 
many a preacher of the jog-trot sort for a whole year's labour. 
The congregations, too, have kept up amazingly. In fact they 
have continued improving, vast numbers of strangers coming 
every night." 



Age 29. 

A recog- 

A strik- 
ing scene. 

The open- 
air ivork. 


The series of services closed with a " recognition 
meetinof" for the new converts, at which Mrs. Booth 
was present, and of which she sends the following 
account to her mother : 

" I ventured to chapel on Tuesday night to the public recog- 
nition service. The persons brought to God since we have 
been here were admitted by ticket into the body of the chapel, 
while the old members and the public occupied the gallery. 
It would have done your soul good to have seen the bottom 
of that large chapel almost full of new converts, most of them 
people in middle life, and a great proportion men. 

" William gave them an address composed of various coun- 
sels respecting their future course, which if they adopt they 
will do something for this poor world of ours. 

" On the whole it has been a glorious year for this circuit, 
such an one as nobody expected to see. And I believe Wil- 
liam has become the most popular and beloved minister either 
in Gateshead or Newcastle. All praise unto Him, Whose 
doing it is! " 

Another special feature of the Gateshead campaign 
was its open-air work. This was an entire novelty in 
the town. The members were organised into a pro- 
cession every Sunday evening and paraded the streets 
from five to six o'clock, singing as they went, and 
stopping at suitable intervals for the delivery of brief 
and pointed exhortations to the unconverted persons 
who crowded round the ring. On several occasions 
bands of men were sent out by the publicans to sing 
down the processionists, who not unfrequently started 
singing a hymn to the same popular tune, thus de- 
feating the would-be disturbers with their own 

The spiritual revival was accompanied by an en- 
couraging improvement in the financial position of 
the circuit. Not only were the old debts wiped off, 
but the funds became sufficient to support three in- 


stead of two ministers, and to meet with ease all the 1858, 
current liabilities. It would have been possible at ^^ 
the previous Conference for Mr, Booth to have se- 
cured his appointment to a circuit the financial pros- 
perity of which had been already assured, but this 
with him was always a secondary consideration. He 
argued that the best way to ensure the financial in- 
terests of any circuit was to restore prosperity to its 
spiritual interests, and that in so doing the former 
would never fail to revive. The truth of this princi- 
ple he has been able to demonstrate over and over 
again during his subsequent career. 

With one of the means for recruiting the circuit church 
funds both Mr. and Mrs. Booth had reason to be dis- ^«^««''^- 
satisfied. They had looked upon bazaars as a part 
and parcel of the church routine, and had hitherto 
countenanced them without experiencing any con- 
scientious qualms. With the general principle of 
offering gifts in kind for the advancement of God's 
Kingdom, and of selling what had thus been given, 
they had no quarrel. It was the abuses which had 
gradually crept into the system that aroused their 
disapproval and brought them to the decision that 
they could no longer countenance the system. 

Mrs. Booth sends her mother the following descrip- 
tion of what had occurred : 

" I have had a very harassing week, though I have Mrs. 
not been much to the Bazaar since the first day. I excision 
have been too busy to go in the daytime, and too 
weary of an evening. However, I have had quite 
enough of it, and have made up my mind that it is the 
last I will ever have anything to do with so long as I 
live. William has come to the same conclusion. In 
fact, he is quite disheartened and unhappy about it. 

" So far as getting money is concerned it has been 



Age 29. 

A disni- 






very successful, having realized ;^2 32, but it has been 
a dissipating, godless affair, and has exerted a very 
evil influence on our people. There has been a deal 
of lotterying, which is little better than gambling, 
and the foolery and display in dress has made us sick 
at heart. William says he will write a pamphlet on 
the subject, but I don't know whether he will find 
the time. I am sure some one ought to set forth the 
secularising, worldly influence such occasions exert on 
the church. It is most baneful." 

Referring to this subject in later years Mrs. Booth 

" I said to a lady a little while ago, who was work- 
ing an elaborate piece of embroidery for a bazaar, 
'Why don't you give the money, and use your time 
for something better?' She answered, 'This will sell 
for more than it costs.' 'Then reckon what it will 
sell for, and give the money; don't sit at home mak- 
ing other people's finery, instead of visiting the sick 
and seeking to save the lost!' It makes me burn with 
shame to think how money is raised for so-called re- 
ligious purposes by semi-worldly concerts, entertain- 
ments, penny readings, and bazaars at which there 
is frequently positive gambling to raise money for 
Jesus Christ, whom they say they love more than 
fathers, mothers, husbands, wives, houses or lands, 
or anything else on earth!" 


GATESHEAD. 1858-1859. 

It was during the autumn of 1858 that an accident a narrotir 
occurred which, but for the Divine interposition, ^^^^p^- 
might have brought Mrs. Booth's career to an un- 
timely conclusion. She thus describes the incident 
in a letter to her parents: 

" Sunday evening. 

" I have not been out today, in consequence of feel- 
ing- stiff and poorly from the effects of an accident which 
befell me on Friday. And when I have described it I 
am sure you will join me in praising God that I am no 
worse. William has wanted me and the children to go to 
Sheriff Hill ever since the special services there commenced, 
but we put it off to the last. On Friday, however, we all went 
to the concluding services. Mr. Scott brought a very nice con- 
veyance and his own pony to fetch us. We went in safety and 
comfort, enjoyed the meeting, and were coming home at 
about half-past six. 

" Through a little oversight, however, it was found we could a danger- 
not have the same conveyance for return, but only a gig be- ous fall. 
longing to one of our friends. So, fortunately, I sent the 
nurse home on foot with the baby, a young woman accom- 
panying her. William delayed going into the meeting to 
pack us off all right. Young Scott was driving, Willie sat in 
the middle, and I with Ballington on my knee, all mufiHed and 
cloaked, next to him. The moment we were all in I felt we 
were too light on the horse's back, but did not say anything 
for fear of being thought ridiculous. We had not gone many 
yards, however, before I was sure we were not safe, and I said 
to Mr. Scott, 'Oh, dear! I feel as though we were slipping 




Age 29. 

A marvel- 
lous es- 


The horse 

was not 

to blame. 

" Jig boke! 



fall ! " 

backwards!' I had hardly got the words out of my mouth 
when the pon5^ frightened by the rising of the shafts, set 
off, and we were all thrown out behind. 

" I fell flat on the back of my head with Ballington on the 
top of me. I don't know how Willi'? fell, but, wonderful to 
say, they were neither of them hurt. William and all Mr. 
Scott's family still stood watching us when it happened, and 
of course flew to our assistance, screaming as they came. In- 
deed all the village was up in arms. The horse went off with 
the gig at full gallop, not stopping until he fell flat down, 
breaking both shafts. 

" William lifted me in his arms and carried me back. One 
and another took the children, and we all received the great- 
est care and kindness from the Scotts, who were very much 
distressed. I was greatly shaken, and nearly all the sense 
knocked out of me, but I trust no serious harm was done. I 
feel better this evening. Is it not a mercy that I am able to 
write to you ! It seems wonderful to me that I have escaped 
so well, considering that I was rendered so helpless by the 
child beirig on my knee. It was a terrible crash, such as I 
would not like again, but, bless the Lord, we are all alive and 
the children are not a bit the worse. No one can account for 
the accident, but I think the harnessing was wrong. I am 
sure the horse was not to blame. It is a sweet creature and 
never did such a thing before, but the rising of the shafts 
frightened it. Another mercy connected with it is that we 
had just got over some very large and sharp stones, recently 
laid down, on to an even road. If it had happened on the 
stones I believe my head would have been laid open. 

" They borrowed a phaeton to bring us home — not a very 
comfortable ride, I can assure you, after such a fright. How- 
ever, we arrived safely, and I am not likely to forget our visit 
to Sheriff Hill ! Willie says, 'Jig boke ! Make Pilloo (Willie) 
fall! And mama fall! Poor mama! Got pain!' You would 
have been pleased to see what concern the little creature 
manifested about me when 1 lay on the sofa at Mr. Scotts. 
He seemed to forget everybody but me. It has freshly en- 
deared him to me. How strange that after all our journey- 
ings up and down without a single accident, we .should 
happen to have this one in going but two miles from home ! 
I trust I am becomingly thankful for such a favourable issue.'' 


Mrs. Booth was careful to avoid manifesting any 1858, 

sort of favouritism in the treatment of her children. ^^ ^^' 

A year previous to this, soon after Ballington's jvo 

birth, Mr. Booth writes as follows: ^''""ism'^' 

" Kate says we must have no distinctions, such as forty yo coat 
kisses for Willie and only twenty for Babs. No coat of many cf many 
colours. You must love both alike. Is this possible? lam ^^ °^^^' 
afraid not, especially when we remember how grandmama 
toiled and sacrificed over our first-born!" 

The following letter from Mrs. Booth to her mother 
shows how consistently she adhered to her principles 
in regard to her children's dress, and this from their 
very infancy: 

" I was very sorry to hear you were so poorly. Do not sit putin 
so close at work." (Mrs. Mumford was especially skilful with dress. 
her needle. Some graceful specimens of her handiwork have 
been preserved with care and are now worn by her infant 
greatrgrandchildren. ) " I am certain you are injuring your- 
self by it, and it is such folly when I do not desire it, and 
when the things that cost you the most labour lie in the 
drawers, and are seldom worn, simply because they are /oo 
handsome. What will you say when I tell you that the beau- 
tiful frock you brought Willie has never been on him yet, and 
I am now altering it a little, to make it less showy, so that he 
may wear it at the tea-meeting on Easter Monday.? 

" You see, my dear mother, William speaks so plainly on j^^^^ ■ 
the subject of dress, that it would be the most glaring incon- tency. 
sistency if I were to deck out my children as the worldlings 
do. And, besides, I find it would be dangerous for their own 
sakes. The seed of vanity is too deeply sown in the young 
heart for me to dare to cultivate it. I confess it requires 
some self-denial to abstain from making them as beautiful 
as they might be made to look. But oh ! if God should take 
them from me I should never regret it, and if He spares them 
I trust that He will grant them the more of that inward 
adorning which is in His sight of great price. 

" Don't think I undervalue your kindness. I am most grate- Value the 
ful for all you have done for them. Only I want you to mod- ''''"^"^««- 



Age 30. 

the seeds 
of vanity. 


Booth on 


The lace 

ing the 

ify it. There is, you know, a great difference between a plain 
coat, without a bit of work at all upon it, and one which 
would set everybody admiring and saying, 'I should think it 
would be five shillings a yard!' I am sure you will not mis- 
understand either what I say or the motive which prompts 
me to say it." 

Who can tell how many careless mothers sow in 
their children's hearts the seeds of worldliness, and 
reap an after harvest of the most painful kind! Ah, 
what sins and sorrows, what failures and disasters, 
can be traced back to the wrong teachings of a 
nursery, and, on the contrary, how many a noble 
character has been shaped within its precincts by the 
wise hand of a watchful mother! Referring, many 
years subsequently, to the question of simplicity in 
dress, Mrs. Booth remarks: 

" Associated with my very earliest ideas of religion was the 
necessity for plainness of dress. It seemed to me clear from 
the teachings of the Bible that Christ's people should be 
separate from the world in everything which denoted char- 
acter, and that they should not only be separate but appear so. 
Otherwise what benefit would their separation confer upon 
the others? 

" I remember feeling condemned, when quite a child, not 
more than eight years old, at having to wear a lace tippet 
such as was fashionable in those days. P'rom a worldly point 
of view it would have been considered, no doubt, very neat and 
consistent. But on several occasions I had good crying fits 
over it. Not only did I instinctively feel it to be immodest, 
because people could see through it, but I thought it was not 
such as a Christian child should wear. 

" As I advanced in religious experience I became more and 
more convinced that my appearance ought to be such as to 
show to everybody with whom I came in contact that I had 
renounced the pomps and vanities of the world, and that I be- 
longed to Christ. Had the church to which I belonged worn a 
uniform I should joyfully have adopted it. I always felt that 
it was mean to be ashamed of Christ in the street or among 



His enemies. And it was only in conformity to the opinions 
of those whom I regarded as my superiors in wisdom and grace 
that I conformed to the world as much as I did in the matter 
of dress. 

" People have asked me, sometimes, whether we cannot be 
separate from the world in our hearts without being different 
in our dress. My reply has been, 'What is the use to the 
world of a testimony for Christ up in your bedroom? The 
very essence of witnessing for God before the world is that we 
should not be like it. ' The people quite recognise this, 
whether Christians do or not. Hence their contempt for those 
who talk to them about religion while dressed as fashionably 
as themselves. They may listen out of politeness, but they 
will say in their hearts, and often, when our backs are turned, 
with their lips, 'Physician, heal thyself! ' Why does she come 
and talk to me about giving up the world when she has not 
done so herself, at any rate as far as dress is concerned.'' ' " 

The following is another example of the nursery- 
lessons impressed upon her children's minds: 

" Willie is a generous little fellow. He has a money-box 
and a few ha'pence in it. The other day we saw a poor boy 
without shoes. Willie was condoling with him, so I asked 
him whether he would rather buy some barley sugar with his 
money or give it to the child. He said without hesitation, 
' Give it to the poor boy, mamma. ' I felt very grateful for the 
generous impulse manifested. Oh for wisdom to train it 
aright and make it the handmaid of principle, for the gener- 
osity of mere impulse is of little worth !" 

It was an interesting lesson in finance for the future 
administrator of a great organisation's revenue. The 
money-box betokened thrift, but there was no sin on 
the face of God's earth against which Mrs. Booth was 
more ready to take arms than the avarice and mean- 
ness which are too often instilled in the childish 
heart. How many a grasping and miserly disposition 
is manufactured in a nursery by means of unwise 
parents who do not distinguish between thrift and 

Age 30. 

The heart 
and dress. 

A bed- 
room tes- 


hatred of 

332 MliS. BOOTH. 

1859, avarice, and who hope to counteract evil tendencies 
^^ ^°' by mere prayers and Bible lessons as an antidote ! It 
was because Mrs. Booth accompanied her Scripture 
stories by such practical illustrations as the above that 
she was enabled to write them so indelibly upon the 
hearts of her children. 
wuue "You will be very much pleased with Willie," she 

pleaches ^ 

at three, wrltes, whcn he was only three years and two months 
old. " He loves to listen to stories about Joseph, 
Moses, Daniel, and the Saviour. Indeed, he can 
'p'each,' as he calls it, very nicely. You would like 
to hear him repeat, as he throws his arms out and 
speaks through his eyes: 

'"All ye that pass by, 
To Jesus draw nigh, 
To you is it nothing that Jesus should die ? ' 

A happy He is a very good boy in chapel and likes to go ! 
They are all fine, healthy, lovable children, and as 
sharp as needles, and amidst all the toil and anxiety 
they occasion I am cheered and sustained by the sym- 
pathy and love of their father. William never was 
kinder or more loving and attentive than now. He 
often tells me I grow more beautiful in his sight and 
more precious to his heart day by day. I know it 
will gratify you to hear that your Kate is so highly 
prized by the man of her choice, and this is the only 
reason I write you thus. We have now been married 
four and a half years, and I believe we love each 
other better than on our wedding day. ' Praise the 
Lord, O my soul, and forget not all His benefits!' " 

A unan- But deeply as Mrs. Booth was attached to her 

imous in- 
vitation, family, and ably as she fulfilled the duties of a 

mother, many circumstances combined about this 

period to direct her energies into a more public 


Sphere. Mr. Booth had long been convinced that she 1859, 
was peculiarly fitted to address large audiences. &® 3o. 
Others shared the opinion. "I received a unanimous 
invitation," writes Mrs. Booth, in September, 1859, 
"from our Leaders' meeting the other night to give 
an address at the special prayer-meetings this week. 
Of course I declined. I don't knov/ what they can be 
thinking of!" 

But, although for some time longer Mrs. Booth still Another 
found it impossible to overcome her timidity in this ojKms. 
direction, another path of usefulness opened out be- 
fore her in an unexpected manner, which was, perhaps, 
the best possible preparation for the public ministry 
that was soon to take its place. We cannot do better 
than describe it in her own words : 

"One Sabbath I was passing down a narrow. Her own 
thickly populated street on my way to chapel, antici- ^^''uolu' 
pating an evening's enjoyment for myself, and hop- 
ing to see some anxious ones brought into the King- 
dom, when I chanced to look up at the thick rows of 
small windows above me where numbers of women 
were sitting, peering through at the passers by or 
listlessly gossiping with each other. 

"It was suggested to my mind,. with gfreat power, compel 

00 y jr them to 

'Would you not be doing God more service, and act- <^'omein. 
ing more like your Redeemer, by turning into some 
of these houses, speaking to these careless sinners, 
and inviting them to the service, than by going to 
enjoy it yourself?' I was startled; it was a new 
thought; and while I was reasoning about it the 
same inaudible interrogator demanded, 'What effort 
do Christians put forth answerable to the command, 
Compel them to come in, that my house may be 

"This was accompanied with a light and unction 

334 MJ^S. BOOTH. 

1859, which I knew to be Divine. • I felt greatly agitated. 

^^ ^°* I felt verily guilty. I knew that I had never thus 

She obeys laboured to bring lost sinners to Christ, and, trembling 

the call, ^^j^]-^ ^ sense of my utter weakness, I stood still for a 

moment, looked up to heaven, and said, 'Lord, if 

Thou wilt help me, I will try;' and, without stopping 

longer to confer with flesh and blood, turned back 

and commenced my work. 

The first "I spoke first to a group of women sitting on a 

effort . 

doorstep ; and oh ! what that effort cost me words 
cannot describe ; but the Spirit helped my infirmities 
and secured for me a patient and respectful hearing, 
with a promise from some of them to attend the house 
of God. This much encouraged me; I began to taste 
the joy which lies hidden under the cross, and to 
realise, in some faint degree, that it is more blessed 
to give than to receive. With this timely, loving 
The next cordial from my Master I went on to the next group, 
g)oitp. ^^-^Q were standing at the entrance of a low, dirty 
court. Here, again, I was received kindly, and prom- 
ises were given. No rude repulse, no bitter ridicule 
were allowed, to shake my new-found confidence or 
chill my feeble zeal. I began to realise that my Mas- 
ter's feet were behind me ; nay, before me — smooth- 
ing my path and preparing my way. 
Contin- " This blcsscd assurance so increased my courage 
cess. and enkindled my hope that I ventured to knock at 
the door of the next house, and, when it was opened, 
to go in and speak to the inmates of Jesus, death, 
judgment, and eternity. The man, who appeared to 
be one of the better class of mechanics, seemed to be 
much interested and affected by my words, and prom- 
ised with his wife to attend the revival services 
which were being held at the chapel. 

" With a heart full of gratitude and eyes full of tears 


I was thinking- where I should go next, when I ob- 1859, 

-, . , . . . T ^ Age 30. 

served a woman standing on an adjoining doorstep 

with a jug in her hand. My divine Teacher said, a dmnk- 
' Speak to that woman. ' Satan suggested, ' Perhaps she "wi/f, 
is intoxicated;' but after a momentary struggle I in- 
troduced myself to her by saying, 'Are the people out 
who live on this floor?' observing that the lower part of 
the house was closed. 'Yes,' she said, 'they are gone 
to chapel;' and I thought I perceived a weary sadness 
in her voice and manner. I said, 'Oh, I am so glad 
to hear that ; how is it that you are not gone to a 
place of worship?' 'Me?' she said, looking down 
upon her forlorn appearance; 'I can't go to chapel; I 
am kept at home by a drunken husband. I have to ^^^JJ^^^^ 
stop with him to keep him from the public-house, and 
I have just been fetching him some drink.' I ex- 
pressed my sorrow for her, and asked if I might come 
in and see her husband. ' No, ' she said, ' he is drunk ; 
you could do nothing with him now.' I replied, 'I do 
not mind his being drunk, if you will let me come in ; 
I am not afraid; he will not hurt me.' 'Well,' said 
the woman, 'you can come if you like; but he will 
only abuse you.' I said, 'Never mind that,' and fol- 
lowed her up the stairs. 

" I felt strong now in the Lord, and in the power strong in 
of His might, and as safe as a babe in the arms of its 
mother. I realised that I was in the path of obedi- 
ence, and I feared no evil. Oh how much the Lord's 
people lose through disobedience to the leadings of 
the Holy Spirit ! If they would only hrp His %vords 
He would dwell with them, and then they need fear 
neither men nor devils. 

" The woman led me to a small room on the first Dealing 
floor, where I found a fine, intelligent man, about drunk- 
forty, sitting almost double in a chair, with a jug by 

336 MRS. BOOTH. 

1859, his side out of which he had been drinking that 
^^ ^°' which had reduced him beneath the level of the beasts 
that perish. I leaned on my heavenly Guide for 
strength and wisdom, love and power, and He gave me 
all I needed. He silenced the demon, strong drink, 
and quickened the man's perceptions to receive my 

He listens, words. As I began to talk to him, with my heart full 
of sympathy, he gradually raised himself in his chair 
and listened with a surprised and half-vacant stare. 
I spoke to him of his present deplorable condition, of 
the folly and wickedness of his course, of the inter- 
ests of his wife and children, until he was thoroughly 
aroused from the stupor in which I found him. 

A ivretch- " During this conversation his wife wept bitterly, 
and by fragments told me a little of their previous 
histor3\ I found that she had once known the Lord 
but had allowed herself to be dragged down by trouble, 
had cast away her confidence, and fallen into sin. 
She told me that her husband had a brother in the 
Wesleyan .ministry who had done all that a brother 
could to save him; that they had buried a daughter 
two years before, who died triumphantly in the Lord, 
and besought her father with her dying breath to 
leave off drinking and prepare to meet her in hea- 
ven ; that she had a son, then about eighteen, who, 
she feared, was going into a consumption ; that her 
A clever liusband was a clever workman, and could earn three 
or four pounds per week as a journeyman, but he 
drank it nearly all, so that they were compelled to 
live in two rooms and often went without necessary 
food. I read to him the parable of the Prodigal Son, 
while the tears ran down his face like rain. I then 
prayed with him as the Spirit gave me utterance, and 
left, promising to call the next day with a temper- 
ance-pledge book, which he agreed to sign. 



" I now felt that my work was done. Exhausted 
in body, but happy in soul, I wended my way to the 
sanctuary, just in time for the conclusion of the ser- 
vice, and to lend a helping hand in the prayer-meeting. 

"On the following day I visited this man again. 
He signed the pledge, and listened attentively to all 
I said. Full of hope I left him, to find others simi- 
larly lost and fallen. From that time I commenced 
a systematic course of house-to-house visitation, de- 
voting two evenings per week to the work. The 
Lord so blessed my efforts that in a few weeks I suc- 
ceeded in getting ten drunkards to abandon their 
soul-destroying habits, and to meet me once a week 
for reading the Scriptures and for prayer." 

In a letter written to her parents Mrs. Booth de- 
scribes this work as follows : 

" I have commenced my operations amongst the 
drunkards. I wish I could give you particulars, but I 
cannot spare time, so it must sufhce to say that I have 
been quite as successful as I expected, and have met 
with nothing but the greatest civility. I have visited 
two evenings this week, and have attended two cottage 
prayer-meetings at which I have had four penitents. 
The rooms were very full and hot, and of course I 
felt rather knocked up the next day. But by lying 
down in the afternoons I don't think I am any the 

In describing these visiting experiences afterwards 
Mrs. Booth says: 

"I was obliged to go in the evenings, because it 
was the only part of the day when I could get away. 
And even had it been otherwise I should not have 
found the men at home any other time. I used to ask 
one drunkard's wife where another lived. They al- 
ways knew. After getting hold of eight or ten in 

Age 30. 

Happy in 





How to 
do it. 



1 859, 
Age 30. 

.4. pitiable 

isted o' 

the twins 
in a pie- 


this way, and persuading them to sign the pledge, I 
used to arrange a cottage meeting for them and then 
try to get them saved. They used to let me talk to 
them in hovels where there was not a stick of furni- 
ture, and nothing to sit down upon. 

" I remember in one case finding a poor woman 
lying on a heap of rags. She had just given birth to 
twins, and there was nobody of any sort to wait upon 
her. I can never forget the desolation of that room. 
By her side was a crust of bread, and a small lump of 
lard. 'I fancied a bit o' bootter (butter),' the woman 
remarked apologetically, noticing my eye fall upon the 
scanty meal, 'and my mon, he'd do owt for me he 
could, bless 'm — he couldna git me iny bootter, so he 
fitcht me this bit o' lard. Have yo?i iver tried lard 
isted o' bootter? It's rare good ! ' said the poor crea- 
ture, making me wish I had taken lard for 'bootter' 
all my life, that I might have been the better able to 
minister to her needs. However, I was soon busy 
trying to make her a little more comfortable. The 
babies I washed in a broken pie-dish, the nearest ap- 
proach to a tub that I could find. And the gratitude 
of those large eyes, that gazed upon me from that 
wan and shrunken face, can never fade from my 

"In the long run, however, the work told on my 
health a good deal. The rooms were often hot and 
close, and in going from them into the night air I 
caught colds which finally resulted in a severe illness. 
But my whole soul was in it, and I became deeply at- 
tached to the drunkards whom I had been the means 
of rescuing. It has been a great joy and satisfaction 
to me since that the Salvation Army has so largely 
directed its efforts, and with such remarkable success, 
to their reclamation." 



The Conference of 1859 was held in Manchester, nie sec- 
and Mr. Booth, being now a superintendent minister, Tn Gates- 
was entitled to attend. At the quarterly meeting of ' 
the Circuit officials held previously to the Conference 
he had been unanimously prayed to prolong his stay" 
at Gateshead for another year. For this he was very 
unwilling. His heart was still set upon the evange- 
listic work. Writing to her mother Mrs. Booth says: 

" I have fully and formally consented to let William go Longing 
forth as an evangelist on condition tha the concentrates his f*^^' reviv- 
efforts on one district at a time, making his home in some 
central town and working the surrounding circuits, so that I 
shall see him at least once a week. He now thinks of writing 
to the Annual Committee, making certain proposals to them, 
and asking their advice as to how to proceed at the next Con- 
ference. If they decline to employ him as before in the capac- 
ity of an evangelist, he will ask to be allowed to retain his 
standing amongst them and to be left at liberty to accept 
invitations wherever they may offer, raising his salary as he 

The Gateshead officials were, however, importunate. The inl- 
and would not take a "no," They urged upon him ^^officiais^ 
the advantages of remaining for another year, with a 
view to solidifying the results of his previous labours, 
thus establishing the young converts in the faith, 
permanently I'^'ting the condition of the Circuit, and 
effectually clo; ig the mouths of those whose principal 




1 859, 
Age 30. 

his first 

The de- 
bate on 

The tem- 

A good 



objection to revival work had been that the results 
were evanescent. 

It was with feelings of considerable curiosity and 
interest that Mr. Booth attended the ensuing Confer- 
ence. It proved, however, to be a melancholy disap- 
pointment, and he was glad to reach home again. To 
one of his practical nature the debates and resolutions^ 
appeared desultory and unsatisfactory. 

"The Conference drags its weary length along," he writes 
from Manchester. " Not much that is interesting and not 
much that is disagreeable. We are at present engaged on 
missionary business. Messrs. Gilton, Wright and McCurdy 
have spoken in favour of a foreign mission — Mr. Whittaker 
against it. I shall not trouble myself on the controversy. The 
feeling runs high. 

"Later — Foreign mission just carried all but unanimously." 

The monotony of the debates was, however, partially 
enlivened by the occurrence of an incident in which 
Mr. Booth took a more active part. 

"I had been selected by the Conference," he writes, "to 
form one of a Committee to receive a deputation from the 
United Kingdom Alliance, whose object is to secure by legis- 
lation the opportunity for the people to decide whether or no 
they will have a public-house in their vicinity. The deputa- 
tion was met by us and the matter discussed and reported on 
to the Conference. Desiring to give a practical turn to what 
is ordinarily but a useless discussion, resulting in nothing be- 
yond the utterance of a few rapid eulogiums, I proposed that 
we should give expression to our abhorrence of the liquor 
traffic by passing a resolution that henceforth no one who 
was actively engaged in it should be accepted as a member of 
our Church. This appeared to me, and to several others who 
had strong temperance affinities, a very simple and harmless 
step in the direction of purging the Connexion from its .com- 
plicity in what it acknowledged to be a crying evil. I did not 
ask that all members should be teetotalers, nor even that the 
publicans who were already members of the Society, some 



of them holding- offices of considerable influence, should be 
expelled, but simply that our doors should in future be closed 
against those who were engaged in carrying on the traffic. 

" The proposition met, however, with the most vigorous op- 
position. One minister, to show how undeserving ^were the 
publicans of receiving such an affront, mentioned the case of 
a lady who kept an infamous dram-drinking establishment. 
Yet so careful was she lest her children should be contam- 
inated by its evil influences that, when her daughters came 
home for the vacation from their boarding school, she took 
them lodgings at another house ! To this I gave the natural 
reply that the lady in question only aggravated her offence by 
inflicting on others the evils which she was unwilling her own 
family should encounter. 

" This observation was strongly resented, and in the little 
hubbub that ensued my motion was defeated by an over- 
whelming majority. I believe this was the only resolution 
that I ever sought to impose upon the Conference." 

Ago 30. 

A sharp 

The mo- 
tion de- 

Nevertheless, it was a useful experience. As Con- 
ferences go, the one that Mr. Booth attended was no 
doubt a favourable specimen. But he felt like the 
Duke of Wellington might have been expected to feel 
supposing Waterloo had been prefaced by a parlia- 
ment of officers elected by the soldiery and held upon 
the battle-field ! Its argumentations and legislations 
would have been adm.irably suited for the peaceful 
courts of Westminster and the placid waters of the 
Thames, but to carry about a huge debating machine 
in face of an active and enterprising enemy would 
have been altogether out of place and could only have 
ensured defeat. The duty of the House of Commons 
had been to decide in favour of peace or war. They 
had done it. 

And now it was for debate to give place to a totally 
different regime, in which liberty should be sacrificed 
for unity that unity might in the end secure the 
greater liberty. The universal danger was to be the 

on the 

The nde 
of war. 

342 MRS. BOOTH. 

1859, universal bond. The mediocrities might mismanage 
^^ ^°' peace, but superiority was to take the lead in war. 
Authority was to be released from its constitutional 
iron cage in order to secure victory at all costs. Dis- 
obedience was to be branded as mutiny and its faint- 
est whispers drowned in blood. The wig and gown 
were to be replaced by helmet and knapsack, and the 
well-ordered precincts of the Law Courts by the 
rough and ready drumhead. The barracks were to 
be exchanged for the tent, the parade-ground for the 
battle-field, the blank cartridge for the deadly cannon- 
ball, the constable's baton for the soldier's bayonet. 
At such a moment, when a nation's destiny was 
trembling in the scales, to debate would be to delay, to 
delay would be to perish. 
Was it Mr. Booth left the Conference with a dim feeling of 
whiief dissatisfaction, and a wonderment as to whether the 
results accomplished had been worth the expenditure 
of time and strength. True, mighty interests had 
been discussed. But the practical outcome had been 
little more than the dispatch of a solitary missionary 
to the foreign field, while against the advancing forces 
of drink no greater obstacle had been opposed than an 
empty fusilade of formal compliments. 
A year of But this only added to the satisfaction with which 
he turned once more to the activities of the battle-field. 
The Gateshead prospects were indeed encouraging. 
During the past year the membership of Bethesda 
Chapel had increased from thirty-nine to three hun- 
dred, while the Sunday congregations filled the place. 
Revivals were also spreading in several of the outlying 
districts, such as Sheriff Hill, Felling Shore, and 
Mount Pleasant. 
A turn- g^t the coming year was to prove an historical turn- 
ing-point concerning the importance of which Mr. 




and Mrs. Booth had themselves no conception. It was 
a singular Providence which at length impelled Mrs. 
Booth to emerge from the comparative obscurity of 
home-life and to embrace the arduous responsibilities 
of her public career. What the persuasions of her 
husband and friends had failed to induce her to un- 
dertake the taunts and denunciations of opposition 
were to be largely instrumental in forcing upon her. 

It was in December, 1859, that Mrs. Booth's atten- 
tion was drawn to a pamphlet written by a neighbour- 
ing minister, the Rev. Arthur Augustus Rees, in 
which the right of woman to preach was violently at- 
tacked on Scriptural grounds. The occasion for this 
onslaught was the visit of the American evangelists. 
Dr. and Mrs. Palmer, who were holding services at 
the time in Newcastle. The Doctor himself was 
an earnest, good-natured, easy-going personage. But 
the principal figure in the meetings was his wife. 
Mrs. Palmer was a remarkable woman, intellectual, 
original, and devoted. As a speaker her chief attrac- 
tion lay in her simplicity, and in the striking illustra- 
tions with which her addresses were interspersed. 
Aiming directly at the hearts of her hearers, and rely- 
ing evidently upon the co-operation of the Holy 
Spirit, she became a rallying-point for all that was 
best and most earnest in the churches. Mrs. Booth 
had been unable to attend the meetings, but reports 
of them had from time to time reached her, and the 
fact that a woman was the prominent agent in this 
movement had deeply interested her. Hence she had 
no sooner heard of the pamphlet published by Mr. 
Rees than her soul was stirred to its deepest centre. 

The replies which were issued by Mrs. Palmer's 
friends and supporters "do not," writes Mrs. Booth 
to her mother "deal with the question at all to my 

1 859, 
Age 30. 

Dr. Rees 

woman'' s 
right to 



for ad- 

344 MRS. BOOTH. 

1859, satisfaction. They make so many uncalled-for admis- 
Age 30. ^^^^^^ ^^^^ J would almost as soon answer her defenders 
as her opponent. I send you by this post Mr. Rees* 
notable production. It was delivered in the form of 
an address to his congregation and repeated a second 
time by request to a crowded chapel, and then pub- 
lished ! Would you believe that a congregation half 
composed of ladies could sit and hear such self-de- 
preciatory rubbish? They really don't deserve to be 
taken up cudgels for! 
Contem- " Mr. Rccs was once a Church clergyman, and is now 

plates lee- , ^ . . . , j_- r^ 

turing. an Independent mmister with a congregation ot up- 
wards of a thousand people. I hear he talks of pub- 
lishing another pamphlet. I hope he will wait a bit 
till I am stronger! And if he does bring out any 
more in the same style, I rather think of going to 
Sunderland and delivering an address in answer to 
him. William says I should get a crowded house. I 
really think I shall try, if he does not let us ladies 
alone! I am sure I could do it. That subject would 
warm me up anywhere and before anybody. William 
The Gen- is always pestering me to begin giving lectures, and 

tersher. Certainly this would be a good subject to start with. 
I am determined that he shall not go unanswered." 
In referring aefain to Mr. Rees' pamphlet Mrs. Booth 

''Female t> & jr r 

min- subsequently writes to her mother : 

" I am, after all, publishing a pamphlet in reply. It 
has been a great undertaking for me, and is much 
longer than I at first intended, being thirty-two pages. 
When William came home and heard what I had 
written he was very pleased with it, and urged me to 
proceed, and not tie myself for space but deal 
thoroughly with the subject, making a tract on female 
ministry which would survive this controversy. It 
is now pretty well known that a lady has tackled him, 


and there is consequently the more speculation and 1859, 
curiosity abroad. I hope I have done it well. You ^^ ^°" 
must send me your honest and unbiassed criticism, as 
I may have to enter the field again, if spared. 

"There is one thing which is due to myself, I Oriyinui. 
think, to tell you that, whatever may be its merit, it 
is my own, and far more original, I believe, than most 
things that are published, for I could get no help from 
any quarter. William has done nothing beyond copy- hoiv it 
ing for me, and transposing two or three sentences, tvrmen. 
I composed more than half of it while he was away, 
and when he came home he began to copy what I had 
written while I lay on the sofa and read it to him. 
Then when he went out to his duties I resumed 
writing my rough matter, so that it has all been 
written by my own hand first. I have been at it 
from seven in the morning till eleven at night most 
of the week, so I leave you to judge how I am feel- 
ing. In fact I don't believe I could have done another 

It has been the misfortune of religion that its ex- Sodetifs 
ponents have so frequently endeavoured to accom- £«". 
plish their ends by trampling on the laws of nature. 
God made man as dependent on woman as woman is 
on man. Society was founded by Him on a twin 
basis, the recognition of which is necessary to its 
success and happiness. Humanity, and above all re- 
ligion, requires a double motive force. A church 
with one wing folded cannot fly; with one foot par- 
alysed cannot walk ; with one arm motionless can do 
but half its work ; with its starboard oars all shipped 
will move in a perpetual circle and make but poor ad- a perpet- 
vance. We plead for more labourers in the world's ""''■"■''^^• 
great harvest, but they must be wni ! If the Holy 
Ghost sends troops of inspired women, the fields of 

346 MRS. BOOTH. 

i8s9, more than half Christendom are fenced with thorns 
^^^ ^°' to prevent their entrance, though the crops fall rotting 

on the ground and the multitudes are famishing 

vv'ithin sight and reach of plenty ! 
Nature's Nature has made her purpose plain enough to be 
purpose. g.^^gpg^ |jy ^j^g dullest comprehension. She surely 

would not have wasted public capacities and gifts of 
eloquence on woman had she not intended them to be 
used. She is not so prodigal of her works. Had she 
intended trees to move she would surely have endowed 
them with some sort of means for locomotion. Had 
she intended woman to be silent she would surely 
have produced her dumb, or at least with but the 
power to whisper. And when we speak of Nature, 
what is it but a euphemism for God ? How prepos- 
terous is it to suppose that He would have pursued so 
obviously self-contradictory a course as to gift woman 
with peculiar powers and in the same breath forbid 
their use ! 
Man's And yet, strangely enough, this pious fraud of man 
fraud, on woman's rights is defended and concealed with 
mis-applied passages of Scripture. Nothing is easier 
than to separate a verse or two from their original 
context and flourish them in defence of any error that 
ever existed. But this is the merest casuistry. The 
Bible is its own interpreter. One passage cannot be 
taken in a sense which contradicts the spirit of its 
entire teaching, but must be reconciled with the rest. 
Such contradictions are only superficial and apparent, 
after all, like the waves of the sea when wind and 
current happen to be opposed. They dash against 
each other as if to destroy, but only to unite. The 
foam and froth upon the surface quickly drift away, 
leaving an abiding union. 

A few quotations from Mrs. Booth's pamphlet will 



suffice to show how erroneous has been the ordinarily 1859, 
accepted view in regard to female ministry : ^^ ^°' 

" Whether the Church will allow women to speak in /ler as- 
semblies can only be question of time; common sense, public 
opinion, and the blessed results of female agency will force 
her to give us an honest and impartial rendering of the soli- 
tary text on which she grounds her prohibitions. Then, when 
the true light shines and God's words take the place of man's 
traditions, the Doctor of Divinity who shall teach that Paul 
commands woman to be silent when God's Spirit urges her to 
speak will be regarded much the same as we should regard 
an astronomer who should teach that the sun is the earth's 

" As to the obligation devolving on woman to labour for 
her Master, I presume there will be no controversy. The 
particular sphere in which each individual shall do this must 
be dictated by the teachings of the Holy Spirit and the gifts 
with which God has endowed her. If she have the necessary 
gifts, and feels herself called by the Spirit to preach, there is 
not a single word in the whole book of God to restrain her, 
but many, very many, to urge and encourage her. God says 
she SHALL do so, and Paul prescribed the manner in which she 
shall do it, and Phoebe, Junia, Philip's four daughters, and 
many other women actually did preach and speak in the prim- 
itive churches. If this had not been the case, there would 
have been less freedom under the new than under the old dis- 
pensation ; a greater paucity of gifts and agencies under the 
Spirit than under the law ; fewer labourers when more work 
was to be done. Instead of the destruction of caste and division 
between the priesthood and the people, and the setting up of 
a spiritual kingdom in which all true believers were 'kings 
and priests unto God,' the division would have been more 
stringent and the disabilities of the common people greater. 
Whereas, we are told again and again in effect, that in 'Christ 
Jesus there is neither bond nor free, male nor female, but ye 
are all one in Christ Jesus. ' 

" We commend a few passages bearing on the ministrations 
of woman to the careful consideration of our readers. 

"Jesus said to the two Mary's, 'All hail!' And they came 
and held Him by the feet, and worshipped Him. 'Then said 

The pam- 

The obli- 
gation to 

The New 
more lib- 
erty than 
the old. 

Some ex- 



Age 30. 

Tlie first 




were the 


Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go, tell my brethren that they 
go before me into Galilee.' (Matt, xxviii. 9, 10.) There are 
two or three points in this beautiful narrative to which we 
wish to call the attentions of our readers. 

■' First, it was the first announcement of the glorious news 
to a lost world and a company of forsaking disciples. Second, 
it was as public as the nature of the case demanded; and in- 
tended ultimately to be published to the ends of the earth. 
Third, Mary was expressly commissioned to reveal the fact to 
the apostles ; and thus she literally became their teacher on 
that memorable occasion. O glorious privilege, to be allowed 
to herald the glad tidings of a Saviour risen ! How could it be 
that our Lord chose a woman to this honour? Well, one rea- 
son might be that the male disciples were all missing at the 
time. They all forsook Him and fled. But woman was there, 
as she had ever been, ready to minister to her risen, as to her 
dying, Lord. 

" ' Not she with traitorous lips her Saviour stung, 
Not she denied Him with unholy tongue ; 
She, whilst apostles shrunk, could danger brave; 
Last at the cross, and earliest at the grave. ' 

Pentecost. " Acts i. 14, and ii. 1-4. We are in the first of these pas- 
sages expressly told that the women were assembled with the 
disciples on the day of Pentecost ; and in the second, that the 
cloven tongues sat tipon them cac/i, and the Holy Ghost filled 
them a//, and they spake as the Spirit gave them utterance. 
It is nothing to the point to argue that the gift of tongues was 
a miraculous gift, seeing that the Spirit was the primary 
bestowment. The tongues were only emblematical of the 
office which the Spirit was henceforth to sustain to His peo- 
ple. The Spirit was given alike to the female as to the male 
disciple, and this is cited by Peter (16-18) as the peculiar 
speciality of the later dispensation. What a remarkable de- 
vice of the devil that he has so long succeeded in hiding this 
characteristic of the latter-day glory ! I/e knows, whether the 
Church does or not, how eminently detrimental to the inter- 
ests of his kingdom have been the religious labours of 
woman ; and while her Seed has mortally bruised his head, he 
ceases not to bruise her heel; but the time of her deliverance 
draweth nigh." 


It was well that Mr. and Mrs. Booth were of one 1859, 
accord on this subject, making it a cardinal point of ^^ ^°* 
their doctrine to assure to woman the highest position Woman's 
of usefulness that she was capable of occupying. ^^^'*'*^*°*^- 
They did not anticipate that she would never make 
mistakes. Had man made none? They did not wait Not in- 
for every one to be a Mrs. Booth. Was every man a 
William Booth? They realised that some would fail, 
and even sin. Was man alone immaculate? But 
they refused to accept a one-sided and maimed human- 
ity, or to acknowledge that such a ministry could be 
divinely ordained. 

Years have passed since the issue of this modest ''Neither 

-, r !• ) • 1 • • 1 male nor 

protest m defence of woman s right to minister at the female.'' 
altar. Precept has been carried into practice, and 
the world has passed its sentence of approval upon a 
living mighty organisation in which there is " neither 
male nor female, barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free, 
but Christ is all and in all." 



for truth. 

ing the 

the at- 


Conflict is a necessary medium for producing con- 
viction and arriving at the truth. There has never 
yet been a cause, however excellent, which has suc- 
ceeded in converting men to its way of thinking with- 
out a struggle. When error and sin, those enemies 
of humanity, cease to exist, conflict can afford to 
ground her arms and disband her forces. To do so 
sooner would be the height of treachery. 

It has been truly remarked that we cannot improve 
the future without disturbing the present. Estab- 
lished wrongs can only be put right by upheavals of 
the public mind corresponding in some degree with 
the magnitude of the evil to be combated. The gales 
that blow away the leaves and purify the air are 
God's disinfectants. The temporary inconvenience 
and local damage they inflict are more than compen- 
sated by the universal good. Who can calculate how 
many epidemics they prevent? The air that is least 
stagnant is most healthy. The unwholesome quiet 
of the " Black Hole" is the prelude of suffocation. 
Better perish in a tornado than stifle in a dungeon. 
Death, if postponed for a while, is equally sure and 
still more agonising-. 

Conflict, it may be said, is the purifier of the moral 
atmosphere. If at times it destroys what it might 
well have let alone, the preponderating good more 



than compensates for the occasional loss. This is i86o, 
fully recognised in the social and political world. A ^^ ^^' 
perpetual battle rages between society's rights and 
wrongs, or more often still between conflicting rights ; The war 
between lesser rights which have usurped an undue ''^^ 
prominence, and the greater ones which have been 
thrust momentarily into the background. The edi- 
torial commanders-in-chief range their papery legions 
upon either side. Oceans of ink and tons of paper 
are expended on each rival cause. And, if no better 
reason for conflict remain, hairs must be split that 
blood may flow. 

What is inevitable in the social world is equally in- Acquiesc- 
evitable m the religious sphere. There are those evil. 
who recognise the necessity for conflict in the former 
who are opposed to it in the latter. They would 
rather acquiesce in evil than disturb it. They cry 
"Peace, peace!" when there is no peace, and they 
have no patience with those who break in upon the 
general quietude. 

Thus, when Mrs. Booth had launched her pamphlet 
on female ministry, she found herself committed to a potion of 
life-long warfare, in which she would be required to ^°"^""'- 
champion till death the cause which she had at heart. 
The emancipation of woman from the thraldom of 
custom was a noble task. Providence had committed 
to her hand the playing of the most prominent part. 
But she soon found that it would be necessary to fight 
her way through long lines of opposing forces before 
she could realise the accomplishment of her hopes. 
"The right Divine" of men "to govern wrong," or Divine 
rather to usurp all the governing and talking to them- theory. 
selves, had become too deeply rooted an idea in the 
churches to be easily overthrown. A queen might 
sit upon the throne, but for a woman to ascend the 



Age 31. 


with Dr. 


An im- 

pulpit, or occupy the ministerial chair, was, in the 
eyes of many, a heresy too rank for toleration. 

An interesting correspondence ensued between 
Mrs. Booth and the Rev. J, Stacey, perhaps the best 
cultured intellect in the New Connexion body, being 
principal of their theological college, and afterwards 
one of its annual presidents. He had written for a 
copy of the pamphlet, and in sending it Mrs. Booth 
accompanied it with the following letter : 

" I NoRMANBY Terrace, Gateshead. 
"Rev. and Dear Sir: — 

" In a letter received yesterday my dear husband informs 
me that you have expressed a wish to see my pamphlet on 
'Female Teaching.' Accordingly I avail myself of the privi- 
lege of sending you one. Although I think I have succeeded 
in answering Mr. Rees. I am conscious that I have not done 
anything like justice to this very important subject, and it is 
my intention shortly to write on it again. I should esteem it 
a great favour, therefore, if you would allow me to trouble you 
for a critical examination of it with reference to a few con- 
troverted passages. 

" For my own part I desire above all things a thorough, 
honest, impartial investigation of the Scriptures on the sub- 
ject, and that by those properly qualified for the work. I am 
deeply convinced that, when this is secured, the present pre- 
vailing notions with reference to woman's position in the 
church will be driven back to the abyss of darkness and error 
from whence they originally issued, and that the gift of proph- 
ecy to woman — one of the distinguishing characteristics of 
the latter-day glory — will be rescued from the oblivion to 
which ignorance and prejudice have so long consigned it. 

" May God haste the day, and to this end bless even the 
feeble efforts of one so unworthy as 

" Your's in the love and fellowship of Jesus, 

"Catherine Booth." 

To this letter Dr. Stacey sent the following reply: 

Ay Dear Mrs. Booth: — 

" I thank you cordially for the pamphlet on female teaching 

reply. " My Dear Mrs. Booth : 



just received. 'I will take the very first opportunity of read- 
ing it. 

" You will possibly suspect that my judgment lies counter to 
the exercise of ministerial functions by women, though cer- 
tainly not in the general sense to 'female teaching.' This 
judgment is not, I think, one of prejudice, but of intelligent 

" I shall be quite willing, however, to surrender it, if reason 
demand it. I hold that error is profitable in the long run to 
nobody, and therefore that the sooner we part with it the 

" In a controversy of this kind, two things are indispensable : 
first, to clear the ground by a vigorous statement of the 
subject. What is meant by female teaching? This may be 
narrowed to one fixed, instituted, technical exercise, or it may 
be enlarged to the comprehension of all possible forms and 
modes of teaching. The second thing is to determine the 
precise Scripture sense of 'prophecy.' 

" Other things are in their degree needful, such as the ex- 
amination of particular passages, the relation of the sexes to 
each other and to Christianity, etc. 

" I may observe that Dr. Clarke's authority weighs very 
little with me, as it has little weight anywhere. I admire 
him very much as a man, but as a deep thinker, or as an ac- 
curate and searching scholar, his reputation does not and can- 
not stand high. He knew many things rather than much. I 
make this remark, because I think, from a cursory glance at 
your pamphlet, you quote him as a chief authority. But I 
must read before I criticise. 

" I can only say in conclusion that my frank opinion on any 
passage of Scripture I may have studied is at any time at 
your service. 

" Very truly yours, 

"J. Stagey." 

Age 31. 



to none. 

Does not 

much of 


Mrs. Booth, without waiting for the further letter 
promised by Mr. Stacey, wrote to him as follows : 


"Rev. and Dear Sir: — 

" I am sorry to intrude myself on your notice again so soon, 
but since reading your note I feel that it is imperative on me 



Age 31. 

The com- 

ings of the 

An im- 


The seal 
oj silence. 

to offer a word of explanation, and to assure you that I had 
not the slightest intention of alluding to yourself in the refer- 
ence I made to the effects of ignorance and prejudice on the 
subject in question, but simply to the vulgar notions of the 
public in general. For yourself I have always entertained 
the most profound respect and esteem. 

" I may just observe that I did not quote Dr. Clarke so 
much as a first authority, as one who gave what appears to 
me a common-sense vieiv of the passages in question, and one 
which does not involve the contradictions so conspicuous in 
some other commentators. However, I sincerely thank you 
for your criticisms, and shall be glad to receive more when 
you have leisure. If I am wrong, it is my judgment, not my 
heart. I am sure I only wish to know the will of God and all 
within me would bow in silent and loving acquiescence. 

" But oh, sir, how can it be that the promptings of the Holy 
Spirit and the precepts of the Word should be in such direct 
antagonism as Mr. Rees makes it appear? In asking this 
question I know that I only express the heartfelt inquiry of 
many of the most devoted and faithful among the female dis- 
ciples of our Lord. For it is a significant fact that it is not the 
formal, worldly-minded professors who experience these urg- 
ings of the Spirit to open their lips for Christ, but generally 
those who are most eminent for piety and unreserved conse- 
cration to the service of their Saviour. Surely there must be 
some mistake somewhere. I cannot but think that the error 
lies in the interpretation and application of two isolated pas- 
sages in Paul's writings. 

" You say, my dear sir, that you do not object to fe- 
male teaching in the general sense. Then you admit of a 
qualification of the passage, 'I suffer not a woman to teach;' 
for, taken literally, this forbids all kinds of teaching what- 
ever. The question to be settled is, what kind of qualification 
do the principles and general bearing of the New Testament 
render necessary? To my mind, there is but one reply. Sup- 
pose commentators were to deal with some partsof the Epistle 
of James as they do with these two passages, what would be- 
come of the glorious doctrine of justification by faith? 

■' I cannot but believe that a very grievous wrong has been 
inflicted on thousands of Spirit-baptised disciples of Jesus 
long since gone to their reward by the seal of silence ira- 




Age 31. 


posed on them by good but mistaken men, who thought 
they were doing God service ! 

" But I believe the Lord himself is teaching the Church her 
mistake on this subject, so important to her ultimate triumphs. 
I believe thousands of loving, faithful hearts are pleading for 
the bestowment of the promise of the Father on the hand- 
maidens as well as on the servants of the Lord. And God 
will in His own good time answer prayer. 

" Excuse me, my dear sir. I had no intention of writing at 
such length when I commenced. But my heart is full of feel- 
ing on this subject — not on my own account, God knows, but 
because it does appear to me to be very intimately connected 
with the progress and triumph of the blessed Gospel, and 
because I am anxious to interest in it one whose learning and 
intelligence might be so helpful to the truth, and in whose 
nobility of soul I feel I dare rely. This is my apology for 
occupying so much of your valuable time. 

" Yours in the fellowship of Jesus, 

" Catherine Booth." 

In replying to this letter, Dr. Stacey expressed 
himself as still unconvinced. At the same time he 
appreciated fully the ability manifested by Mrs. Booth 
in dealing with the subject, concluding his letter by 

" I trust I need not say how much I esteem your sympathies 
and aims. To me they are very dear, and are becoming so 
more and more. I admire intensely your fervour of spirit 
and simplicity of love, as well as the comm.and of English 
evinced in your pamphlet." 

But, if there were few critics of repute who sup- j-f^^ 
ported Mrs. Booth's view at the time, there are many '"^\""^^y^ 
of them now, and the more honour is due to her who 
so bravely acted the part of pioneer and proved to de- 
monstration the truth for which she had contended. 
Mrs. Booth's convictions were of too robust a character 
to give way before the opposition that her pamphlet 
aroused. In after years, when she had reached the 

The doc- 
tor un- 

356 MRS. BOOTH. 

i860, zenith of her success, there were few who did not ad^ 
Age 31. ^.^ -j^^^ ^^^ individtial right to preach the Gospel, 
Claimed although it was still argued that others should not 
*^*'for''^ follow in her steps unless they possessed similar 
others, ability. The fallacy of such an idea is not difficult 
to perceive. What would happen in the House of 
Commons if a law were passed that no one should 
speak save those who possessed the eloquence of a 
Gladstone? Perhaps the prohibition might be a use- 
ful one. Certainly there would be very little talking 
A To Mrs. Booth it would have given but little satis- 

^ccess. faction to have shaken herself free from the bondage 
of conventionality had she been unable to release the 
rest of womankind. How wonderfully she succeeded 
is now a matter of history. For what better argu- 
ment could we find in favour of women's ministry 
than the successes achieved by the five thousand 
women officers and tens of thousands of women 
speakers whom Mrs. Booth left behind at her death, 
and who continue, in ever-increasing numbers and 
with ever-multiplying success, to follow in her steps? 

"Her brilliant life example's flame they catch, 
And forward step that they her deeds may match." 




It was Sunday morning, the 8th January, i860. The Mrth 
Mr. Booth had been announced to take the service at dalgh?er 
Bethesda Chapel. But the expectant congregation ♦"'"^"• 
were disappointed when, after a whispered consulta- 
tion among their leaders, one of them commenced 
the meeting with an apology for their beloved pastor's 
unavoidable absence. The service had not, however, 
proceeded far when Mr. Booth himself appeared, and 
was able not only to preach the anticipated sermon, 
but to make the happy announcement that another 
little woman warrior had just been added to their 
ranks, one whose life, with God's blessing, should be 
a practical illustration of the truths laid down in 
"Female Ministry." 

It was a bright omen for the future that Emma a hapj^y 
Moss Booth was born within a few days of the pub- 
lication of her mother's stirring pamphlet, and that 
she was still an infant in her arms when the public 
ministry commenced which was to open the door of 
usefulness, not only to Mrs. Booth's own daughters, 
but to multitudes of womankind. It was while she 
was lying still weak and suffering, her babe in her 
bosom, that Mrs. Booth received what was without 
doubt an inward urging of the Holy Spirit to con- 
secrate herself to the ministry which she had so 





Age 31. 

liot only 
but a 


A special 

powerfully defended on behalf of others. She applied 
her pamphlet to herself. 

She had always been fully convinced that it was 
lawful for woman to preach the Gospel, as much as 
for man. But that it was their duty to rise up and 
do it under pain of the Divine displeasure was alto- 
gether another aspect of the question. Least of all 
did she contemplate when writing the paper that she 
would be singled out by Providence to pioneer the 
way. But a sick bed allows opportunity for reflec- 
tion which is often impossible in the busy routine of 
every-day life. She was forced to face the natural 
consequences of her own teachings, and to realise that 
what was permissible became a duty where the nec- 
essary qualifications were possessed. 

Referring to her experience, in a public meeting 
twenty years afterwards, Mrs. Booth said: 

" Perhaps some of you would hardly credit that I 
was one of the most timid and bashful disciples the 
Lord Jesus ever saved. But for four or five months 
before I commenced speaking the controversy had 
been signally roused in my soul, and I passed 
through some severe heart-searchings. During a sea- 
son of sickness [connected with the birth of her' 
daughter], it seemed one day as if the Lord revealed 
it all to me by His Spirit. I had no vision, but a 
revelation to my mind. He seemed to take me back 
to the time when I was fifteen or sixteen, when I first 
fully gave my heart to Him. He showed me that all 
the bitter way this one thing had been the fly in the 
pot of ointment, preventing me from realising what I 
otherwise should have done. And then I remember 
prostrating myself upon my face before Him, and 
promising Him there in the sick room, 'Lord, if Thou 
wilt return unto me as in the days of old, and revisit 


me with those urginors of the Spirit which I used to i860, 
have, I will obey, if I die in the attempt.' However, 
the Lord did not revisit me immediately. But he 
permitted me to recover, and to resume my usual 

"About three months afterward I went to the ^^^f./J'^^,^ 
chapel of which my husband was a minister (Beth- occasion. 
esda), and he had an extraordinary service there. 
Even then he was always trying something new to 
get at the outside people. For this Sunday he had 
arranged with the leaders that the chapel should be 
closed, and a great out-door service held at a place 
called Windmill Hills. It so happened, however, that 
the weather was too tempestuous for carrying out this 
design, and hence the doors were thrown open and 
the meeting was held in the chapel. In spite of the 
stormy weather about a thousand persons were pres- 
ent, including a number of preachers and outside 

" I was, as usual, in the minister's pew with my ^ sudden 
eldest boy, then four years old. I felt much depressed ^«''- 
in mind, and was not expecting anything particular, 
but as the testimonies proceeded I felt the Holy Spirit 
come upon me. You alone who have experienced it 
can tell what it means. It cannot be described. I 
felt it to the extremity of my hands and feet. It 
seemed as if a voice said to me, 'Now if you were to 
go and testify, you know I would bless it to your own 
soul, as well as to the people!' I gasped again and The con- 

r i. o J. <D trovers/ 

said in my heart, 'Yes, Lord, I believe Thou wouldst, 
but I cannot do it!' I had forgotten my vow. It did 
not occur to me at all. 

"A moment afterwards there flashed across my 
mind the memory of the bed-room visitation when I 
had promised the Lord that I would obey Him at all 



Age 31. 


to look a 


The first 

on to 

The con- 

costs. And then the voice seemed to ask me if this 
was consistent with that promise. I almost jumped 
up and said, 'No, Lord, it is the old thing over again. 
But I cannot do it!' I felt as though I would 
sooner die than speak. And then the devil said, 
'Besides, you are not prepared. Yovl will look like 
a fool and will have nothing to say.' He made a 
mistake. He overreached himself for once. It was 
this word that settled it. 'Ah!' I said, 'this is just 
the point. I have never yet been willing to be a fool 
for Christ. Now I will be one!' 

"Without stopping another moment I rose up from 
my seat and walked down the aisle. My dear hus- 
band was just going to conclude. He thought some- 
thing had happened to me, and so did the people. 
We had been there two years, and they knew my 
timid, bashful nature. He stepped down and asked 
me, 'What is the matter, my dear?' I replied, 'I 
want to say a word.' He was so taken by surprise 
that he could only say, 'My dear wife wishes to 
speak,' and sat down. For years he had been trying 
to persuade me to do it. Only that very week he had 
wanted me to go and address a little cottage meeting 
of some twenty working people, but I had refused. 

" I stood — God only knows how — and if any 
mortal ever did hang on the arm of Omnipotence, I 
did. I felt as if I were clinging to some human arm, 
but it was a Divine one which held me up. I just 
stood and told the people how it had come about. I 
confessed, as I think everybody should who has been 
in the wrong and has misrepresented the religion of 
Jesus Christ. I said : ' I dare say many of you have 
been looking upon me as a very devoted woman, and 
one who has been living faithfully to God. But I 
have come to realise that I have been disobeying Him, 

362 MJiS. BOOTH. 

i860, and thus have brought darkness and leanness into my 
^^^ ^^' soul. I have promised the Lord to do so no longer, 
and have come to tell you that henceforth I will be 
obedient to the holy vision.' 
Thepeo- "There was more weeping, they said, in the chapel 
that day, than on any previous occasion. Many dated 
a renewal in righteousness from that very moment, 
and began a life of devotion and consecration to God. 
Talking " Now I might have 'talked good' to them till now. 
That honest confession did what twenty years of 
preaching could not have accomplished. 
What was "But oh, how little did I realise how much was 
then involved ! I never imagined the life of publicity 
and trial that it would lead me to, for I was never 
allowed to have another quiet Sabbath when I was 
well enough to stand and speak. All I did was to 
take the first step. I could not see in advance. But 
the Lord, as He always does when His people are 
honest with Him and obedient, opened the windows 
of heaven and poured out such a blessing that there 
was not room to contain it." 
Announc- The Rubicon once crossed, it became impossible 
'^ night, for Mrs. Booth to turn back, however much she might 
have desired to do so. She had scarcely resumed her 
seat when, true to his nature, Mr. Booth pounced upon 
her to preach at night. She could not refuse. The 
Thepeo- people were delighted. They overwhelmed her with 
Whfed congratulations. Her servant, who was at the meet- 
ing, went home and danced round the kitchen table 
with delight, calling out to the nurse, "The mistress 
has spoken! The mistress has spoken!" 
The re- Mrs. Booth returned home drenched in perspiration, 


home, with mingled feelings of satisfaction and of conster- 
nation at having to speak again that night. What 
could she say? It would be useless for her to repeat 


what she had said in the morning. And yet there was i860, 
no time for preparation. She cast herself upon her ^^ ^^' 
knees and asked the Lord to give her a message for 
the people. He did so then and there, and the night 
meeting exceeded in enthusiasm and power the pre- 
ceding one. 

The chapel presented a never-to-be-forgotten scene ^i« '^}9ht 

i^ ^ ^ meeting. 

that evening. It was crowded to the doors, and the 

people sat upon the very window-sills. Appropriately 

enough, it happened to be the anniversary of Pentecost, 

and Mrs. Booth took for her subject, "Be filled with Hej- 

•' subject. 

the Spirit." The audience were spell-bound as they 

listened to her words. There are some in heaven 

and not a few on earth to-day, who look back upon 

that occasion as the turning-point in their spiritual 


The news spread far and wide, and invitations now She visits 
•^ New- 

poured in thickly from all directions in greater num- castle. 

bers than could possibly be accepted. Among other 
places a call was received from Newcastle, and an in- 
teresting memento of Mrs. Booth's first service in that 
city consists in the following resolution passed by the 
leaders' meeting of the chapel in which she preached: 

" That this meeting returns its cordial thanks to Mrs. Booth The reso- 
for the addresses delivered in the chapel on Sunday last, 
which we have no doubt will be productive of good, and 
earnestly hopes that she may continue in the course thus 
begun, in which we unitedly pray that the blessing of God 
may attend her and crown her labours with success. 

" W. H. Renwick, 

" Society Steward. 
" 6th June, i860." 

In a letter dated 23d July, Mrs. Booth sends her she re- 
parents an interesting account of her labours at this ^wVrk^^ 



Age 3X, 

Taking a 
for the 

No time 
to .'itiulij. 



" William has been confined to the house a fortnight with a 
bad throat attack. I have consequently had extra care and 
work. I have spoken four times since you left — at Sheriff 
Hill, the Fell, Dunstan, and last night at Gateshead. At two 
of the places I took the night anniversary services, had full 
chapels and gave great satisfaction. I went to Bethesda last 
night to supply for William. The chapel was crowded with 
forms round the communion rail and down the aisles. I spoke 
for an hour and five minutes from Luke xiii. 23-30 ('And one 
asked Him, Lord, are there few that be saved?" etc.). I got on 
very well and had three sweet cases, and from all accounts 
the people were very much pleased. I cannot tell you how I 
felt all day about it. I never was in such a state in my life. 
I could neither eat nor sleep. I was pressed into it against 
my will, and when I saw the congregation I felt almost like 
melting away ! However, I got through, and I know I spoke 
with freedom and power. The people listened like statues, 
and were frequently very much moved. I dare say I have 
been the subject of much talk to-day, but I hear nothing save 
the most encouraging reports, and some from quarters least 
expected. 'Praise the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within 
me, bless His holy Name!" 

" They talk of William and myself conducting revival ser- 
vices together at Bethesda during the winter. I intend to try 
to get a little preparation. I also hope to arrange a lecture or 
two, one for mothers. 

" William is of course very pleased, and says he felt quite 
comfortable at home minding the bairns, knowing who was 
supplying his place! Of course, I can only talk like this to 
you. If I had but time to study and write, I should not fear 
now, but I must be content to do what I can, consistently with 
my home duties, and leave the future to the Lord. I think, 
however, very few have had so encouraging a beginning, and 
I am determined to make the best of my opportunities. 

" I continue my visitations among the drunkards. Our first 
weekly meeting is to be on Thursday evening at eight o'clock 
in a room in Lampton Terrace. I have ten pledged men to 
begin with, most of whom have been much addicted to drink 
for years, but who have now kept the pledge above a fort- 

Meanwhile the annual Conference had come and 


gone. Mr. Booth had not attended it, having con- i860, 
sented to stay in Gateshead another year. There ^^ ^^' 
seemed, therefore, no particular object to be gained in .4 fhird 
going. He could not help feeling, moreover, that he ''aatpZ^ 
had been unjustly treated by the non-fulfilment of the '^''"^" 
repeated pledges that he should be recalled to the 
evangelistic sphere. While he was willing on his own 
part to continue in his present position for another 
year, he could not but feel that he was wronged in 
the evident indisposition of the opposing party to 
carry out their promises. His absence called forth 
some inquiries from Dr. Cooke, the President, but a 
letter of explanation was read, and with this the Con- 
ference appeared satisfied. 

The heavy strain of his circuit duties had told Mr. Booth 
severely for some time pavSt upon Mr. Booth, and led 
in September to a complete break-down, and an en- 
forced rest. 

Having been strongly recommended to try the 
hydropathic treatment, Mr. Booth went to Mr. Smed- 
ley's establishment at Matlock, while Mrs. Booth re- 
mained with the children in Gateshead. But, although 
she was prepared to do what she could in looking after 
the interests of the Circuit, she was surprised when a 
deputation of the leading officials waited upon her, 
urging that she would take her husband's town ap- j,/,,^ 
pointments during his absence. To this she replied a^]°eci\o 
that she could on no account consent, remindinof them. ^^^'^ '''* 

^^ place. 

that their credit was at stake as well as her confidence. 
The deputation retired considerably crestfallen at the 
result, but returned soon afterwards with renewed 
supplications that Mrs. Booth would at least under- 
take the Sabbath-night meetings, these being the ^lf^'''\^' 
most important. After considerable pressure she circuit 

. for nine 

consented to this arrangement, and during the next tveeks. 

366 MRS. BOOTH. 

i860, nine weeks conducted these and other meetings till 
^^ ^^' the time of Mr. Booth's return, besides supervising the 
general management of circuit affairs. The result 
was most gratifying. The chapel was packed on each 
occasion that she spoke. Numbers of gentlemen from 
Newcastle, who had never before entered a dissenting 
place of worship, attended the meetings. 

The following letter to her parents gives a descrip- 
tion of the position of affairs during this period : 

" 24th September, i860. 
" I had a very good day yesterday at Sheriff Hill. A most 

J. fl€ tVOVfC • r^ 1 1 J 

advances, precious time m the morning. Spoke an hour and ten min- 
utes with unction and liberty. My own soul was richly 
blessed and I think many others were. At night I had a good 
time and splendid prayer-meeting, with several under convic- 
tion, but only one decided case. I believe, however, we shall 
get two very interesting young gentlemen who were present. 
One of them is just about to be married to one of my spiritual 
children, another fruit of my last service at Bethesda. Glory 
be to God for all His goodness! But I feel as though I heard 
Him saying to my soul, ' Be faithful and I will show thee 
greater things than these.' 'Even so,' my heart replies, 
'Behold the handmaiden of the Lord! Be it unto me accord- 
ing to Thy word!' Pray for me. 

" I hope if my dear father has not yet got. thoroughly into 
the light, that he will do so while he is here. It may be the 
Lord is bringing him for that purpose. 

Plenty of ' ^ S^^ plenty of invitations now, far more than I can com- 
inyita- ply with. In fact they tell me my name is being trumpeted 
far and wide. Mr. Crow says that it is getting into the foreign 
papers now, and that in one of them I am represented as hav- 
ing my husband's clothes on ! They would require to be con- 
siderably shortened before such a phenomenon could occur, 
would they not? Well, notwithstanding all I have heard 
about the papers, I have never had sufficient curiosity to buy 
one ! Nor have I ever seen my name in print, except on the 
wall bills, and then I have had some difficulty to believe that 
it really meant me ! However, I suppose it did. And now I 
shall never deem anything impossible any more ! " 


In writing to Mr. Booth during his absence she says : i860, 

Age 31. 

" You will be anxious to hear how I got on last night. Well, ^ /•„/; 
we had a splendid congregation. The chapel was very full, chapel. 
upstairs and down, with forms round the communion rail. I 
never saw it fuller on any occasion except once or twice dur- 
ing the revival. It was a wonderft:! congregation, especially 
considering that no bills had been printed. The Lord helped 
me, and I spoke for an hour with great confidence, liberty, and - 
I think some power. They listened as for eternity, and a deep 
solemnity seemed to rest on every countenance. I am con- 
scious that mentally and for delivery it was by far my best The best 
effort. Oh how I yearned for more Divine iuflitcnce to make '^^^^ ' 
the most of that precious opportunity ! Great numbers stayed 
to the prayer-meeting. The bottom of the chapel was nearly 
full. Many are under conviction, but we had only three 
cases, I think all gogd ones. I kept the prayer-meeting on 
until ten. The people did not seem to want to go. The man 
whom I told you about as having been brought in a month ago 
under ' Be ye reconciled, ' prayed last night with power. He is 
a glorious case, Mr. McAllam's best helper at Gardener Street. 

" The Proctors were there, also Turnbull and Buston. Mr. a grand 
Firbank, Thompson, and Crow were talking in the vestry chance. 
afterward, and they said we ought to commence special ser- 
vices directly, for it was evident we had a splendid hold on 
the town, and that I must prepare myself to preach at night 
very often. I told them it was easy talking, etc. They little 
knew what it cost me, nor anybody else either, except the 
Lord. You see I cannot get rid of the care and management 
of things at home, and this sadly interferes with the quiet 
necessary for preparation, but I must try to possess my soul 
in patience, and to do all, in the kitchen as well as in the pul- 
pit, to the glory of God. The Lord help me ! 

" I took cold coming home from the meeting last Sunday Dmcul- 
night, and have had a sore throat and chest all the week. I ties. 
am very sorry I engaged myself for Reckington twice next 
Sunday, but they pleaded so hard I could not refuse. I can- 
not undertake these night services in the countr3^ having to 
come home in an open conveyance, as I will not let them go 
to the expense of hiring cabs. 

" I told you I had refused an application from Salem for the 



Age 31. 

A press- 
ing invi- 




the reins. 

The unity 

of the 


No time 
to grow. 

and ad- 

afternoon of the 28th. Well, on Saturday another gentleman 
waited on me, and begged me to reconsider my decision. He 
evidently came determined to make me yield. He was most 
doggedly obtuse to all my reasons and persevering in his en- 
treaties. I thought to myself, you have got your match this 
time ! But after half an hour's arguing, in which he assured 
me that every office-bearer had been consulted and that all 
were anxious for me to come, I said there was only one way it 
could be done. If Mr. Williams would take afternoon and 
night, I would serve them in the morning. 

" The people are saying some very extravagant things. I 
hear a stray report now and then. But I think I feel as meek 
as ever, and more my own helplessness and dependence on 
Divine assistance. Don't forget to pray for me. I have borne 
the weight of circuit matters to an extent I could not have 
believed possible, and have been literally the 'Superintend- 
ent.' But it has been behind the scenes, and I have not 
always been well represented in my officers, and consequently 
all things have not been done to my satisfaction. When you 
come you will not only resume the command, but yourself 
take the reins." 

One of the most interesting features of the Gates- 
head work was the unanimity which prevailed within 
the borders of the society. " This was the more re- 
markable," says one of its oldest officials, "as the cir- 
cuit was well known to be a difficult one to grip, the 
quarterly meetings of office-bearers having often been 
of a stormy character and requiring no little tact to man- 
age. But under Mr. Booth's leadership everything 
went on smoothly. He never permitted symptoms 
of disagreement or coldness time to grow. If he 
thought anything had been said calculated to give 
rise to a misunderstanding, or unnecessarily to wound 
any one's feelings, he would not allow twenty-four 
hours to pass without setting the matter straight by a 
personal interview." 

It is not always that the gift of eloquence is com- 
bined with administrative ability. Indeed, men of 


action are proverbially taciturn, while the capacity for i860, 
saying a thing well is as frequently linked with a sin- ^^^ ^^' 
gular aptitude for doing it badly. With Mr. and 
Mrs. Booth there was a happy combination of both. 
As leaders of their family, of their Circuit, and of the 
Salvation Army, they have been a remarkable ex- 
emplification of the "iron hand in a velvet glove," 
which is truly said to be the most valuable qualifica- 
tion of a wise ruler. 

A bad rider will spoil the best horse. At one time ^.fea<* 
the rems will lie loose upon its neck, so that except spoils a 
for the weight upon its back it cannot tell it has a horsi. 
master. The next moment the creature will be 
thrown upon its haunches by a violent jerk, with 
altogether unnecessary force. At first there is no 
control, and then it is all control. The horse is al- 
ternately master of the rider and the rider master 
of the horse, until it becomes uncertain whose turn 
will be the next, and finally it is impossible to do 
with whip and spur what good management would 
have accomplished without the use of either. It is 
thus that many a vicious brute is manufactured, and 
the rider prepares the way for his own fall. 

It would be interesting to know how frequently the Human 
parallel has held good in the case of human govern- merits. 
ments. They are a necessity, in some shape or form, 
perhaps in every shape a necessary evil of our human- 
ity. A riderless horse soon gets into mi.schief , or is at 
best a comparatively useless and expensive luxury. A 
headless community, whether it be a family, a religious 
organisation, or a nation, cannot play its proper part 
on the social stage. It may do no harm, but it cannot 
accomplish the good which a combination of its in- 
dividual powers would render possible. The divided 
house must fall; if not into perdition, at least into 



Age 31. 

of govern- 

The nde 
of all is 
the rule 
of 7wne. 

A strong 



and good- 

comparative obscurity. Men are like sheep. The 
vast majority are made and meant to follow. The 
rare majority are fitted to lead. A happy union of 
the two is what is required. The unfortunate experi- 
ences of misgovernment are no argument against 
government itself. Nor is it wise to substitute the 
government of all for the government of some. The 
rule of the best is the best rule. The government of 
all is the government of none. What is needed is a 
real aristocracy in place of an artificial one — a gov- 
ernment of the best, the best by nature and the best 
hy grace, the best in talent, but the talent must be 
seasoned with virtue. Perverted talent is a public 
danger. The world is cursed with the rule of clever- 
ness, the rule of science, the rule of art, the rule of 
wealth, the rule of birth, the rule of accident. 

The Salvation Arm.y has advanced with altogether 
phenomenal rapidity because there has been a strong 
government — a government of the best, both in re- 
gard to ability and piety — impartially administered, 
and based on the confidence of its rank and file. 
Ability has been duly recognised without being im- 
properly deified. Knowledge has been subordinated 
to holiness, and power has been sanctified by love. 
From a governmental standpoint ability is almost as 
necessary to goodness as goodness to ability. It is a 
fatal mistake to dissolve the partnership, whether in 
the social, political, or religious world. In seeking 
to dispense with either one or the other, society be- 
comes more or less of a mixed muddledom. 


GATESHEAD. 1 860-1861. 

The illness and prolonged absence of Mr. Booth 
from the Gateshead Circuit had not only the effect of 
compelling Mrs. Booth to undertake responsibilities 
from which she would otherwise have drawn back, but 
gave rise to a correspondence which contains an un- 
usually full description of the incidents occurring at 
the time. 

Her intense anxiety regarding the nervous prostra- 
tion and complete break-down which had necessitated 
Mr. Booth's departure may be gathered from the 
following letter : 

"September 13th, i860. 

" My Precious William : — Yours is to hand, and so deeply 
have its contents troubled me that I can do nothing until I 
have answered it. 

" I have let you proceed with the hydropathic treatment 
quietly and trustingly, although I have had many fears about 
its suiting you. The difficulty in breathing of which you speak 
distresses and alarms me. And now that you have left Mr. 
Smedley's I shall expect to have some jurisdiction over you. 
And I do hope that you will prove the love for me of which 
you write by at once attending to my advice. Your health is 
too important a matter to be trifled with. Oh. my dearest, 
what shall I do if you don't get better? I dare not think 
about it. The Lord help me ! I feel as though I must come 
to you. I can scarce restrain myself at all. Write by return, 
and let nothing prevent you from sending me news every 
day. No human means must be left untried to bring about 
your restoration, and if our money fails I must try and get 


letters to 
the Gen- 

The Gen- 
eral'' s 





Age 31. 


some more. I might arrange some lectures and charge so 
much for entrance. With such an object in view I could un- 
dertake the extra burden, and the people would come to hear 
me, I feel sure. 

" I shall bear you continually on my heart before the Lord. 
Do we honour Him enough in the matter of health and sick- 
ness? "Is any sick among you? Let him call for the elders of 
the church and let them pray over him, and the prayer of 
faith shall save the sick and the Lord shall raise him up !' Let 
us pray more about our health. 

" With much anxiety and undiminished affection, 
" I remain your loving wife, 

" Catherine." 




Subsequent letters, however, contained better news, 
and Mrs. Booth had the satisfaction of hearing from 
time to time that change, rest, and medical treatment 
had produced, with God's blessing, a satisfactory im- 
provement in her husband's health. 

To add to her anxieties, however, her children sick- 
ened simultaneously with whooping-cough. The fol- 
lowing letter to her parents gives a glimpse behind 
the scenes, showing that Mrs. Booth, though now 
officiating as "a Mother in Israel," was none the less 
a mother at home : 

" You will be sorry to hear that all the children have got the 
whooping-cough! It never occurred to me that the cough 
Willie had was the commencement of it. Now, however, it 
is beyond doubt, and very much it distresses me to hear 
them cough one after another. Katie and Baby have it the 
worst. I am giving them the appropriate homoeopathic 
remedies, with their feet in hot water and mustard at night, 
and water bandages on their chests. So far this treatment 
answers well and they are progressing as favourably as could 
be expected. Baby suffers the most, as she is cutting her 
teeth. However, if they are to have it, I would rather they 
all had it together, although it is no small job bandaging 
them every night, I can assure you. It takes me above an 
hour and a half before I have finished. Join us in praying 



that God may bless the means and speedily restore them to 

" Accept my warmest thanks for the little frock you sent. 
We like it very much. There is only one difficulty, namely, 
it is too smart! I shall have to give you full and explicit di- 
rections in future as to the style, trimming, etc., for we really 
must set an example in this respect worthy of imitation. I 
feel no temptation now to decorate myself. But I cannot say 
the same about my children. And yet, oh, I see I must be 
decided, and come out from among the fashion-worshipping, 
worldly professors around me. Lord, help me ! Don't think 
I am reflecting on you. But we must do violence to our fan- 
cies for Christ's sake. Bless you! lam sure your kindness 
is fully appreciated and highly prized!" 

Age 31. 

The frock 
is too 

It is not unfrequently a characteristic of the largest 
minds that they possess a capacity for descending to 
the veriest trifles, passing from one to the other with- 
out apparent effort, and finding in each their natural 
element. It is no less surprising to watch an elephant 
pick up a needle with its trunk than to see it push 
down a wall, or tear a sapling from its roots. It is 
the combination of the two which forms the contrast. 
Of itself there is nothing striking in the capacity to 
deal effectively with the trivialities of life. But great- 
ness is never greater than when dealing with the little- 
nesses of the hour — at one moment sweeping the uni- 
verse as with a telescope, at the next dissecting an 
atom with its microscopic eye. 

Mrs. Booth, spending an hour and a half at home 
in bandaging her sick children, abroad in addressing 
a crowded and spellbound audience, presents a happy 
contrast, in which each portion of the double picture 
lends added effect to the other. It was, perhaps, the 
consciousness of a well-regulated home that imparted 
confidence to the speaker, and attested her message 
as nothing else could have done. 

A large 



A happy 

. 374 ^fJ^S. BOOTH. 

i860, "I hear it has got into the Court Journal 2ind. several 

^^^ ^^' other papers," she writes to her parents, "that I am 

AVir.s- to take William's appointments. The paragraph is 

notices, headed 'A Minister's Wife Supplying his Place.' 

There was an account in the Chronicle a fortnight 

ago of my first effort in Bethesda. There is also a 

notice in a Sunderland paper, and to-day I am told 

it is in the Morning Star. One gentleman says that 

he saw an account of it in the Scotsman, in the heart 

of Scotland. 

Preach- "I had a splendid congregation on Sunday night 

"Prodigal and took the pulpit, very much against my own de- 

''"■ sire, but in compliance with the general wish. I 

spoke exactly an hour from the Prodigal Son. I was 

very much agitated, and did not get a moment's 

liberty through the whole service. In fact, I felt very 

much discouraged, but I have heard nothing but the 

greatest satisfaction expressed by the people. So, if 

they were satisfied with that, I need never fear again, 

as I had some good stuff and was well prepared with 

material, but was so flurried I could not command it. 

However, there was a gracious influence and several 

were weeping. 

"On Monday night I spoke for half an hour with 
liberty and comfort to myself, and I believe with uni- 
versal satisfaction. 
A com- " I am published for anniversary sermons at Felling 
^ipph,, vShore morning and night. On Sunday week I am at 
the Teams anniversary morning and night, and the 
vSunday after they want me to take Bethesda again. 
The following Sunday I am to be at Sheriff Hill and 
then at Gateshead Fell. So you see I have plenty of 
work cut out. I am anxious to do as much as I can 
while William is away, as they esteem me a competent 
supply for him, and this will prevent disappointment. 



"The preparation is the greatest difficulty. I am 
subject to such constant interruption and noise that I 
am often almost bewildered. But the Lord has won- 
derfully helped me so far, and He has been blessing 
my soul very sweetly of late. I am not labouring in 
vain, but I trust I have some fruit which will remain 
unto eternal life." 

In a later letter to Mr. Booth she says : 

" I was at the Shore yesterday. Good congregation 
in the morning and a precious season to myself, and 
so far as I could judge to everybody else. It was by 
far the best effort I have made. If I could always 
realise as much liberty and Divine influence, I should 
not fear to go anywhere. 

" At night the chapel was well filled, with extra 
forms, etc. Miss Newberry was present, and said 
there was not a single defect, except a manifestation 
of physical weakness which distressed her. The heat 
was very oppressive, and for the first time proved a 
hindrance to me. With time and pains and more of 
the Spirit I believe I shall be useful yet. 

"They had Mrs. Dickson from Sheriff Hill for the 
afternoon. Miss Newberry heard her. She says she 
is a regular Primitive female preacher ! She puts off 
bonnet and shawl and goes at it like a ranter! She 
says some good things, but without order or arrange- 
ment, and shouts till the people jump ! She is a very 
big woman, and I have no doubt a very good one too. 
But I was sadly afraid, from hearing her shout and 
talk while a few friends were praying after tea, that 
she would quite upset me at night. However, I com- 
mitted it to the Lord, and got Miss Newberry to sit 
behind her, so that if she did respond too loudly, she 
could give her a hint. However, she did not need it. 
I spoke an hour and five minutes in the morning, 

Age 31. 




" Going at 




Age 31. 





A good 

about an hour in the evening, gave two invitations, 
and prayed. 

" I saw Mr. Firbank about the quarterly meeting. 
It is to be held as usual, and the adjourned meeting a 
fortnight after, at which you must, if possible, be 
present. I have got some plain truth ready for Sunday 
morning, and I believe the Lord will help me to de- 
liver it with the demonstration of the Spirit and with 
power. I beg an especial interest in your prayers 
that this may be the case. It is just what is wanted. 

" I had a very good test afforded me by which to try 
my humility. A good brother who could scarcely put 
three words together prayed very earnestly that God 
would crown my labours, seeing that He could bless 
the weakest instruments in His service. You will 
smile, and so did I, but it did me good, inasmuch as I 
made it a probe for my heart. Why should I be un- 
willing for the weakest and most illiterate to count me 
among the weak things of the world and the things 
that 'are not,' if I may be but instrumental in win- 
ning souls for Christ? Oh, I do feel more than ever 
the need of crying 




" ' Wean my soul, and keep it low, 
Willing Thee alone to know.' 

" I perceive the water treatment has not yet brought 
out all your weaknesses, metaphorically, I mean. 
Pray keep my letters to yourself. I am sure I have 
not written one fit to show to anybody." 
A few days afterward Mrs. Booth writes: 
" Last night my subject went well. It was by far 
the best effort I have made. I spoke an hour and a 
quarter with unwavering confidence, liberty, and plea- 
sure to myself, and, if I may judge, with blessing to 
the people. We had an excellent day altogether. 

Ballington Booth. 


Good congregation in the morning and at night the i860, 
chapel was crowded as I have never yet seen it. I ^^ ^^' 
spoke for an hour ^nd five minutes with tolerable 
liberty and effect. My subject was, 'Be ye reconciled 
to God. ' The attention did not flag for a moment, and 
no one seemed aware that I had spoken so long. I 
intend to try and be shorter for my own health's sake, ^^l^^ll 
But it is so dilScult, in dealing with a subject, to leave 
unsaid what you think may be useful to the people. 

" Miss Newberry went home yesterday. She heard Able to 
me both morning and night, and said that if I could ^wherZ 
get up a dis(; like that in the time, and under the 
circumstances, and then go and deliver it as I did, I 
need not fear to go anywhere. I value her testimony 
as that of the most intelligent and talented woman I 
know. To God be all the praise ! May He help me 
to devote every power He has given to His glory and 
to His only!" 

A week later Mrs. Booth says : 

" We had a splendid congregation last night. I Throwiny 

n> 1 11-, herself on 

took cold on baturday and consequently had a sore God. 
throat and chest to begin with, and was afraid I should 
not be able to make the people hear. But I threw 
myself on the Lord with some confidence that He 
would help me, and spoke an hour with liberty and 
strength of voice exceeding any time before. We had Arichin- 
a powerful prayer meeting, rich influence, and good fl'^^^<^^- 
praying, but only one case — a good one; a middle- 
aged man, a backslider. There were several under 
conviction, one gentleman from Newcastle, whom Mr. 
McAllam said he was much surprised to see there. 
Mr. Firbank talked to him, but he would not come to 
the rail. We lacked a general. If you had been there 
we should have had several cases, I have no doubt. 
"At the quarterly meeting, I am told, very kind 

3/8 MRS. BOOTH. 

i860, recoofnition was made of my labours and a resolution 

^^ ^^' of thanks and sympathy unanimously passed. It was 

A vote of also decided not to invite a stranger for the Christmas 

thanks. ^^^^^^ i^^^j- ^q g^gk you to take one sermon and me the 

other! This is truly marvellous. Surely it is the 

Lord's doing! 

"Pray for- " Do not forget to pray for me. lam the subject 

of much temptation and conflict. But God knows my 

heart. He sees I only want to do His will. 

Meeting "Oh, liow thankful I am that you are better! It 


with seems to make all my other anxieties light and easy. 


Even my own health appears a trifle compared with 
yours, and I feel that infinitely easier could I meet 
death myself than its approach to you. I think if I 
were called to die, I could now do so with calmness, 
reposing on the infinite merits of my Redeemer. I 
''I know I know I love Him. I know I am striving after a full 

love him. " . ^ 

Divine conformity to His righteous will. Satan 
labours hard to terrify me, because of the past. But 
I answer him, 'Where sin hath abounded, grace shall 
much more abound,' yea, and I believe it. I, even I, 
shall prove His uttermost salvation. His fulness of 
love. Do you pray for me? Are you striving after 
more of the mind of Christ? Are you living by faith 
in the Son of God? May the Lord help you, and bring 
you home in the fulness of the blessing of the Gospel 
of Christ!" 
The Gen- Mr. Booth returned from his furlough with health 

CVCll^ s 

return, improved, fresh plans formed, and faith high for the 
achievements of the coming year. He was received 
by his office-bearers and people with every manifesta- 
tion of their confidence and affection, and was es- 
pecially gratified by their assurances concerning the 
progress of the work during his absence, a resolution 
having been unanimously passed expressive of their 


satisfaction with the able and devoted manner in i860, 
which Mrs. Booth had superintended the affairs of ^^ ^^" 
the circuit. 

Writing to her parents upon New Year's Day, Mrs. a happy 
Booth gives the following description of the Christ- mas. 

" We had a very good tea-meeting upon Christmas 
Day — the best attendance they have ever had. I 
spoke an hour and a few minutes upon 'TlT.e true 
o-lory of a church — embodied Christianity,' as distin- 
guished from materialism in every shape and form. 
I illustrated it by the two temples. The latter, though 
so far inferior to the first in all material grandeur, is 
yet declared to exceed it in glory, being honoured by 
the personal presence of Christ. So the glory of any The 
church is not its architecture, etc., but the living em- ffchHsi. 
bodiment of Christ's principles and benevolence. I 
should not have spoken, but William wished me to, 
and insisted on my taking time. The Christmas 
collections have amounted to £6 more than last year, 
when they fetched a special preacher 300 miles for 
the meetings. 

" At a society meeting held last week they passed a suppiy- 
resolution that some blanks be left on the next 'plan' blanks. 
for Sunday nights at Bethesda, and that I be requested 
to supply them. But I cannot give the time to pre- 
paration unless I can afford to put my sewing out. It 
never seems to occur to anybody that I cannot do two 
things at once, or that I want means to relieve me 
of the one while I do the other! What I do, I do 
to the Lord. Still I am conscious they are partakers 
of the benefit, and could wish that they would re- 
member our temporalities a little more than they do!" 

It is only due to the Circuit officials to say that they Making 

it UJJ. 

made up somewhat for their previous forgetfulness by 

3^0 Mas. BOOTH. 

i860, offering a little monetary assistance to Mr. and Mrs. 
^^^^' Booth before they went away. And, no doubt, had 

Financial they been aware of the financial straits which made 
straits. .^ ^^ difficult for Mrs. Booth to find time for her public 
work, they would have gladly come forward to supply 
the needs of their beloved and respected leaders 
rather than that time should have been wasted over 
household details which might have been so profitably 
devoted to the salvation of souls. 

Athrifty A more thrifty housewife than Mrs. Booth it would 
wife. have been difficult to, find. She could not endure ex- 
travagance. But she was equally free from meanness. 
She laboured that her children should be well-fed, 
warmly and neatly clothed, and carefully instructed 
in all forms of knowledge that would be likely to be 
useful to them and make them a blessing to others in 
after life. She had a conviction — or should we say, 
one of those prophetic instincts to which she occasion- 
ally gave utterance — that her children were destined 

standing to "stand before princes," and she was resolved that 

be fo v& 

pnnces. no pains should be spared on her part in preparing 
them physically, intellectually, and spiritually to make 
the best of the opportunities the future might offer for 
serving God and their generation. God honoured her 
faith, and though the financial burden continued to 
press heavily upon her, the promise was fulfilled that 
her bread should be certain and her water sure. 


Of the doctrines advocated by John Wesley, next pardon 
to the necessity of conversion there was none on _p^"Vfy. 
which he laid more stress than on the doctrine of 
sanctification. By the former he understood, as we 
have already seen, the possibility of receiving the 
conscious and immediate assurance of salvation. 
This was his privilege — nay, more, it was his duty. 
Short of such an experience none could safely rest. 

Wesley went, however, further in asserting that not jndiceii- 
only could the sins of the past be pardoned and the '^^Sf*'"*- 
sinner restored to the family of God, but that the 
heart could be purified by the same power from the a heart 
evil tendencies and tempers which would otherwise cleansed. 
prove too strong for it, and render it the helpless prey 
of every passing temptation. If, he argued, the cita- 
del of the heart continued to be occupied by anger, 
pride, love of money, fear of man, and all the other 
thousand and one forms of selfishness, the whole at- 
tention of the victim of such passions would neces- 
sarily be occupied in combating those inward enemies, 
and there would be little opportunity, inclination, 
and capacity for serving the Lord by carrying the 
war into the heart of the enemy's country. If, on 
the contrary, these inward forms of evil were re- 
moved, every energy could then be devoted to the 
salvation of a perishing world. 

The very object of the atonement appeared to him 




Age 32. 

The name 

A neglect- 
ed doc- 

How it 




A glori- 
ous quick- 

to be the conquest and removal of these indwelling 
evils. The very name /csus signified that He was to 
save His people from their sins, not merely to pardon 
and condone sin, as so many seemed to suppose. • 

Of late, however, this doctrine had ceased to occupy 
the prominence given to it by Wesley. True, the 
possibility of attaining such an experience continued 
to be acknowledged. Nevertheless, it was no longer 
advocated with the same definiteness and earnestness 
that had marked it of old. 

Mr. and Mrs. Booth, while constantly referring to 
the subject, and always urging upon their converts 
the importance both of holy living and of aggressive 
effort, had not hitherto directed their attention in any 
special manner to the consideration and proclamation 
of this doctrine. How they came to do so is touch- 
ingly described by Mrs. Booth in the following letters 
to her parents: 

" My soul has been much called out of late on the doctrine 
of holiness. I feel that hitherto we have not put it in a suffi- 
ciently definite and tangible manner before the people — I 
mean as a specific and attainable experience. Oh, that I had 
entered into the fulness of the enjoyment of it myself. I in- 
tend to struggle after it. In the mean time we have com- 
menced already to bring it specially before our dear people." 

" February 4th, 1861. 
" I spoke a fortnight since at Bethesda on holiness, and a pre- 
cious time we had. On the Sunday following two beautiful 
testimonies were given in the love-feast as to the attainment 
of the blessing through that address. One of them, an old 
gray-headed leader, is perhaps the most spiritual man in the 
society. He had never before seen it his privilege to be 
sanctified. Others have claimed it since. William has 
preached on it twice, and there is a glorious quickening 
amongst the people. I am to speak again next Friday night 
and on Sunday afternoon. Pray for me. I only want perfect 
consecration and Christ as my all, and then I might be very 



useful, to the glory, not of myself, the most unworthy of all 
who e'er His grace received, but of His great and boundless 
love. May the Lord enable me to give my wanderings o'er 
and to find in Christ perfect peace and full salvation ! 

" I have much to be thankful for in my dearest husband. 
The Lord has been dealing very graciously with him for some 
time past. His soul has been growing in grace, and its out- 
ward developments have been proportionate. He is now on 
full stretch for holiness. You would be amazed at the change 
in him. It would take me all night to detail all the circum- 
stances and convergings of Providence and Grace which have 
led up to this experience, but I assure you it is a glorious 
reality, and I know you will rejoice in it. 

" As has always been the case with every quickening we 
have experienced in our own souls, there has been a renewal 
of the evangelistic question, especially in my mind. I felt as 
though that was the point of controversy between me and 
God. Indeed, I knew it was. And on the day I referred to in 
my last letter to you I determined to bring it to a point be- 
fore the Lord, trusting in Him for strength to suffer as well 
as to do His will, if He should call me to it. I did so. What 
I went through in the conflict I could not, if I would, describe. 
It seemed far worse than death. Since that hour, however, 
although I have been tempted, I have not taken back the 
sacrifice from the altar, but have been enabled calmly to 
contemplate it as done. 

" Such an unexpected surrender on my part of course re- 
vived William's yearnings towards the evangelistic work, 
though in quite another spirit to that in which he used to long 
for it. In fact, now, I think the sacrifice will be almost as 
great to him as to me. He has got so much more settled in 
his habits, and so fond of home. But he feels as though the 
Lord calls him to it. So we are going to make it a matter of 
daily prayer for a week, and then decide, leaving all conse- 
quences with the Lo-^d. He says that we shall not lack any 
good thing if we do His will, and if He puts us to the test 
we are going to trust Him with each other — life, health, 
salary, and all. 

" Will you not pray that He may reveal unto us His will so 
clearly that we cannot err? Oh, for faith in the simple word ! 
The curse of this age especially is unbelief, frittering the real 

Age 32. 

On full 
for holi- 

The evan- 

A terrible 



Pray for 



Age 32. 





ties God's 


meaning of God's word away and making it all figure and 
fiction. Nothing but the Holy Ghost can so apply the words 
of God to the soul that they shall be what Jesus declared 
they were, 'spirit and life.' May He so apply them to our 
waiting, anxious hearts on this momentously important sub- 

" I am glad you got the book I recommended, but I would 
not advise you to read it all at once. Just find some portion 
that suits your case and apply it and pray over it, and ask the 
Lord to help you to receive all the light it is fitted to impart, 
and then act according to it. Believe it, or it is of no use ! 
The just shall live hy faith. More than ever am I deter- 
mined to keep clear of all worldly conformity, and to say of 
its maxims, its practices, and all its paltry gratifications, 'The 
daughter of Zion hath despised thee!' 

" The Lord will order all things if we only do His will and 
trust Him with consequences. 'Them that honour me I will 
honour. ' Oh, what a fool I have been ! How slow, how back- 
ward, how blind, how hindered by unbelief! And even now 
some bolts and bars are round me, which my foolish heart will 
not consent to have broken down ! O unbelief, truly it binds 
the hands of Omnipotence itself! 'He could not do many 
mighty works because of their unbelief. ' May the Lord in- 
crease our faith 1 " 



How to 

get the 


"nth February, 1861. 

" Your very kind letter came duly to hand. We are very 
much obliged for the readiness with which you promise to 
join us in praying about this very important matter of our 
future work. I hope, nay, I believe, God will guide us. I 
think we are fully willing to be led by Him. I have not 
prayed much specifically about it at present, simply because 
my mind has been absorbed in the pursuit of holiness, which 
I feel involves this and every other blessing. If I am only 
fully the Lord's He has unalterably bound Himself to be the 
portion of my inheritance for ever. 

This, of late, I have especially realised, and a week ago last 
Friday, when I made the surrender referred to in my last, I 
saw that in order to carry out my vow in the true spirit of 
consecration I must have a whole Christ, a perfect Saviour. 
I therefore resolved to seek till I found that 'pearl of great 



price' — 'the white stone, which no man knoweth, save he 
that receiveth it. ' I perceived that I had been in some de- 
gree of error with reference to the nature, or rather the at- 
tainment of sanctification, regarding it rather as a great and 
mighty work to be wrought in me through Christ, than the 
simple reception of Christ as an all-sufficient Saviour, dwell- 
ing in my heart, and thus cleansing it every moment 
from all sin. I had been earnestly seeking all the week 
to apprehend Him as my Saviour in this sense, but on 
Thursday and Friday I was totally absorbed in the subject. 
I laid aside almost everything else and spent the chief part 
of the day in reading and prayer, and in trying to believe for 
it. On Thursday afternoon at tea-time I was well-nigh dis- 
couraged and felt my old visitant, irritability. The devil told 
me I should never get it, and so I might as well give it up at 
once. However, I knew him of old as a liar and the father of 
lies, and pressed on — cast down, yet not destroyed. 

" On Friday morning God gave me two precious passages. 
First, ' Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, 
and I will give you rest. ' Oh, how sweet it sounded to my 
poor, weary, sin-stricken soul ! I almost dared to believe that 
He did give me rest from inbred sin, the rest of perfect holi- 
ness. But I staggered at the promise, through unbelief, and 
therefore failed to enter in. The second passage consisted 
of those thrice-blessed words: 'Of Him are ye in Christ Jesus, 
who is made unto us wisdom, righteotisness, sanctification, 
and redemption!' But again unbelief hindered me, although 
I felt as if getting gradually nearer. 

" I struggled through the day until a little after six in the 
evening, when William joined me in prayer. We had a 
blessed season. While he was saying, 'Lord, we open our 
hearts to receive Thee,' that word was spoken to my soul: 
'Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If any man hear My 
voice, and open unto Me, I will come in and sup with him.' 
I felt sure He had long been knocking, and oh, how I yearned 
to receive him as a perfect Saviour! But oh, the inveterate 
habit of unbelief! How wonderful that God should have 
borne so long with me ! 

" When we got up from our knees I lay on the sofa, exhausted 
with the excitement and effort of the day. William said, 
'Don't you lay all on the altar? ' I replied, 'I am sure I do! ' 

Age 32. 

The sim,' 
pie in- 
of Christ. 


by tm- 

" I will 
come in.'' 

All on the 



Age 32. 

Now are 
ye clean. 

into rest. 

What it 



■ Idvhin 
II nd boaz. 

Then he said, 'And isn't the altar holy?' I replied in the 
language of the Holy Ghost, 'The altar is most holy, and 
whatsoever toucheth it is holy.' Then said he, 'Are you not 
holy? ' I replied with my heart full of emotion and with some 
faith, 'Oh, I think 1 am.' Immediately the word was given 
me to confiirm my faith, 'Now are ye clean through the word 
which I have spoken unto you. ' And I took hold — true, with 
a trembling hand, and not unmolested by the tempter, but I 
held fast the beginning of my confidence, and it grew 
stronger, and from that moment I have dared to reckon my- 
self dead indeed unto sin, and alive unto God through Jesus 
Christ, my Lord. 

" I did not feel much rapturous joy, but perfect peace, the 
sweet rest which Jesus promised to the heavy-laden. I have 
understood the Apostle's meaning when he says, 'We who be- 
lieve do enter into rest.' This is just descriptive of my state 
at present. Not that I am not tempted, but I am allowed to 
know the devil when he approaches me, and I look to my 
Deliverer Jesus, and He still gives me rest. Two or three 
very trying things occurred on Saturday, which at another 
time would have excited impatience, but I was kept by the 
power of God through faith unto full salvation. 

" And now what shall I say? 'Unto Him who hath washed 
me in His own blood be glory and dominion for ever and 
ever,' and all Vv^ithin me says 'Amen! ' Oh, I cannot describe, 
I have no words to set forth, the sense I have of my own utter 
unworthiness. Satan has met me frequently with my pecu- 
liarly aggravated sins, and I have admitted it all. But then I 
have said the Lord ha? not made my sanctification to depend 
in any measure on my own worthiness, or unworthiness, but 
on the worthiness of my Saviour. He came to seek and to 
save 'that which was lost. ' 'Where sin hath abounded grace 
doth much more abound.' 

" And now, my dear parents, will you let it abound towards 
you? 'Whosoever will, let him come and take freely! '" 

Like the twin pillars, Jacliin and Boaz, which were 
reared by Solomon in the porch of the Temple, so 
the twin doctrines, Conversion and Sanctification, 
were raised in the forefront of the Salvation Army 
Zion. Ir the glorious possibility of pardon, it was to 



be "established," and in the no less precious privilege 
of purity it was to find its "strength," The founders 
of the movement were to transmit to their followers 
the double shepherd's staff of Bands and Beauty, bind- 
ing them on the one hand to the blessed experience of 
a forgiven child of God, and introducing them on the 
other to all the matchless "beauty of holiness." 

Speaking subsequently on this subject Mrs. Booth 

" I think it must be self-evident that it is the most important 
question that can possibly occupy the mind of man, how much 
like God we can be — how near to God we can come on earth 
preparatory to our being perfectly like Him, and living, as it 
were, in His very heart for ever and ever in heaven. Any 
one who has any measure of the Spirit of God must perceive 
that this is the most important question on which we can con- 
centrate our thoughts ; and the mystery of mysteries to me is, 
how any one, with any measure of the Spirit of God, can help 
looking at this blessing of holiness, and saying, 'Well, even 
if it does seem too great for attainment on earth, it is very 
beautiful and very blessed. I wish I could attain it. ' 77iat, 
it seems to me, must be the attitude of every person who has 
the Spirit of God — that he should hunger and thirst after it, 
and feel that he shall never be satisfied till he wakes up in the 
lovely likeness of his Saviour. And yet, alas ! we do not find 
it so. In a great many instances, the very first thing profess- 
ing Christians do is to resist and reject this doctrine of holi- 
ness as if it were the most foul thing on earth. 

" I heard of a gentleman saying, a few days ago — a leader 
in one circle of religion — that for anybody to talk about be- 
ing holy showed that they knew nothing of themselves and 
nothing of Jesus Christ. I said, 'O my God! it has come to 
something if holiness and Jesus Christ are the antipodes of 
each other. I thought He was the centre and fountain of holi- 
ness. I thought it was in Him alone we could get any holi- 
ness, and through Him only that holiness could be wrought 
in us. ' But this poor man thought otherwise. 

" We are told over and over again that God wants His peo- 
ple to be pure, and that purity in their hearts is the 

Age 32. 



much can 
trc rcftem- 
ble God? 

ing for it. 

It is 

The birth 
of the 



Age 32. 

To be and 
to do. 

A ttvo- 



The con- 




Jesus Christ; if it is not so, I give up the whole question — I 
am utterly deceived. 

" Oh that people, in their inquiries about this blessing of 
holiness, would keep this one thing before their minds— that 
it is dein^ saved from sin; sin in act, in purpose, in thought ! 

" After all, what does God want with us? He wants us just 
to be and to do. He wants us to be like His Son, and then to 
do as His Son did; and when we come to that He will shake 
the world through us. People say, 'You can't be like His 
Son. ' Very well, then, you will never get any more than you 
believe for. If I did not think Jesus Christ strong enough to 
destroy the works of the devil and to bring us back to God's 
original pattern, I would throw the whole thing up for ever. 
What! He has given us a religion we cannot practise? I say, 
No! He has not come to mock us. "What! He has given us 
a Saviour who cannot save? Then I decline to have anything 
to do with Him. What! does He profess to do for me what 
He cannot? No, no, no. He 'is not a man, that He should 
lie: neither the son of man, that He should repent:' and I 
tell you that His scheme of salvation is two-sided — it is God- 
ward and manward. It contemplates me as well as it con- 
templates the great God. It is not a scheme of salvation 
merely — it is a scheme of restoration. If He cannot restore 
me He must damn me. If He cannot heal me, and make me 
over again, and restore me to the pattern He intended me to 
be, He has left Himself no choice. 

"True, there is the condition, 'Be not conformed to this 
world : but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, 
that ye may prove. ' Oh ! if you could be transformed to Him 
and conformed to this world at the same time, all the difficulty 
would be over. I know plenty of people who would be trans- 
formed directly ; but, to be not conformed to this world — how 
they stand and wince at that ! They cannot have it at that price. 
But God will not be revealed to such souls, though they cry 
and pray themselves to skeletons, and go mourning all their 
days. They will not fulfil the condition — 'Be not conformed 
to this world;' they will not forego their conformity even to 
the extent of a dinner-party. 

" A great many that I know will not forego their confor- 
mity to the shape of their head-dress, They won't forego 



the conformity to the extent of giving vip visiting and 
receiving visits from ungodly, worldly, hollow, and super- 
ficial people. They will not forego their conformity to 
the tune of having their domestic arrangements upset — 
no, not if the salvation of their children, and servants, and 
friends depends upon it. The sine qua 7ton is their own com- 
fort, and then take what you can get on God's side. 'We 
must have this, and we must have the other ; and then, if the 
Lord Jesus Christ will come in at the tail end and sanctify it 
all, we shall be very much obliged to Him ; but we cannot 
forego these things. ' 

" Finally, to obtain this blessed experience, there is the 
great desideratum, faith. You can't know it by understand- 
ing. Oh! if the world could have known it by understanding, 
what a deal they would have known ! But He despises all 
your philosophy. It is not by understanding, but by faith! 
If ever you know God it will be by faith ; becoming as a little 
child — opening your heart, and saying, 'Lord, pour in;' and 
then your quibbles and difficulties will be gone, and you will 
see holiness, sanctification, purity, perfect love, burning out 
on every page of God's Word. 

" A minister — a devoted, good man — was trying to show me 
that this sanctification was too big to be got and kept. I 
said, 'My dear sir, how do you know? If another man has 
faith to march up to Jesus Christ and say, " Here, I see this 
in your Book ; you have promised this to me ; now, then, Lord, 
I have faith to take it;" mind you don't measure his privilege 
hy your faith. Do you think the Church has come up to His 
standard of privilege and obligation? I don't. It has many 
marches to make yet. Mind you don't hinder anybody.' 
The law of the Kingdom all the way through to your djang 
moment will be 'According to your faith.' If you want this 
blessing, put down your quibbles^ put your feet on your argu- 
ments, march up to the Throne and ask for it, and kill, and 
crucify, and cast from you the accursed thing which hinders, 
and then you shall have it; and the Lord will fill you with 
His power and glory." 

Age 32. 

them ■ 

Hoiv to 
get if. 

Is it too 

much to 

expect ? 

A low 



Critical In the history of men, as in the history of nations, 
there are critical moments when incalculable interests 
tremble in the balance, and it seems that a feather 
would suffice to turn the scale. Particularly is this 
the case with those who rise up from time to time as 
the champions of humanity. It is only when they 

The red- havc darcd to brave the fiery ordeal, and cross the 

hot bars. ■' 

seven-fold heated bars which opposition and prejudice 
lay at their feet, that the accomplishment of their 
heart's desire becomes attainable. The moment ar- 
rives when, without risking everything, nothing can 
be won. Those who are not prepared to sacrifice 
must be content to fail. 
Blood- The choicest privileges of mankind have been 
bought with blood. What is best worth buying 
costs the most. The Cross is the price for the 
Crown and Calvary the only gateway to resurrec- 
tion glory. If good desires would save mankind, 
it would surely have been delivered long ago. The 
difference between idle wishes and the deliberate 
heart choice of the world's true benefactors is, that 
™ „ the latter consent to pay the price which sofne one has 
h^ith^^^'f ^^ ^^^' '^^^ Cross is the divinely appointed shib- 
the hypo- boleth for the detection of the hypocrite. No insin- 

crite. T 1 ^ 1 1 ,. . . 1 

cere and selfish heart can frame to pronounce the 



word. The Ephraimite is betrayed by his lisp, and 1861, 
fails in his attempt to cross the ford. 

It was an epoch in the history of Mr. and Mrs. Broken 
Booth. Hitherto they had bowed their necks to the p^*^^^^^^- 
Connexional yoke in the belief that the promises of a 
return to their evangelistic sphere would ultimately 
and unanimously be afforded them. Four years they 
had waited, but only to be disappointed. That they 
could be useful in a circuit they had abundantly 
proved, but that they could accomplish still greater 
results in the coveted position where they had pre- 
viously been blessed in so remarkable a manner was 
equally clear. 

The question now presented itself forcibly to Tiie ques- 

, . ^ . -^ , , , . .„ -, tionof 

their consciences, as to whether they were justified the hour. 
in submitting any longer to the jurisdiction of a 
handful of persons, who were obviously influenced 
by unworthy motives in denying them a position of 
greater usefulness. True, it was possible that Con- 
ference might reconsider their position, and fulfil the 
pledges which had hitherto reconciled them to their 
lot, but in the event of this not being the case what 
were they to do? To face the world alone would 
have been easy. But now a delicate wife and four 
little children had to be considered. 

The recent break-down of Mr. Booth's health had Their at- 
reminded them that his constitution was not of the to the 
strongest. Added to these difficulties th-ere was a warm nexton. 
personal attachment to the large circle of Connexional 
members with whom their labours had brought them 
into contact, and a deep-rooted desire to advance the 
highest interests of the body. None of these consider- 
ations, however, appeared to lessen the responsibility 
of their present position. And they resolved with the 
most perfect unanimity that if the Conference once 



Age 32. 

A letter 
to the 

his con- 

Called to 

The two 



more refused to fulfil their long-standing pledge, they 
would commit their needs to God, and go forth to do 
His will in simple reliance upon His promises. 

No sooner had this decision been arrived at than 
they proceeded to prepare the following letter to the 
Annual Committee, formally broaching the subject 
and offering themselves for reappointment to the 
evangelistic sphere : 

" NoRMANBY Terrace, Gateshead, 

" March 5th, 1861, 
" To the Rev. James Stacey, President of the Methodist New 
" My Dear Sir: — It has long been on my mind to lay before 
you, as the president of our denomination, my views and con- 
victions with respect to my present and future position. I 
do this in all plainness and candour, appealing to your judg- 
ment, confiding in your sympathy, and requesting your 

" This question comes before me in something like the fol- 
lowing form : 

*' I. For the last seven years I have felt that God has spe- 
cially called me to this work. The impression has been clear 
and decided. I am as satisfied of it as I am of my call to the 
ministry. It is now four years since I was put down from it, 
and the impression, instead of dying away, is as strong and 
vivid as ever. 

" II. I am satisfied that in that work I can be most success- 
ful in bringing souls to Christ, promoting the prosperity of 
the Church and the glory of God. I have seen a measure of 
success in my present sphere ; but I submit that there is no 
comparison between my success in the one sphere and in the 
other. Many, very many, who during that two years and a 
half of labour were brought to God are now safe in heaven. 
Several, I think five or six, are now in our ministry, and 
others are preparing for it; many are in the ranks of our 
local preachers, and I hesitate not to say that hundreds are 
enrolled in our membership. I think the position peculiarly 
favourable to such results, and I largely attribute the success 



to the combined and consecutive labour and prayer of the 
Church which such efforts call forth. 

" III. The united testimony of those who know me in the 
work is to the effect that the Lord has given me a measure of 
adaptation for it. 

" IV. In that work I am the happiest. I have never been 
really happy or settled in my mind since I left it. I have 
tried to banish all thought of it, and to conclude that if the 
Lord wanted me He would thrust me out. For a season it 
has been left in abeyance ; but in a very short time it has 
come up again, and I have been as unsettled as ever. 

" V. I have not been successful out of the work ; that is, the 
success realized by me in a circuit has not been in any way 
proportionate to the measures employed. God has seemed 
ever to be disappointing my most rational and Scriptural ex- 
pectations, as though He foresaw that, if all the success I de- 
sired was given me, I should at once give up the evangelistic 
work to which He called me. 

" VI. I am now under no obligation to a circuit ; my third 
year expires next Conference, and I am free to go elsewhere. 

" VII. The Lord has removed several other obstacles out of 
the way. Among others, my dear wife has voluntarily con- 
sented to the separation which my going forth would involve. 
In fact, in this matter, we have both been enabled to offer 
our all to God, being willing to submit to any self-denying 
circumstances He may appoint in order to do His will. 

" VIII. My soul lately has been brought into a higher walk 
of Christian experience ; and with purer motives, holier de- 
sires and aims, and a fuller consecration, my soul turns to 
this work as to the sphere in which God designs to bless me. 

" IX. The reasons assigned by the Conference for my tak- 
ing a circuit have all been met. So far as I remember them 
— that is, those that were worth noticing — they were the fol- 
lowing : 

Age 32. 


Happy in 
the rvork. 

Less suc- 

Free to 

My tvife 
is willing. 

My souVs 




" I. That I might have a certificate according to the rule 
and usage of the Connexion, it being the last year of my 
probation. This was met by my having a certificate, and 
being received into full connexion. 

" 2. That my Connexional attachment might be proved; it 
not being thought safe to trust an untried stranger with the 

In full 

No longer 
an un- 



Age 32, 


influence that the position of evangelist gave me. This, too, 
I think, has been met. The very fact of my bowing to the 
decision proved it, when I might have acted so differently. 
The Stationing Cammittee must have been satisfied on this 
point three years ago, when they entrusted me with the su- 
perintendency of a circuit; and to this, moreover, let the 
impioved Connexional character of this circuit testify. 

" 3. The outlay in which my labours involved the yearly 
collection. This outlay, I submit, need not with careful ar- 
rangement have been incurred in the past, and need not be 
incurred in the future, as I shall afterwards show. 

It is 

do it. 

An open 

How to 
do it. 

" X. I am clearly convinced of the Scriptural character of 
the office of evangelist. This, I think, I have heard you 
maintain, nor do I know that any deny it. 

" XI. Other churches are successfully availing themselves 
of this kind of agency, amongst which are the Wesleyans, 
Presbyterians, Methodist Free Churches, Independents, and 

" XII. Nqver was there in this country so wide a door open 
for this class of labourers as now. As you are aware, in 
London, and many parts of Scotland, Ireland, and all over the 
world, this class of agencies have attracted the ear of vast 
masses of the people, and a great amount of good has been 

" To me there appear two ways by which I may find admis- 
sion to this sphere : 

A central 

" I. For the Conference to employ me in the following, or 
some similar manner, as might appear to them wisest: 

" I. To reside in some town central to a number of our inter- 
ests, and to labour in the churches inviting me immediately 
around it; of course going further away, if not sufficient 
labour near home to fill up my time. When travelling be- 
fore, I visited places where I received invitations sufficient to 
have occupied me twelve months without going twenty miles 
away from one centre. 

" 2. To labour under the direction of the President of Con- 
ference, the Chairman of the District, or the Superintendent 
My salary of the circuit where, for the time being, I resided. 
raised. " 3- My salary to be the same as other ministers'. To be 



obtained by the places where I labour giving- so much per 
week for my services, as before ; which, with the exception of 
two places, was always obtained with the greatest ease ; in 
many cases leaving large sums of money to devote to local 

" 4. Every church where I laboured successfully to be re- 
quested to make an offering towards a fund to enable me to 
labour in poor churches. Towards this fund I think I know 
some of our wealthy friends who would subscribe. Further 
details I am prepared to produce, should they be required, 
and I am, I think, prepared likewise to meet the various 
difficulties that may suggest themselves in the working out 
of this plan. 

Age 32. 

A central 

" II. The second way to which I referred would be for the 
Conference to grant me a location ; allowing my name to ap- 
pear on the minutes, and recognising me as a regular minister 
of the body, with the privilege of returning to the itinerancy 
when the providence of God might direct, on the condition 
that iny labours were devoted to the Connexion so far as it 
offers me a sphere. Of course, if a sufficient amount of labour 
was not provided me by it, it could not be objected that I 
should fill up my time by accepting the invitations of other 
churches, as this plan would involve the giving up of my 
salary, and going forth with my wife and family to trust en- 
tirely in the Lord; as I have not the slightest idea of any 
guarantee whatever save that of Him who has said, 'Every one 
that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or 
mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My name's sake, shall 
receive an hundred-fold, and shall inherit everlasting life. ' 

" On this subject my mind has been much exercised. I 
have been impressed that, when willing to this. He would 
open my way ; and I think I can say I am now willing. " I 
need not say how much more agreeable and welcome the 
adoption of the first plan would be, and how much less anxiety 
and self-sacrifice it would involve ; I only suggest the latter in 
case the former should be rejected. 

" Probably the question will be asked, 'Is my health equal 
to the work?' To this I reply, that, through the mercy of 
God, my throat is perfectly restored ; and from experience in 
a circuit, and in the evangelistic work, I am convinced that 



Mucn ex- 

not too 



Age 32. 

a dispute. 


A cold 

fur the 

my health will stand the one as well as the other, with season- 
able rest and ordinary care. 

" And now, my dear sir, I have laid the matter before you. 
I should very much deplore any unpleasant discussion in the 
Conference. I could not consent to re-engage in the work by 
an insignificant majority. I sincerely and strongly desire to 
spend my time and energies in promoting the highest inter- 
ests of the Connexion. I wish to labour with the fullest ap- 
probation and co-operation of my brethren, neither do I see 
any righteous reason why this should not be the case. 

"All well, I intend to call at Sheffield on Friday, the 15th 
instant, on my way to Birmingham, in order to consult you 
on the question, which, to give you opportunity for consider- 
ation, I have at this length laid before you. Should you in 
the mean time meet the Annual Committee, will you kindly 
lay this matter before them, and ascertain their judgment in 
reference to it? And may the Lord guide you in counsel. 

" With kind regards to Mrs. Stacey, in which Mrs. Booth 
unites, " Believe me to remain, 

" Yours affectionately, 

"William Booth." 

It was not till the beginning of May that Mr. Booth 
received any reply to this commiinication , and then 
only to the effect that the answer had been delayed 
owing to Mr. Stacey's illness, but that there had been 
a meeting of the Annual Committee, at which the 
letter had been considered, and that three out of the 
four members present "had thought it best to lay the 
matter before the Conference for free and open dis- 
cussion. Not a word of counsel, nor a symptom of 
approval was conveyed, and it was manifest that the 
proposal would encounter from certain parties as vig- 
orous an opposition as ever. 

Mr. and Mrs. Booth, however, were now prepared 
for the worst. They were assured that, whatever 
might be the issue of the conflict, the ultimate result 
could not fail to be a distinct improvement on their 
present unsatisfactory position. If they were success- 


ful in carrying their point, they would have the in- 1861, 
tense satisfaction of retaining their position in the ^^^ ^^' 
Connexion and at the same time of obeying the dic- 
tates of conscience. If, on the other hand, the Con- 
ference should refuse their request, they would realise 
they had done their duty, and their future pathway, 
if lonely, would' be clear. 

In sending to her parents a copy of the letter to the 
President, Mrs. Booth writes: 

" I hope you received my last all right, with a copy of our The 
letter to the President, and that you forwarded it to Dr. Cooke, ctpathy 
Send us word what you thought of it. I don't see how they church. 
can object to granting the second plan, and I would prefer 
that to the first. William would be then entirely master of 
his own movements, and would not be harassed by a com- 
mittee. Oh, the more I see of the church and its ministry the 
more deeply am I convinced that such an instrumentality is 
what is needed. The apathy and blindness and unconcern of 
Christians generally, both ministers and people, are truly 
awful ! And while the church sleeps souls by thousands are 
dropping into perdition. May God in mercy use us in some 
humble degree to awaken half-hearted professors, and to 
bring lost sinners to God!" 

Nor were they left in this critical hour without Two hun- 
tokens of Divine approval. A series of revival ser- %lttrnt 
vices held in the beginning of the year at Bethesda -^^^'^''s^"- 
Chapel had resulted in two hundred persons professing 
conversion. The quarterly returns showed an in- 
crease of more than three hundred members to the 
circuit during the three years of their appointment. The 
The annual District meeting, held in Durham previous meeting. 
to the meeting of the Conference, had been memori- 
alised by the Gateshead Circuit to ask that Mr. Booth 
should be set apart for the work of an evangelist, and 
had unanimously passed the following resolutions: 

Its resolU' 

I. Affirming the Scriptural character of such an tions. 



Age 32. 



Two hun- 
dred pen- 
it ey\fs at 




agency and the desirability of its employment by the 

2, Recommending Conference to set Mr. Booth 
apart for the work ; and 

3. Recommending his appointment to the Durham 
District as his first sphere of labour. 

One of the most influential lay members of the Con- 
ference was a Mr. Joseph Love. He was immensely 
rich, having risen from the position of a working- 
man to one of affluence, and leaving at his death some 
two millions of money. He warmly espoused Mr. 
Booth's cause, and promised to do his utmost to secure 
the consent of Conference to a renewal of his evange- 
listic work. Indeed, both he and other wealthy friends 
made it no secret that, if it were the question of ex- 
pense which had caused hesitation as to the appoint- 
ment, they would themselves guarantee to defray all 
the extra cost, and thus relieve Conference of any 
anxiety on that account. 

Still more reassurins^ was the result of an Easter 
visit paid by Mr. and Mrs. Booth to Hartlepool. So 
remarkable were the results and so promising the 
prospects that Mrs. Booth remained behind for ten 
days to continue the services, no less than two hundred 
and fifty persons coming to the communion rail dur- 
ing this brief interval. This seemed to be in an es- 
pecial manner the finger .of God pointing with the 
utmost plainness to the path that He desired them to 
follow. The commencement of this work is graphi- 
cally described by Mrs. Booth herself in the following 
letter to her parents : 

"Hartlepool, Easter Monday, 1861. 
Easter " ^^ came here on Thursday afternoon for the Easter An- 

visit. niversary meetings. I preached on Good Friday morning to 
a full chapel, William on Sunday morning, and I again in 



the afternoon to a chapel packed, aisles and pulpit stairs, 
while many turned away unable to get in. This morning 
William returned to Gateshead to attend our tea-meeting at 
Bethesda. I am staying here to preach again to-night, and 
shall return, all well, to-morrow. There were many under 
conviction last evening, whom I hope to see converted to- 
night. The Lord has been very graciously present with me 
hitherto and has given me great influence and liberty. I am 
in my element in the work, and only regret that I did not 
commence it years ago. Oh, to live for souls! It is a dark, 
sinful world, and a comparatively dead and useless Church. 
May God pot:r out His Spirit! 

" There is a nice society here, considering it is a new one — 
a beautiful chapel, seats about 750. They say there were 
1000 in it yesterday afternoon. 

" And now how are you getting on? I am very glad to hear 
my dear father is so useful in the temperance line. I intend 
to do more yet in that direction. Some excellent judges spoke 
very highly of my first speech. So I shall be encouraged to 
try again. 

" I hope, however, my dear father will not stop at teetotal- 
ism. Why can you not speak a word for Jesus? [Shortly 
previous to this, while on a visit to Mrs. Booth, Mr. Mumford 
had given his heart freshly to God.] Does not 'love so amaz- 
ing, so divine' as He has shown to you, demand the consecra- 
tion of your powers directly to His Name and cause? Oh, try 
to speak a word for Him, and you will find His Spirit will be 
with you, giving you strength and grace. The mere recital 
of God's merciful dealings with you would be calculated to 
melt many a hard heart, and inspire many a hopeless, reckless 
wanderer with desires and purposes to leturn to the Lord. 
Try it ! Oh let us all try to live to purpose ! 

" Has my dear mother fixed on any plan by which she can 
do something for the Lord, and be instrumental in winning a 
few poor souls to Jesus? It is workers that are so woefully 
wanted in the vineyard, and there is nothing else worth living 
for but to minister salvation and bliss in Jesus' Name. Oh, 
let us as a family strive to do something to make up for our 
lost opportunities and past unfaithfulness." 

A few days later Mrs. Booth writes again from 
Hartlepool to her parents ; 

Age 32. 

Jioofh re- 

The frm- 




for God. 



Age 32. 

-4 glori- 
ous in- 

A gen- 
eral move- 




" You will be surprised to find I am still here, but so it is. 
I told you I had to stay on Monday evening. Well, the Lord 
came down amongst the people so gloriously that I dare not 
leave, so the friends telegraphed to William and I remained. 
... I preached again on Tuesday evening. The chapel was 
full. I gave an invitation, and the Lord helped me as I think 
He never did before. When I had done speaking tnere was a 
general move all over the chapel, and the communion rail 
was filled with penitents again and again and again during the 
evening. The second time it was filled I never saw such a 
sight before. They were all men, with two exceptions, and 
most of them great fine fellows of mature years. All glory to 
Jesus! He hath 'chosen the weak things to confound the 
mighty. ' 

" I preached again on the Wednesday and Friday evenings, 
and also gave two addresses on holiness, and the Lord was 
very graciously with me. Above 100 names were taken dur- 
ing the week, and besides these I should think we have had 
half the members up to seek a clear sense of their acceptance. 
On Saturday night we had a glorious fellowship meeting. 
Oh, it would have rejoiced your hearts to have heard one 
after another bless God for bringing your feeble and unworthy 
child to Hartlepool ! I shall never forget that meeting, on 
earth or in heaven ! 

" I was published to preach at night, and a quarter of an hour 
before the time the chapel was wedged so full that the people 
were drifting away, when it was announced to the crowd out- 
side that Mr. Williams should preach in the school-room under 
the chapel at the same time. It is a splendid place, capable 
of holding nearly 500, and not only was it filled, but they tell 
me numbers went away unable to get in. I preached in the 
chapel, on the judgment, and experienced great liberty. The 
people listened as though they already realised the dread 
tribunal. Oh, it was indeed a solemn season ! For some time 
we carried on both prayer meetings, then we amalgamated, 
allowing the people to remain in the gallery, which they did 
till nearly ten o'clock. We had upwards of forty cases of 
conversion. To God be all the praise ! If we had had more 
efficient help at the communion ra,il we should have got 
many more, but there was not room for them, and the people 
of God are awfully ignorant of the right way to lead penitents 



to Christ. The Lord have mercy on a half-asleep church ! 
Oh, if 1 had time to particularise some of the precious cases 
we have had I could fill sheets. But I have not. Our Christ 
can do wondrous things, and that by the feeblest instru- 

" The friends are thoroughly taken by surprise. They 
were perfectly bewildered last night. They seemed lost in 
wonder and awe. I believe we had some of the most respect- 
able people and also some of the greatest reprobates in the 
town, and yet during the whole service I saw but one irrever- 
ent look or gesture. They all seemed as solemn as death, 
and I believe many went away with the arrows of the 
Almighty in their souls. May the great day reveal it ! The 
friends tell me that I get numbers every night who never be- 
fore put their heads inside a place of worship. I give an ad- 
dress this evening, principally to the new converts, and to- 
morrow morning I return home. It seems a thousand pities 
to have to leave such a work, but I suppose I must. I intend 
to try and arrange to come back again. 

" Pray for me. I have my trials even in connection with 
this work, but I hear my Lord saying, 'To him that overcometh 
will I give to sit down with Me on My throne. ' Oh, for wis- 
dom and grace to steer clear of every quicksand and every 
rock, and to reach the harbour safe at last. Well, He says, 
'My grace is sufficient for thee,' and I believe it. 

" And now I know what you are thinking about — namely, 
that I shall be thoroughly overdone. If you knew how I have 
laboured, talking to penitents as hard as I could for two hours 
every night, and this after preaching, you would not believe 
that it could be your Kate. I can hardly believe it myself, 
but^ hitherto the Lord hath helped me, and though often 
almost prostrated, and scarcely able to speak or walk. He has 
wonderfully restored me, so that the next night I have felt 
able for the work again. Still, I confess, I feel very poorly 
this morning. It was a terribly heavy strain last night, but 
the fruit makes up for it all. May God preserve it unto 
eternal life ! 

" Oh, I cannot tell you how I feel in view of the state of the 

church at large. It is a dead weight on the heels of any 

truly earnest minister. What can we do to wake it up, and 

keep it awake? We can only pray to the Lord of the har- 


Age 32. 



ables and 

The trials 
of the 

A heavy 

The state 

of the 




Age 32, 


vest. He can do it, and He only. The poor sinners, the poor 
lost sheep for whom my Saviour died, how few truly care 
for their souls ! All seek their own and not the things that 
are Jesus Christ's. Oh, may the Lord help me to seek His. and 
only His, glory, and to be content to wait for my reward till I 
get to heaven ! Amen and Amen ! 

" The children were all pretty well when I heard last. My 
precious children! Oh, how I long to inspire them with truly 
benevolent and self-sacrificing principles ! The Lord help me, 
and may He early take their hearts under His training! 
William says that he does not think that they are suffering 
from my absence, neither do I believe the Lord will allow 
them to suffer. 

" 'Fix on His work thy steadfast eye, 
So shall thy work be done. ' 

The Lord will not let us lose in the end by doing His work." 

Writing after her return to Gateshead in regard to 
the concluding services at Hartlepool, Mrs. Booth says : 

" I spoke again on Monday night to a crowded chapel. 
There were thirty-two cases besides members. Oh, it was a 
glorious work! I left it in the hands of Mr. Williams, but I 
hear that they have only taken twenty names since I left. I 
hardly expected that Dr. Cooke would put a report in the 
Magazine, though I knew one had been sent. However, it 
seems that he will. I hope this will not provoke any contro- 
versy, as I should be sorry for that. If it should, however, it 
will not be the first thing of the kind. If you can borrow the 
February and March Magazines for 1848 you will find two 
letters on the subject, one in defence of female preaching by 
the Rev. J. H. Robinson, now of Canada. It is the best thing 
I have seen on the subject. I did not feel at all anxious, how- 
ever, for a report to be sent to either the papers or the Maga- 
zine. I fear the Spirit is often grieved by glorying in instru- 
mentalities, and, so far as I am concerned, I do it only unto 
the Lord, and my record is on high." 

Referring to the same meetings, Mr. Booth writes : 

GeneraVs " ^ J^st send a line to say how we are. Catherine came 
account, home on Tuesday afternoon. It has been a very glorious 

two more 

Dislike to 



work, one hundred and eighty from the world, besides near 1861, 

a hundred for justification and holiness from the different ■^S^ 32. 

churches of the town. She came home much exhausted, and 

on Thursday she had a day of violent pain. An attack of 

spasms came on at four in the morning, and did not leave her 

till two in the afternoon. In fact, the pain did not entirely 

pass away until the next day. She managed to go to Winla- 

ton yesterday, because printed and published, but it was a 

great risk. She is middling this morning and must be very 

quiet for some time to come. I was very lonely without her, 

very much so, indeed." 

Shortly afterwards Mrs. Booth paid a second visit to ^ second 


Hartlepool, which she describes in the following letter : 

" We had a splendid day, chapel wedged at night and num- 
bers turned away unable to get in. A good prayer meeting 
and seventeen cases. It was like beginning over again after 
three weeks' cessation of special effort. The friends expressed 
themselves as highly gratified, even more so than on any 
former occasion. I heard a great deal of gracious and heart- 
cheering intelligence with reference to those brought in dur- 
ing my previous visit. They reckon to get eighty good and 
permanent members for their own church, and have handed 
the names of forty to other denominations. The news of this 
work has spread far and near, and is bringing me fresh invita- 
tions. I expect to be at Salem, Newcastle, twice next Sun- 
day. The last time I was there I had a good congregation. 
Though it was morning the chapel was filled as they have not 
seen it for years, and the gentleman who has been to-day to 
invite me says that there are inquiries on every hand as to 
when I am going again. 

" Regarding m)^ health, be assured I do take notice of your 
kind advice and fully appreciate your anxiety, but I really 
cannot preach shorter ; I do try, but I always fail, and even 
t/ien I have often to leave much out that I would like to say. 
However, I don't think it hurts me, as I speak very naturally, 
and they say my voice is so adapted for it, and my utterance 
so distinct, that I don't need to raise my voice beyond its or- 
dinary compass. It is the prayer-meeting work that exhausts 
me the most. 

" On Sunday the Lord was very graciously with me. I 






A grand 



Age 32. 

ought to 




Two to 
with in- 
stead of 

never felt more liberty and influence than I did at night. It 
made the twelfth public effort in Hartlepool, and on no single 
occasion did the Lord allow me to fail. 

" The children are well. Willie gets on nicely with his les- 
sons. They all come on charmingly. Baby gets a real pet — 
such a mamma's girl as none of them have been." 

To an unprejudiced mind it would have appeared 
that the glorious results attending the Hartlepool re- 
vival, together with the remarkable successes achieved 
by Mr. Booth, would have sufficed to have convinced 
the Conference as to the advisability of appointing 
them to the work for which they were so specially 
adapted. Here was an ingathering of two hundred 
and fifty seekers in the short space of ten days, with 
a permanent addition of eighty members to the 
church, and of forty more to neighboring places of 
worship. A minister who would not welcome such 
an intrusion was not worthy of the name. And a 
governing body that refused to set the willing seal of 
its approval to such an enterprise thereby proved its 
own incapacity. But there were those who did not 
wish to be convinced, and who were only increasingly 
alarmed that four years of suppression had not suc- 
ceeded in extinguishing the fiery zeal of the evange- 
list. Nay, more. They had now to reckon with two 
in place of one, for the Gateshead Patmos, instead of 
extinguishing the ardour of the one, had inflamed the 
enthusiasm of the other. 



The memorable Conference, on the decisions of 
which were suspended events of far-reaching impor- 
tance, was held in Liverpool in 1861. Mr. and Mrs. 
Booth decided that they would together attend its 

"My heart almost fails me," writes Mrs. Booth to her 
parents. " in going to the Conference and leaving the children 
behind. But William would like me to be there, to advise 
with in case he is brought into a perplexing position. I shall 
be in the gallery while the discussion goes on, so that I can 
hear all that is said. No doubt there will be much of a try- 
ing and discouraging character. But I shall look to the Lord 
for discretion, patience, and wisdom. Pray for me. I have 
many a conflict in regard to the proposed new departure ; not 
as to our support, I feel as though I can trust the Lord im- 
plicitly for all that ; but the devil tells me I shall never be 
able to endure the loneliness and separation of the life. He 
draws many a picture of most dark and melancholy shade. 
But I cling to the promise, 'No man hath forsaken,' etc., and 
having sworn to my own hurt, may I stand fast. I have told 
William that if he takes the step, and it should bring me to 
the workhouse, I would never say one upbraiding word. No! 
To blame him for making such a sacrifice for God and con- 
science' sake would be worse than wicked! So, whatever be 
the result, I shall make up my mind to endure it patiently, 
looking to the Lord for grace and strength." 

Writing later to her mother, from Liverpool, Mrs. 
Booth says : 

" The time for the consideration of our case is now drawing 
near. We anticipate some very sharp fighting. Several of 




They go 

A dark 

ing for 
the con- 

406 MRS. BOOTH. 

1861, the leading preachers are as much opposed as ever, but there 
Age 32. are some who are prepared to defend it to the teeth, and as 
far as we can learn nearly all the lay members favour the pro- 
posal. Mr. W. Rabbitts is getting ready for the occasion, and 
we dine with Mr. Love to-day at the Royal Hotel, and I am 
going to prepare him a bit ! I have great influence with him 
^'''•^ just now. He introduced me to Dr. Cooke yesterday, and 
opinion told him that I outdid them all, even Mr. Cooke himself, and 
of her. Q^ great deal more, which he was foolish enough to say and 
which I should be still more foolish to repeat. However, I 
may as well use his esteem to good purpose, if I can. Not 
that I put my trust in man in the matter. The more I see of 
men the less faith I have in them. Of course, we cannot help 
^V- feeling somewhat anxious as to the result, but really I regard 
season, their acceptance of my dear William as a doubtful advantage, 
so far as his ultimate usefulness is concerned. I believe the 
Lord intends him to do a great work, and He is able to sus- 
tain him in it. 

" Oh, I want to help him to a n'^/if course. Pray for us, 
that God may guide! I seem to hear Him saying, 'I will 
guide thee by my counsel. ' Amen ! Even so, P'ather ! Thy 
will be done ! " 

Referring to this occasion in later years Mrs. Booth 

Expeetinq " ^^ goii^g to the Conference, depressed though I was in 
a bless- heart and perplexed without measure in mind, the old illu- 
sions of my childhood crept over me, and I went anticipating 
something of a spiritual treat, and resolved to obtain for my 
soul what edification I could from the gathering. 
What a "I had pictured to myself what such a Conference might be. 
ference ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ opportunity, I thought, for ascertaining the real 
micjht he. condition of the work of God, for pointing out causes of weak- 
ness and failure, for indicating the measures which would be 
likely to arouse the Church, for calling each other to repent- 
ance and reconsecration, and for waiting unitedly for such a 
baptism of fire as would make its mark upon the world. 
Sadlxf I must say, however, I was sadly disappointed. Apart 

•poinUd altogether from the treatment we received, which God has 
since so wonderfully over-ruled for good, its deliberations did 
not tend to raise the debating system of government in my 



estimation. Hours were wasted in discussing trifling details, 
in exchanging empty compliments, in speechifying, in pro- 
posing alternate resolutions and amendments, and in the dis- 
posal of the driest and dullest of business routine. From be- 
ginning to end there was nothing to inflame the zeal, or 
deepen the devotion, or heighten the aspirations of the mem- 

Age 32. 

Nevertheless, tlie study was doubtless to Mr, and 
Mrs. Booth an interesting and, in view of the future, 
a profitable one. It has commonly been the mistake 
and misfortune of the church in general that it has 
placed the reins of its government in the hands of 
literary critics, clerks, and bookworms, who live in an 
atmosphere of antiquity, and are largely destitute of 
those gifts which can alone qualify for the leadership 
of men. Mere critical knowledge and research are 
well-nigh deified, and the bishops of the church, its 
overseers, its rulers, those who have its destinies in 
the palm of their hands, are chiefly chosen from those 
who are mere encyclopedias of the past rather than 
from those who are distinguished by their possession 
of Divine power, and by their intimate acquaintance 
with human nature as it is. Doubtless dictionaries as 
such are valuable, but for the leadership of the church 
something more is required. 

What Scriptural precedent, what rational argument 
is there, in favour of this undue preponderance of the 
mere clerical element? It is not so in the world. 
Our armies would be defeated, our navies swept off 
the sea, businesses would fail, and a political party be 
involved in chaos, if the mere literary adept, or the 
scientific pedant, were entrusted with the helm. 
Science is the handmaid of these professions, but the 
mistress of none. She manufactures their powder, 
builds their ships, coins their gold, and prints their 







by book- 



Science a 
good ser- 
vant, but 

408 MRS. BOOTH. 

1861, papers. She is allowed to serve, but is not permitted 
^^ ^^' to command. The Tennysons and the Dores of the 
age may depict, but they cannot lead the marshalled 
hosts upon the field of battle. The church has surely 
been misled in this respect, and has attached an alto- 
gether undue importance to the acquirement of lin- 
guistic and clerical attainments, which no more qualify 
men for the command of their fellows than would the 
knowledge of cookery or the plough. 
Theuni- True, the New Connexion was considerably in ad- 
tendmcy. vance of the ordinary church Sanhedrim, admitting to 
its deliberations a proportion of lay representatives. 
Nevertheless there existed the same tendency to 
over-estimate the advantages of intellect and culture 
at the cost of more necessary and sterling qualities. 

A passage " A good deal of the business," continues Mrs. Booth, " was 
of a personal character. The first lively passage of arms 
which took place was concerning the editorship of the Maga- 
zine. For many years our old friend Dr. Cooke had con- 
ducted it, his appointment having been renewed by each suc- 
ceeding Conference. Some dissatisfaction, however, having 
been expressed in regard to his management of the paper, he 
tendered his resignation in an able and touching speech, 
which considerably affected many of the members of the Con- 
ference. No sooner had he taken his seat than soine one rose 
Clinging ^^^d charged him with 'morbid sentimentalism,' 'clinging to 
to office, office,' and a number of severe, unkind, and unwarrantable 
accusations, which did not, however, elicit a single response 
from the audience. Our friend Mr. Rabbitts ably defended 
Dr. Cooke, but the chairman ruled that the discussion was 
out of order, and it was accordingly postponed, it being sub- 
sequently decided that Dr. Cooke should continue the editor- 
ship as before. 
The Gen- "At length our case came on for consideration. As we 
^point^ ^^^ anticipated, the proposal for our restoration to the 
ment. evangelistic sphere met with brisk opposition, although the 
reasons advanced for it had undergone a complete change. 
In fact, it was necessary for Mr. Wright and his friends to in- 



vent some fresh pretexts for their action, inasmuch as we had 
completely cut the ground from beneath their former objec- 
tions. Nevertheless, there was every reason to believe that 
nearly half the ministers and the majority of the laymen 
present were in favour of the proposal, and we trusted that 
with their help we should be able to carry the day. Nothing 
surprised me, however, more than the half-hearted and hesita- 
ting manner in which some spoke, who had in private assured 
us most emphatically of their sympathy and support. I be- 
lieve that coiuardice is one of the most prevailing and subtle 
sins of the day. People are so piisillaniinous that they dare 
not say 'No,' and are afraid to go contrary to the opinions of 
others, or to find themselves in a minority. 

" On three separate occasions the subject of our appoint- 
ment was brought forward for discussion and was successively 
adjourned, the debate occasioning considerable excitement 
throughout. Every imaginable and unimaginable objection 
was resorted to by the opposition, which was headed, as be- 
fore, by the Rev. P. J. Wright. It so happened, moreover, 
that Dr. Crofts, who had been largely instrumental on the 
first occasion in relegating us to circuit work, was this year 
appointed as President of the Connexion. There can be little 
doubt that this nomination exercised an important influence 
upon the events that followed." 

Age 32. 


The sin 
of cow- 

leads the 


The discussion was commenced by the Rev. T. The -Dw- 

•' ham 

Stokoe presenting to the Conference the resohitions i^etition. 
passed by the recent meeting at Durham, advocating 
the restoration of Mr. Booth to the evangelistic 

The Rev. P. J. Wright moved that this was contrary 
to the rules and Poll Deed of the Connexion. The 
result of the Durham resolutions would be the callinof 
out of a new class of agency affecting the fundamental 
principles of the Connexional system. As such it 
would be necessary to submit the question to all their 
members for consideration, and this could not now 
be done for six years, so that it was no use wasting 
time over the discussion. 


1861, It seems somewhat surprising that Mr. Wright had 

Age 32, ^^^ made this remarkable discovery six years pre- 
The state- viously, when Mr. Booth was formally appointed by 
Ihat Conference for this species of work, nor during the 
lenged. (jiscussion of 1 85 7, wheu it was first decided that Mr. 
Booth should take a circuit. In the latter case it would 
have certainly helped to a final decision of the contro- 
versy at a much earlier date. However, Mr. Wright's 
contention, although supported by a solicitor, did not 
remain unchallenged, 
^iee?" ^'^^'- Ol'ih^ni asked if the Poll Deed prevented cir- 
cuits from employing extra agency for revival and 
other religious work. If so, he thought the sooner it 
was thrown aside the better. 
Dr. Cooke. Dr. Cooke also differed from Mr. Wright, pointing 
replies. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ p^^^ 1}^^^. did uot prohibit any new 

agency. They had often instituted such. The Can- 
adian and Irish missions, and other similar agencies, 
were not referred to in the Deed, which offered no 
difficulty whatever to the proposal now before the 
The An amendment to Mr. Wright's motion was then 

"'mlnT proposed to the effect that the suggestion of the Dur- 

carried. j^^^j^ circuit was uot Contrary to the Poll Deed. This 
was warmly seconded by Mr. Rabbitts, who dwelt 
upon the free policy of the New Connexion, and ex- 
pressed the hope that a church possessing freedom 
such as none other could boast of was not going to hide 
behind a musty deed, when even the Established 
Church had commenced to employ evangelistic agency. 
After some further argument the amendment was put 
to the vote and carried by a large majority. 

An insult It remained to decide whether the Conference, hav- 

to the . ' 

pastor, ing affirmed its power to create the agency, would 
proceed to act on it as desired. A long and vehement 


discussion ensued. The opponents of the measure 1861, 
argued that it was an insult to the pastor to introduce ^ 
any outside agency, as if he were not himself sufficient 
to fulfill the duties of the post. Some of the speakers 
objected altogether to revival work, and seized the op- 
portunity for denouncing it. One of them, Mr. Mc- 
Curdy, declared that the last state of such circuits w^as 
worse than the first, although he was bound to admit 
that in Mr. Booth's case there were gifts and graces i^ortant 
and an intellectual power which placed him far ahead %ion' 
of any and all the evangelistic labourers who were at 
present labouring throughout England. This admis- 
sion met with hearty applause. But the speaker 
added that he was nevertheless convinced that Mr. 
Booth would serve the interests of the Connexion best 
by labouring in a regular circuit. 

Mr. Booth was then invited to read the letter which ^'^«, ^'^^- 

eral reads 

he had addressed to the Annual Committee in the his utter. 
previous March. And the debate was drawing to a 
close, with every prospect of a satisfactory result, 
when, to their amazement, Dr. Cooke, who had pro- 
fessed to be on their side, proposed a compromise. Acom- 
His amendment was to the effect that Mr. Booth proposed. 
should take a circuit, but should be allowed to make 
arrangements with his oflice-bearers to spend a certain 
portion of his time in carrying on revival services else- 
where. The impracticability of such a course Mr. and 
Mrs. Booth had already fully proved in the case of 
Gateshead. And they knew that if the proposed 
appointment to a circuit should be insisted upon, its 
affairs would necessarily absorb their whole attention, 
and it would be impossible for them to combine the 

. ^ . Mr . Booth 

double work. Mr. Booth, therefore, refused pomt- declines. 
blank to accept the compromise, but before time could 

1 • 1 • 1 • ^ 1 . -4 coup 

be given to his sympathisers to recover from their d'etat. 



Age 32. 

Booth in- 

by Dr. 

She rises 






surprise the amendment was put to the vote and car- 
ried by a large majority. 

This was more than Mrs. Booth could endure. She 
had been sitting at a point in the gallery from which 
she and her husband could interchange glances. It 
had been with difficulty that she had restrained her 
feelings hitherto while listening to the debate. But 
at this stage she was overcome with indignation. She 
felt that Dr. Cooke had sacrificed their cause in the 
interests of peace rather than righteousness. But for 
his suggested compromise she believed that they 
would have carried the day with a triumphant majority. 

Rising from her seat and bending over the gallery, 
Mrs. Booth's clear voice rang through the Conference, 
as she said to her husband, " Never!" 

There was a pause of bewilderment and dismay. 
Every eye was turned towards the speaker in the gal- 
lery. The idea of a woman daring to utter her protest 
or to make her voice heard in the Conference produced 
little short of consternation. It was a sublime scene, 
as, with flushed face and flashing eye, she stood before 
that audience. Decision, irrevocable and eternal, was 
written upon every feature of that powerful and ani- 
mated countenance. Her "Never!" seemed to pene- 
trate like an electric flash through every heart. 

One, at least, in that assembly responded with his 
whole soul to the call. Mr. Booth sprang to his feet, 
and waved his hat in the direction of the door. Heed- 
less of the ministerial cries of "Order, order," and 
not pausing for another word, they hurried forth, met 
and embraced each other at the foot of the gallery 
stairs, and turned their backs upon the Conference, 
resolved to trust God for the future, come what might, 
and to follow out their conscientious convictions re- 
garding His work. 

Dr. Cooke 




Mr. and Mrs. Booth had scarcely reached their 
temporary home when Dr. Cooke, in company with 
another minister, drove up to the door. They had 
fully expected, like many others who voted in favour 
of the compromise, that, distasteful as it might be to 
Mr. and j\Irs. Booth, their ultimate acquiescence was 
assured. They had succeeded in over-persuading 
''^menis." them ou four previous occasions, and they could not but 
hope that they would again prevail. They pointed out 
to Mr. and Mrs. Booth the serious consequences of per- 
sistence in their present course, and urged them to 
accept the decision of the Conference, holding out the 
hope that in another year's time the members might 
be riper for the adoption of the evangelistic programme 
than they at present appeared to be. 

To this Mr. and Mrs. Booth replied that the appar- 
ent compromise was, as a matter of fact, no compro- 
mise at all. They were perfectly familiar with the 
condition of the Newcastle circuit, to which it was 
proposed they should be sent, and they knew that its 
needs would tax their undivided energies to the ut- 
most. If they neglected it in favour of revival work 
they would give just cause for complaint to the Con- 
ference. If, on the contrary, they did justice to the 
circuit they Vv'ould be obliged to disobey what they 
had realised to be a distinct call from God. They had 
done their utmost to meet the demands of Conference 


No com- 
at all. 




in offering to resign their salary, and to depend solely 
upon God for their support, but they could not accept 
a double responsibility which they would be unable 
to fulfill. 

It was now Saturday. The Conference was to hold 
its final sitting on Monday. Dr. Cooke urged that Mr. 
Booth should at least attend in order to re-explain 
his views, and to see whether some way out of the 
difficulty could not be devised. To this he agreed, 
reiterating, however his inability to accept the present 

The Sabbath which followed was a gloomy one. 
They had been announced to conduct meetings in 
Chester, and they accordingly went. The chapel was 
crowded, and in spite of the melancholy feelings 
which oppressed their hearts, their visit was attended 
with success and souls were saved. 

On the Monday morning they returned to Liver- 
pool, when Mr. Booth attended the sitting of the Con- 
ference. He was received with marked kindness. 
Nevertheless, there appeared to be no disposition to re- 
consider the decision or to suggest any other solution 
of the difficulty, and there was no little rejoicing on 
the part of the Newcastle representatives when, at the 
last reading of the appointments, Mr. Booth's name 
was placed against their circuit. 

At the final sitting of the Conference an appeal was, 
however, made by one of the oldest ministers present, 
urging him to bow to their decision. He spoke in 
the most flattering terms of Mr. Booth's previous ser- 
vices, and intimated that all a minister could covet 
in connection with the body was within his reach if he 
would conform to the wishes of his brethren, con- 
cluding by inviting him to take the platform and 
signify his feelings to the Conference. 


Age 32. 

A last 




ing to the 





Age 32. 

He tvill 
not sac- 
rifice his 

" Without 
a friend 
or a far- 

The Con- 

An awk- 

Shoidd he 

This Mr. Booth proceeded to do, reiterating his 
assurance that God had called him to the evangelistic 
sphere, and adding that if to secure his bread and 
cheese, or to exempt himself from suffering and loss, 
he were to sacrifice his convictions, he believed God 
would despise him, they would despise him, and he 
was certain that he should despise himself. Rather 
than do so, he would go forth without a friend and 
without a farthing. He loved the Connexion. He 
had for seven years faithfully sought its highest in- 
terests. He had won thousands of souls within its 
borders. But he was now asked to carry out an ar- 
rangement which was at once a physical impossibility, 
and would involve him in a course of disobedience 
to God. and his conscience. 

It might have been supposed that such an appeal, 
coming from one w^hose past and prospective services 
must have been deemed of some value to the Con- 
nexion, would have elicited a generous response. But 
the Conference was obdurate. What they had written 
they had written. To Newcastle they had appointed 
him, and to Newcastle it was generally expected, nay, 
confidently believed, that he would, soon or later, 
consent to go. 

Mr. and Mrs. Booth were puzzled to know what 
step should next be taken. While the Conference 
had refused to alter its decision, it had not, on the 
other hand, treated Mr. Booth's refusal to comply 
as a resignation, but had simply assumed that he 
would in the end obey. There were two courses open 
to him. One was to place his resignation at once in 
the hands of the Annual Committee, which had not, 
however, the authority to accept it, but could only 
hold the matter over for the consideration of the next 
year's Conference. The other course was to let mat- 


ters drift for the time being, endeavouring to come to 1861, 

an understanding with his circuit by which he should ^^ ^^* 

forego his salary and home, be released on his part or i,t 

from local engagements, and thus set free for accept- "Unjl^ 
ing invitations from other circuits and churches which 
he knew to be desirous of obtaining his services. 

Mrs. Booth was strongly in favor of the former Hoping 


proposal. But Mr. Booth still clung to the hope that hoxie. 
some middle course might yet be discovered — some 
means for bridging the gulf in a manner satisfactory 
at once to the Conference and themselves-. His friends 
were urgent that he should make the attempt. The 
circuit officials were willing that it should be so, ac- P^*^. 
cepting the services of Mr. Booth's colleague as his cmfpes. 
substitute during his absence. 

It was necessary at once to leave the Gateshead 
home, but the preacher's house in Newcastle was 
standing empty, and was gladly for the time being 
placed at his disposal. A notice was even sent to the The notice 
July number of the Magazine intimating that Mr. ^uaqa- 
Booth's "arrangements w^ith his circuit would leave ^*"^' 
him some opportunities of helping to promote the 
work of God in other circuits where the minister and 
people unitedly desired his labour." For some weeks 
it seemed likely that all might yet go w^ell, and the 
threatened breach be healed. 

In the mean time, during this period of suspense, 
Mrs. Booth writes to her parents : 

" Your very kind letter came duly to hand. We should A painful 
have answered it sooner, but have had neither heart nor op- -'"'*' ""'' 
portunity. Neither could I reply to your questions about our 
settlement without giving you just cause for anxiety on our 
account, and, but for neglecting you, I would prefer not to 
write at all. 

" Our position altogether is about as trying as it well could 



Age 32. 

The Com- 

ed with 

The two 




No monei, 




be. We have reason to fear that the Annual Committee will 
not allow even this arrangement with the circuit to be carried 
out, and if not, I do not see any honourable course open but 
to resign at once and risk all ; that is, if trusting in the Lord 
for our bread, in order to do what we believe to be His will, 
ought to be called a ris/c. 

" The President has written to know the nature of the 
arrangements come to with the Newcastle circuit. William 
will send them, and if they object I shall urge him to resign. 

" You see I am so nervous I can scarcely write. The fact 
is I am but poorly, and almost bewildered with fatigue and 
anxiety. We don't know what to do. And yet God knows 
we only seek to do the right. If I thought it was right to stop 
here in the ordinary work I would gladly consent. But I 
cannot believe that it would be so. Why should he spend 
another year in plodding round this wreck of a circuit, preach- 
ing to twenty, thirty, and forty people, when, with the same 
amount of cost to himself, he might be preaching to thou- 
sands, and bringing hundreds of wanderers into the fold of 
Christ? And none of our friends would think it right if we 
had an incoiiw. Then, I ask, does the securing of our bread 
and cheese make that right which would otherwise be wrong, 
when God has promised to feed and clothe us? I think not. 
And I am willing to trust Him, and to suffer, if need be, in 
order to do His will. 

" William hesitates. He thinks of me and the children, and I 
appreciate his love and care. But I tell him that God will 
provide, if he will only go straight on in the path of duty. It 
is strange that I, who always used to shrink from the sacri- 
fice, should be the first in making it! But when I made the 
surrender I did it whole-heartedly, and ever since I have 
been like another being. Oh, pray for us yet more and more ! 
We have no money coming in from any quarter now. Nor 
has Willam any invitations at present. The time is unfavour- 
able. I am much tempted to feel it hard that God has not 
cleared our path more satisfactorily. But I will not 'charge 
God foolishly!' I know that His way is often in the whirl- 
wind, and He rides upon the storm ! I will try to possess my 
soul in patience and to wait on Him. 

" The children don't like the change at all. Poor little 
Katie cried bitterly the first night when we undressed her 



here. She ran to the door for the cab to take her back again ! 
Bless them! I don't think the Lord will ever allow them to 
suffer by the resolution of their parents to do His will. 
David never saw the righteous hunger nor his seed begging 

In a subsequent letter to her mother Mrs. Booth 

" Your kind letter came to hand this morning. I am sin- 
cerely grateful for all your concern, and am only sorry to be 
the occasion of so much anxiety to you now, when I hoped to 
be able to repay you for some I have caused you in the past. 
But perhaps a brighter day is before us. We must hope in God. 

" William had a good beginning at Alnwick last week, 
wonderful for the place. But oh, the blindness of the 
preachers is enough to make the stones cry out! They 
thought it would be wiser to defer the services until the win- 
ter, as one of the leading families was going to the seaside ! 
So poor, convicted sinners at Alnwick m.ust wait their con- 
venience ! However, William has delivered his soul of them. 

•' I trust neither you nor my dear father think that I want to 
run precipitately into the position we contemplate. I have 
thought about it long and much. It has cost me many a 
struggle to bring my mind to it. But, once having done so, 
I have never swerved from what I believed to be the right 
course. Neither dare I. But I am quite willing to listen to 
argument, to receive light, and even to wait for the accom- 
plishment of our desires if I can only see justifiable reasons. 
But I have no hope that God will ever assure us that lue shall 
lose nothing in seeking to do His will. I don't think this is 
God's plan. I think He sets before us our duty, and then 
demands its performance, expecting us to leave the conse- 
quences with Him. 

" If He had promised beforehand to give Abraham his Isaac 
back again, where would have been that illustrious display of 
faith and love which has served to encourage and cheer God's 
people in all ages? If we could always see our way, we should 
not have to walk by faith, but by sight. I know God's profes- 
sing people are generally as anxious to see their way as world- 
lings are, but they thus dishonour God and greatly injure 

Age 32. 




Does not 

42 o 


Age 32. 





" I don't believe in any religion apart from doing the will 
of God. True, faith is the uniting link between Christ and 
the soul, but if we don't do the will of our Father it will soon 
be broken. 

" If my dear husband can find a sphere where he can 
preach the Gospel to the masses I shall want no further evi- 
dence as to the will of God concerning him. If he cannot find 
a sphere I shall conclude that we are mistaken. But I cannot 
believe that we ought to wait till God guarantees us as much 
salary as we have hitherto received. I think we ought to do 
His will, and trust Him to send us the supply of our need. 
Anyhow, I am convinced the Lord will guide us, and I am 
willing to stand by my dear husband, and do all I can to help 
him in whatever course he may decide upon." 

A future 


Having settled Mrs. Booth and the children in the 
temporary home at Newcastle, and having made with 
the circuit the arrangements previously referred to, 
Mr. Booth now sought further engagements. He 
had anticipated that, as soon as it was generally known 
that he was free to accept further invitations, they 
would pour in upon him as numerously as ever from 
the various circuits in the Connexion. In this, how- 
ever, he was disappointed. The late difficulty with the 
Conference had become generally known, and some 
who were eager for a visit hesitated to invite him, 
while in other cases the ministers were no longer 
anxious, as formerly, to obtain his assistance. 

The fact that he had given up his salary left him 
free, and, indeed, made it necessary, to seek openings 
outside the immediate pale of the Connexion . And so, 
with a burdened heart and in much perplexity of 
mind, he started for London. 

Mrs. Booth writes later: 

Some- " My dearest is starting for London. Pray for him. He is 

(ilorious "^i^ch harassed. But I have promised him to keep a brave 
in store, heart. At times it appears to me that God may have some- 


thing very glorious in store for iis, and when He has tried us 1861, 
He will bring us forth as gold. It will not be the first time I ^Z^ 32- 
have taken a leap in the dark, humanly speaking, for con- 
science' sake ! 

" Of course there are some who would brand us as fanatics "^ ^^''' '^^ 
for so persistently pursuing our course. But I am prepared 
to 'endure the cross and despise the shame,' if God sees fit to 
permit it to come. The same integrity of purpose which 
would enable me to enjoy honour will likewise sustain me 
tinder the reproach." 

It was only for a time, however, that they were the Obscured 
1 •, • • •, ^w' not 

losers, and even then it was more m appearance than extin- 

fixtisfi ^d 

in reality. The clouds of misfortune, which hid for a 
moment from view the stars that lighted their firma- 
ment, might obscure, but could not extinguish a single 
one of them. They were too high up for that. And 
amidst the sorrow and perplexity which ensued, Mr. 
and Mrs. Booth were upheld by the consciousness 
that they had not been "disobedient to the heavenly 
vision," but had embarked upon a course which, how- 
ever painful to themselves, must in some way result 
in the accomplishment of God's highest purposes. 



The key- Mr. Booth had Started for London. We can pic- 
thelon- ture him on his long and lonely journey, as he knelt 
roversy. ^^^ once more committed his way unto the Lord. 
And what was the burden of his cry — the key-note of 
all the past controversy — the uppermost desire of his 
soul? Not money, not position, not power, but the 
opportunity to reach with the Gospel the greatest 
number of people in the shortest possible time. This 
has ever constituted the summit of his ambition, the 
ruling passion of his life, and the pivot-principle 
round which the Salvation Army has subsequently re- 
Anut- William Booth was never content with doing well 

most best. ,-,-,-, • ^ i • i 

when he could do better; never satisfied with saving 
some when he could save more. He despised the 
opportunity of giving in Christ's name a cup of cold 
water when something more substantial was in his 
power to bestow. He measured his accomplishments 
by his possibilities, and ever compared what had been 
done with the what-might-have-been. Thus, through 
all the toiling past, he has never paused to count the 
dead deeds of by-gone days. His motto has been 
''Onward," while each goal gained has become the 
starting-point for some fresh enterprise. 
Efforts to In the light of subsequent history it is touching to 
footing, notc thcsc early efforts to carve out a footing in the 
great metropolis. We cull a few extracts from his 




letters reporting to Mrs. Booth the result of the var)'- 
ing experiences with which he met. But the language 
of a great and restless heart can, at best, but poorly- 
word itself on paper, and we must wait to gather from 
its throbbings on the pages of his life all that, in those 
early days, he realised. One thing we know that He 
with whom the darkness shineth as the light, and 
who sees the end from the beginning, had purposes 
too lofty and too blessed to let His faithful servant 
tread the present path of sacrifice and uncertainty 
in vain ! 

" I saw Mr. Hammond yesterday, found him in a beautiful 
mansion, after a long and weary search. He is a very agree- 
able gentleman, and welcomed me cordially, giving me all 
the information and counsel he could. He starts for America 
on Monday in the Great Eastern. His success has been very 
considerable in Scotland, and they have acted most gener- 
ously, towards him. He has only been a public evangelist for 
the last twelve months — held three services a day until his 
health broke down. The people then sent him to Italy, meet- 
ing all his expenses, and numbers of first-class ministers are 
doing him and his work honour. 

" I should like to lay the noble conduct of these men before 
our Conference, and contrast it with the drivelling opposition 
with which they have met my movements and convictions. 

" Almost his first advice after hearing my position was, ' Cut 
the denomination and go to work for Jesus, and He will open 
your way. ' He says there is a Committee at Glasgow who 
are only too glad to get the right sort of men and to find them 
a sphere. But he adds, 'If you go to Scotland you must not 
go as a Methodist! If you do, you will very largely, if not 
entirely, block your way. ' 

" I must say I was pleased with him, though I far from 
agree with all he said. Still, the interview was such a con- 
trast to the discouraging looks and desponding words of 
everybody I have come in contact with for the last two 
months, save one (my Kate), that it quite cheered me. I shall 
not, of course, decide on any plan until I see you. 

"Mr. Hammond said, 'If you have power to hold a large 

Age 32. 

Mr. Ham- 

Not a.s a 


What he 



Age 32. 

audience, and to exhibit the truth and bring home the Gospel 
to their hearts, you may go forth, and God is sure to provide 
for you. All Britain is open to you!' 

"Well, whatever comes, we must live to God, close to God! 
Oh, let us give ourselves afresh to Him, and covenant anew 
to v/alk in His ways and keep His commandments." 


Amongst other persons visited was Mr. George 
Pearse, who was interested in some undenominational 
efforts then being carried on in London. Concerning 
this visit Mr. Booth writes: 


" Child- 
ren, have 
you any 


" I went to dine with Mr. Pearse. After dinner we had a 
long conversation on the work of God, my own position, you, 
etc. Mrs. Pearse is a very amiable lady, so free, and both 
appeared much interested in all soul-saving work. Mr. Pearse 
had attended a meeting of the Garrick Theatre Committee 
that afternoon, and my name had been before them. They 
were much interested in me and wished me to take part in 
the service at the theatre to-morrow (Sunday) night. To 
this I consented. 

" He said they were but humble persons, and the work there 
was but of a humble character, and they thought that if I 
offered myself it should be in dependence upon God alone. 
Still, if I did so, they would, as far as they were able, open 
me halls and render me pecuniary assistance. I had said, 
you will remember, in my letter to Mr. Radcliffe, which has 
been forwarded to Mr. Pearse, that I did not ask for salary, or 
a guarantee, but for a sphere. 

" I said to Mr. Pearse, in the best way I could, that all I de- 
sired at the present was a sphere to which I was adapted, and 
I then hesitated and stammered. Still, I said, for the first 
few months I should need a friend or two who would look in 
and say, 'Children, have you any bread?' He, and Mrs. 
Pearse, too, laughed aloud at this, and on my commencing to 
explain, he said, 'I laughed that you should think Christian 
love should be so low as not to do that much!' We prayed 
together, and then parted. 

" This morning, according to appointment, I was at Mr. 
Forbes Winslow 's, and. on being introduced into the waiting- 
room, who should be there, in order to see the doctor on my 



account, but Mr. Pearse? I felt this was very kind, especially 
as I knew he was usually at his offices on the Exchange before 
that time. However, I saw the doctor v/ith him, and prom- 
ised to conduct a service, for which they were to engage a 
hall, somewhere in the West End. I could not decline, as it 
was evident he wished for himself and some other friends to 
hear me before they advised me as to my mode of action. 

" I called afterwards to see William Carter, a prominent 
workingman's evangelist. He is an earnest Christian, I 
should think, and very much concerned about the Lord's 
work. He holds many of the notions of the Plymouth 
Brethren, and has given up one branch of his business and is 
about to give up all. He has any number of engagements, 
and offered to set me to work at once. He advised me to 
offer myself to the Lord for the work, and to trust in Him 
only for my support, assuring me that all my need would be 
supplied. I was very favourably impressed with him, and the 
accounts he gave me ot the work were delightful. 

" So you see there is no lack in the direction of open doors. 
My only fear is as to whether I am adapted for this sort of 
work. I know what you will say. But don't be at the trou- 
ble to say it. We shall see. I am full of desire to do the will 
of God. and to follow my Saviour. Oh, may He help us!" 

Writing on the following Monday he gives an in- 
teresting sketch of his visit with Mr, Mumford to the 
Garrick Theatre, describing the work that was there 
being carried on ; 

Age 32. 



" Yesterday, accompanied by father, I went over to the Gar- 
rick Theatre. We arrived there at half-p)ast three, and found 
about forty 'workers,' who were receiving an address. Then 
prayer was offered for God's blessing on the work, and after- 
wards they went off to the surrounding neighbourhood. 
Some went to the lodging-houses, where about sixty persons 
were found in one room, others from door to door, and 
others to the open air for meetings at the corners of the 
streets. I joined the last and gave two short addresses. At 
five all came back to the theatre for tea. Then there was 
more prayer, and all went forth again to bring people up for 
the service at seven. The attendance was not large. I 

A theatre 




1861, preached; had a little liberty in talking to the people. I found 
Age 32. that a sermonic address is but of little service. A random 
talk is the most effective. A meeting for conversation with 
anxious persons was held afterwards. Several were much con- 
cerned, and with some of the cases I was pleased. But it was 
a very different affair altogether to what I have ever taken 
part in. 

" I feel very much easier in my mind. In fact, I have a. 
measure of trust and confidence that all things are working 
for the desired end, to a degree that I have never had before." 

Unde- For various reasons, however, Mr. Booth was un- 
^UotIm' willing to attach himself to these undenominational 


missions, one of the uppermost being the lingering 
hope that it might yet be possible to retain his posi- 
tion in the New Connexion. To the very last he 
fought against separation, and would fain have stayed 
A linger- with the people whom he had made his own, and 

ing hope. , . . , . . ., . . j. ,., 

who, despite the inconsistency and opposition 01 the 
few, were in the main so largely after his heart, and 
from whom he had received so many tokens of good- 
will and affection. There was nothing, at any rate, 
to prevent his numerous Connexional friends from ap- 
plying for his services, and the idea of going to labor 
among those who more or less held views with which 
he did not sympathise was repugnant to his mind, 
and seemed unfeasible. 
Visiting n was with such thoughts and feelings that he 

Notting- ^ ^ 

ham. hastened back to Newcastle once more to talk over 
the position of affairs with Mrs. Booth. Previous to 
this they had received a pressing invitation to conduct 
the anniversary services of a branch mission in a suburb 
of Nottingham, which had owed its existence to the 
revival previously described. To this they had gladly 
consented, and they now proceeded to fulfill the en- 

They had scarcely reached Nottingham, however, 



when they received from Dr. Crofts a letter express- 
ing the dissatisfaction of the Annual Committee with 
the arrangement that had been entered into with the 
Newcastle Circuit, and urging him to enter upon the 
ordinary pastoral duties of the appointment. 

The course was now clear. They had done their 
best to reconcile the claims of God and man. Their 
circuit had agreed to the arrangement. And they 
had been willing to await the decision of another Con- 
ference. But they could not consent to sacrifice their 
convictions of duty, and Mr. Booth accordingly ad- 
dressed the following letter to the President : 


Age 32. 



"12 Buxton Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
"July i8th, 1861. 
" To the Rev. H. O. Crofts, D.D., President of the Methodist 
New Connexion. 

" My Dear Sir: — Yours of the i6th is to hand. Its contents 
certainly much surprised me. You say, 'I am sorry to learn 
that you are not taking your circuit according to the rules 
and usages of the body, nor according to the resolution of 
Mr. Cooke. ' But, sir, I informed you of every particular re- 
specting the arrangement, immediately after it was made; 
since then I have received two letters from you on circuit 
business, in which you do not refer to it ; if, then, as you say, 
this arrangement was calculated to grieve my best friends of 
the Connexion, and of sufficient importance to bring before 
the Annual Committee, how is it that you have waited five 
weeks before writing me on the subject? 

" The arrangement was agreed to unanimously by a special 
circuit meeting, and at the last Quarterly Meeting, after 
working it for some time, I informed the friends that if they 
were dissatisfied I was perfectly willing to retire ; but they 
preferred to abide by it for the year, and I can only account 
for your letter on the supposition that some officious person 
has unofficially written yoxi on the subject. I need not re- 
mind you, however, that there is considerable difference be- 
tween the opinion of an individual and the resolutions of the 
regularly constituted meetings of the circuit. 

Letter to 



42 8 


Age 32. 

His in- 

give wp 
his con- 

The sac- 


The ver- 
dict of the 

"You ask me to tell you 'frankly' what I intend to do. I 
reply that all the way through my conduct has been open 
and frank in the extreme. But once again I say that I intend 
to be an evangelist, if it be possible ; and if, after a fair trial, 
I fail in reaching that sphere, I will give it up, and conclude 
that I have been mistaken, but not till then. 

" I informed the Stationing Committee and afterwards the 
Conference, both orally and by letter, that I could not take 
the responsibility of the Newcastle appointment, but still the 
Conference persisted in it. My first impulse was to resign, 
but I clung to the idea that my connexion with the Confer- 
ence might be retained another year without sacrificing my 
convictions, and I thought the arrangement with the circuit 
would secure this. In this hope I find from your letter that 
I am mistaken, and that no plan is open to me by which I can 
work out those convictions and retain that connexion. One 
or the other I must give up. The former, my duty to God 
and souls, I cannot forego ; and therefore, intensely painful 
though it be, I must adopt the latter, and place my resigna- 
tion in your hands. 

" I do this after much prayerful deliberation. I know what 
I am sacrificing, and I know I am exposing myself and those 
whom I love to loss and difficulty. But I am impelled to it 
by a sense of duty to souls, to the Church, and to God. Were 
I to quail, and give up for fear of the difficulties which just 
now appear to block my path, I feel sure that I should in the 
future reproach myself with cowardice in the cause of my 
Master, and that even those who differ with me in opinion 
would say that I was not true to the professions I made in the 
Conference, when I said I had offered myself to the Lord 
for this work if I went forth 'without a friend and without a 
farthing. ' 

" Trusting in God alone, I offer myself for the evangelistic 
work, in the first instance to our own connexional churches, 
and, when they decline to engage me, to other portions of 
the religious community. I offer myself toco-operate in con- 
ducting special services, or preaching to the outlying crowds 
of our population, in theatres, halls, or the open air. 

" Looking at the past, God is my witness how earnestly 
and disinterestedly I have endeavoured to serve the Connex- 
ion, and knowing that the future will most convincingly and 



emphatically either vindicate or condemn my present action, I 
am content to await its verdict. In the mean time, 
" Believe me to remain, my dear sir, 
" Yours, very respectfully, 

"William Booth." 

In describing their feelings at the time Mrs. Booth 
writes to her parents : 

" William received a letter from the President yesterday, 
objecting to the present arrangement,* and after a day's deep 
anxiety and fervent prayer we decided on our knees to send 
in our resignation. Accordingly it is, I expect, in the Presi- 
dent's hands this morning. 

" We both attended the tea-meeting last night. William 
made a thrilling speech. It told well on the people. At the 
close of it he announced the step he had taken, which evi- 
dently produced a great impression on the audience. Much 
to our surprise, Mr. Clifton, one of the ministers who occu- 
pied the chair, instead of getting up to defend the Connexion, 
said that, while he deeply regretted the step Mr. Booth had 
taken, nevertheless he could not but honour him for acting out 
his conviction. He believed that never had a man done so 
with a single eye to God's glory who had suffered for his 
action. He had no doubt that God would give him the desire 
of his heart and accompany his labours with success. 

" This was very cheering under the circumstances. The 
people were most affectionate at parting, and sang with us all 
up the road on the way home. I believe they were much 
pleased with both my services. On Monday night we had a 
blessed time. I enjoyed great liberty, and although it poured 
with rain, which made a great noise on the canvas, I managed 
with some effort to make myself heard to the end of the tent 
in which the services were being held. The people listened 
well, and nearly all stayed for the prayer-meeting, when we 
had nine cases, two of them old men. One of them I should 
think was seventy. He wept like a child, and cried, 'What a 
merciful God He has been to spare me so long in my rebellion !' 
All glory to Jesus! 

" I feel happier this morning than I have done for three 
months past. I feel as though my dear husband stood forth 
as an honourable and unflinching Christian before the world, 

Age 32. 



An affec- 




Age 32. 


The last 





goes to 


The Gen- 
eral to 

and I am proud to help him to face the difficulties which frown 
upon our path. I verily believe God will clear our way and 
smile upon our work. He knows our motives. 

" We have thought, and read, and prayed, and done all in 
our power to follow right convictions and to gain light from 
above. And we could neither of us bring ourselves to feel 
that William could take the circuit without compromising his 
honor, the honor of his Christianity and of his God. So, now 
the step is taken, we both intend to brace ourselves for all its 
consequences and manfully face all difficulties. The Lord 
help us and show us His salvation! Continue to pray for us." 

The hour had now come. The die was cast. The 
last link that bound them to the Connexion was bro- 
ken. And Mrs. Booth turned her face toward her 
mother's home in London. As is often the case when 
a crisis has been reached, or a decision arrived at 
which follows on a long and weary conflict, there is a 
proportionate reaction. An inexplicable depression 
of the nerves and emotions tends to veil the sky and 
hides for the moment the triumphs that are at hand. 
The chord has been struck and it vibrates for long. 
The bow has been stretched and it quivers as it re- 
turns. The earthly casket trembles in every fibre be- 
neath the stupendous effort of the soul. 

It was in the throes of such an experience that Mrs. 
Booth left Nottingham. And, in facing the conse- 
quences of her recent decision, she was tempted to 
pray, "If it be possible, let this cup pass from me." 
And yet that railway journey was not without its con- 
solation, inasmuch as she possessed the unutterable 
satisfaction of knowing that in her Calvary season she 
had been granted grace to say, "Not my will, but 
Thine be done." 

In the mean time Mr. Booth had returned to New- 
castle, whence it had been decided, for economy's 
sake, he should remove the children to London by 


sea. Their faithful servant, Mary Kirton, had de- 1861, 
Glared that no change in circumstances should induce ^^ 
her to leave her mistress, and that, with or without .4 
wages, she would continue to shepherd the little ones, {n-vant. 
whom she loved with all the fervour of her strong na- 
ture and warm Irish heart. With her help Mr, Booth 
soon packed up his few belongings and embarked for 

The sunset rays of declining day flickered upon a 
the downy heads of the baby group as they knelt '^scenJ!^ 
with their parents around the family altar within the 
kindly shelter of Mrs. Mumford'shome. Unconscious 
children! They did not know the worth of sacrifice, 
or the incalculable weight of prayer ! And yet, all 
innocently, they represented the tens of thousands of 
spiritual children who, by the faithful service and 
willing sacrifice of these but two disciples of their 
Lord, should yet be brought to kneel, and kneel in 
families, at the altar of the Cross. 

Since that fair summer's eve multitudes innumer- The altar 
able have gathered under varying circumstances sacrifice. 
within the sacred precincts of the altar of sacrifice, 
bathing it with their tears, and crowning it with their 
gifts. And thus have they freshly proved for them- 
selves that, while the altar sanctifies the gift, yet in 
a God-intended sense the gift adorns the altar; for of 
what profit is a giftless altar, and what, indeed, were 
Calvary without its Sacrifice ? 

But the future was as yet unknown, and in the The uft- 
spirit of resignation and faith Mr. and Mrs. Booth fiery 
awaited the moving of the fiery pillar that lighted the 
darkness of their wilderness-encompassed camp, and 
the lifting of which was to be the signal for their for- 
ward march. 



5 to 

C C 

^^'^^, H\:^ 



The battles with Conference had ended. Yet still 
there remained battles to be fought. True, there had 
been a considerable change of front. The combatants 
had transferred their forces to a new and still more 
interesting field. But the issues remained the same. 
To awaken a single denomination to a sense of its 
opportunity and responsibility, and to do this through 
the medium of its own Conference, had been Mr. and 
Mrs. Booth's first object. They believed that if ap- 
pointed to the position of evangelists they would be 
enabled to infuse new life and vigour into the Con- 
nexion. In this they were disappointed. 

And now the bolder idea had been conceived of at- 
tempting to do for the churches in general what they 
had sought to accomplish for their own denomination. 
Freed from the fetters that had hitherto hindered 
them, they were now in a position to visit any church 
or town in the kingdom. There were few places 
where some struggling cause would not gladly wel- 
come their assistance, and, once having obtained a 
footing, they believed that the work would of its own 
weight secure an entrance elsewhere. However great 
in some instances might be the secret antagonism of 

28 433 

A new 

A waken- 
ing the 

the tveak. 



Age 32. 

at the 



the pale. 

The re- 
gions be- 

the pastors, it would be compelled, they thought, to 
succumb to the influences of the revival, and to the 
clamour of the people for a share in the blessings that 
were being reaped by so many around. 

It seems strange now, in the light of subsequent ex- 
perience that, with their earnest longings to reach the 
masses, they did not at once commence to work 
amongst them on their own account. They had only 
to take a hall, announce their meetings, and go for- 
ward with the work. Crowds were certain, wherever 
they might be. But the idea of aiming at the people 
independently of the churches had not yet occurred 
to them. The majority of the evangelistic agencies of 
the day had devoted their attention to the revival of 
professing Christians, and their labours were carried 
on in connection with some organisation to whom 
they entrusted the care of their converts. Mr. and 
Mrs. Booth had advanced a step beyond this. They 
yearned even more over the godless crowds who at- 
tended no place of worship, and who made no pro- 
fession of religion, than over the nominal Christians, 
who at least preserved an outward appearance of 
morality. But they imagined that the only way to 
reach the people was throiigJi the church. It did not 
occur to them that for these outsiders an outside 
agency might be, after all, the best, if not indeed the 
only, way of effecting a permanent revolution in their 
hearts and lives. 

And yet one of the Conference speakers had uncon- 
sciously struck fire when, in opposing the appoint- 
ment, he had urged that if an evangelistic agency were 
created it should be applied to the reaching of the 
masses who in each large city were beyond the pale 
of every church. Let Mr. Booth, he argued, go forth 
like Paul into the "regions beyond" instead of build- 


ing on other men's foundations. Of course the words 1861, 
were completely misapplied. It might fairly have ^^ 
been retorted that the speaker himself did absolutely 
nothing from year to year but build on foundations 
sunk by some one else; or, again, that Paul himself, in 
company with the rest of the Apostles, had spent the 
better portion of his life in visiting and writing to 
churches many of which had been established by 
other agency. Nevertheless, the words were pro- 
phetic of the course that was afterwards to be followed 
out with such success. The challenge then thrown a pro- 

" phetie 

down was to be taken up in a literal sense and applied challenge. 
to all the world in a fashion that the speaker little 
thought, and when the critic's name had passed into 
oblivion, that of the man whose pathway he had 
helped to block was to be handed down as a house- 
hold word through the ages of futurity. 

Mr. and Mrs. Booth had not long to wait for an a hopeful 
opening that appeared of a hopeful and satisfactory °p^'^^'^^- 
nature. There were now in the ministry of various 
churches some ten or twelve of those who had been 
converted in their own services. One of these, Mr. 
Shone, who was converted during the Chester revival, 
was labouring in the New Connexion. He had for a 
year been colleague to Mr. Booth in Gateshead, resid- 
ing during that period under his roof. He was now 
stationed at Hayle, in Cornwall, from whence he sent 
a hearty letter inviting both Mr, and Mrs. Booth j^^^^^^^ ^^ 
to hold revival services in his circuit. From a Cornwall. 
worldly standpoint the character of the invitation was 
not a very alluring one. After apologising for the 
smallness of the chapel and the scantiness of the 
population, he went on to say that nothing could be 
guaranteed in the way of remuneration, but that they 
could count upon a hearty welcome. 

436 MRS. BOOTH. 

1861, This letter was received at the breakfast-table, and 

^^^ ^^' seeing its contents Mr. Booth read it aloud. Mr. and 
At the Mrs. Mumford were somewhat reluctant to agree to so 

^'Sfr^ speedily losing their daughter, and suggested that 
Mr. Booth should go alone. He urged, however, that 
since they had endured together the controversy and 
strain of the past three months, culminating in their 
separation from the Connexion, so they should share 
the first victory, adding that the nurse would be quite 
competent to take the temporary oversight of the 
Mrs. "My feelings," says Mrs. Booth, "could be better 

feeUngl. imagined than described during this conversation. 
The earnest way in which I had been included in the 
invitation, and the evident appreciation and value put 
upon my labours, seemed to me as the cloud like a 
man's hand upon my horizon, and appeared to prelude 
the opening of a way by which we could travel to- 
gether, instead of the perpetual separations to which 
I had been trying to make up my mind as a necessary 
A way part of the evangelistic cross. My parents at length 
heartily consented to take charge of the children, and 
we immediately prepared to go. We wrote by return 
of post, accepting the invitation, and started at the 
time arranged for, as it were to commence life afresh," 

iTie jour- "Although the journey to Hayle was a long one," 

nei/ to T^ 1 1 r ■ 1 • • 1 • 

Hayle. says Mrs. Booth, when referring to this episode m 
after life, " I was myself surprised at the comparative 
ease with which I accomplished it. We were both 
in excellent spirits, full of that high enthusiasm which 
only faith and hope can inspire. True, we were 
launched upon an unknown sea, but we realised that 
God was at the helm, and we trustfully faced the 
future without a fear. 

A small , . 1 

port. " Hayle, we found, was but a small, straggling place 


with a port, at which some little coasting trade was 1861, 
carried on, and a large foundry employing six or seven ^^ ^^* 
hundred men. The chapel was a barn-like affair, 
holding perhaps six hundred people. The number we 
crowded into it night after night was quite a different 
matter. The Cornish system of packing a congrega- a Comish 
tion was certainly somewhat singular. The first 
comers occupied the seats, and then another row of 
people would stand in front of them. The aisles 
would next be filled, beginning at the pulpit stairs, 
till the whole place was literally gorged. Then the 
window-sills would be besieged, and through the open 
windows another crowd outside would listen to the 
echoes of the songs and to such stray sentences as 
might reach their ears. 

"The plan laid down for our labours, which was The plan 
more or less followed throughout our Cornish cam- paig^" 
paign, was that Mr. Booth should preach on Sunday 
morning and evening, and on the first four evenings 
of the week, while I took the Sunday afternoon and 
Friday night meetings, frequently speaking on the 
afternoon of several week-days as well. In addition 
to these regular services, we often held noon-day meet- 
ings, visited the sick, and conducted other accessory 
gatherings. The Saturdays were devoted to rest and 
to preparation for the Sabbath. 

"Our first meetings at Hayle were held on Sunday, The first 

1 iA T f 11111/- meetings. 

the nth August. I must confess we had looked for- 
ward to them with considerable anxiety ; so much ap- 
peared to depend upon their success. In the morning 
there was a good congregation. My dearest preached, 
and, although he did not experience much liberty, 
nevertheless the people were evidently interested and 
impressed. On our way home from the Chapel a gen- 
tleman said that he hoped I should in the afternoon 



Age 32. 




A new 

No break. 

The Jirst- 

They cry 



service give them something of a cheering character, 
as what they had heard in the morning had com- 
pletely capsized them. To this our hostess added, 
as we sat at the dinner-table, 'Before you came my 
husband and I had a very good opinion of ourselves ; 
but now we see that we are nothing — absolutely 
nothing — and worse than nothing. ' 

" In the afternoon the place was jammed, and the 
Lord gave me great liberty. At night there was 
another crowd, and a powerful impression was made. 
Indeed, I have always reckoned that God in an es- 
pecial manner put His seal upon the services of that 
day, giving us, as it were, a new Divine commission for 
our subsequent life-work, though we little dreamed at 
the time how much was involved in it. 

" There was, however, no immediate break. As in 
the case of our previous Cornish experience, the 
people listened with the utmost earnestness, and as- 
sented to the truth, but they would not respond to our 
invitations to come forward to the communion rail. 

" The next night the result was much the same. 
In spite of the strongest appeals not a single person 
would come forward. Knowing that there were many 
present who were deeply convinced of their sin, the 
invitation was repeated again and again, without 
eliciting the slightest response, when suddenly the 
silence was broken by the loud cries of a woman, who 
left her seat, pushed her way through the crowd, fell 
upon her knees at the penitent form, and thus became 
the first-fruits of what proved to be a glorious harvest 
of souls." 

These early meetings are described by Mrs. Booth 
in the following letter to her mother: 

" The work has commenced in earnest. We have had three 
very good nights. William preached Monday and Tuesday, 



and I last night. The cases in all are about twenty-one. I 
never saw people cry and shout as they do here. I can do 
nothing in the way of invitation in the prayer meetings, the 
noise is so great. I occupy myself with going to the people in 
the pews. The town is full of conviction, and I doubt not we 
shall have a glorious work. Don't be over-anxious about our 
sending reports to the papers. There is plenty of time before 
us, and invitations are already numerous. 

" I think the way is opening in Cornwall for a much longer 
stay than we at first contemplated. William went by invitation 
to see the Rev. Samuel Dunn at Camborne, four miles from 
here, the other day, and he wants us to go there. [This was 
the minister already referred to as Mr. Booth's Superintendent 
at Nottingham, and leader of the Reform movement. He 
was now the pastor of a Congregational church.] He will be 
away from his chapel next Sunday, and I am to preach for 
him, and to stay for two or three evenings, as my strength 
serves. If a good work begins there we shall perhaps try to 
work the two places at the same time, interchanging with one 
another according to circumstances. If we can manage this 
it will be well, as Hayle is too small as a sphere for us both. 
There are also invitations from St. Ives and other places in 

" We cannot tell at present whether we shall return to 
London, or whether we shall engage a furnished house and 
have the children here. But if we are likely to stay three or 
four months, I shall be for adopting the latter plan. I have 
no fear about the children being well cared for, but I am afraid 
of their becoming weaned from me ; and I must not risk that. 

" Please read my letter to Willie, and read it to him two or 
three times just before he goes to bed at night, so that it may 
affect his heart the more. Bless him I" 

The following was the letter referred to, the first 
apparently that her son received from his mother. It 
well exemplifies the trouble taken and the tact mani- 
fested by ]Mrs. Booth in the training of her children : 

" Havle, August 15th, 1861. 
" My Dearest Willie : — I promised to write you a letter all 
to yourself, and so the first thing I do this morning shall be 
to write it. 

Age 32. 

More in- 

ing for a 

A pro- 



first letter 

to her son. 





i86i, " I have been thinking a great deal about you, my dear boy, 

•Age 32. and about Ballington, Katie, and Baby, too ; but most about 
you, because you are the oldest and biggest, and I know if 
you are good, and do as you are told, they will most likely be 
the same. I do hope you are praying to the Lord every day 
to help you, and are trying to do as Grandma and Mary tell 
Good and yQ-f^, If you are, I know this letter will find you happy and 
joyous, because when little children Sive good they are always 
happy. But I never knew a naughty child to be happy in 
my life, and I dare say grandma never did. Just ask her if 
she ever did. 

" I often wish you were here with us. It is a beautiful place ; 
fields. such nice fields and lanes, where you could run about and play 
and romp and sing and shout, without troubling anybody, 
and such nice places to fly kites, without trees about to catch 
them. Well, when you have got a little older, and have 
learned always to do as you are told, and to read little tales, 
so that you could amuse yourself when in ladies' houses, with- 
out touching things and troubling people, then you shall al- 
ways come with me when I go with papa. 
Do as you And oh, won't that be nice, when I can have my little Willie 
"'"^ * • with me wherever I go, and show you all the pretty things I 
see, and tell you all the nice tales I hear, and all about God 
and Jesus and heaven. Would you not like this very much? 
If you would, you must try every day to do exactly as you 
are bid, and then you will get to do it quickly and easily. 
And you must try hard to learn to read. Don't try how /iU/e 
you can get off with, but try how //ii/c/i you can learn every 
day. And think to yourself, 'Now the quicker I learn to 
read, the sooner I shall go in the train with papa and mama, 
and go with them to ladies' houses and see all the pretty 
things. ' 
The chil- I want to tell you, too, about a children's meeting which we 

dren's have here. Papa tells all the little children to come to the 
meeting. ^ 

chapel at six o'clock of an evening, and such a lot come ! Half 

the chapel full. And then either papa or I speak to them 

about Jesus and teach them to sing pretty little hymns. 

They are so good and so happy, and some of them have been 

to Jesus for a new heart. He has given them one and made 

them good, happy children of God. When I look at them 

all singing so merrily, I do wish my Willie was amongst them. 



But if you are a good boy and do as I say, you shall come by- 1861, 

and-bye. Bless you! Age 32. 

" F'rom your loving 

" Mama." 

A month later Mrs. Booth writes to him again, as 
follows : 

" My Dearest Willie: — I fear you begin to think that it is 
a long time before papa comes to fetch you, and I am sure I 
think so too. But you see we cannot always do just what we 
would like. We have to wait until the Lord lets us, and we 
may always be sure that He knows best. 

" You see, my dear boy, your papa and I came down here to 
do the Lord's work, and although we have worked very hard 
we have not got it all done yet, and we dare not leave it till 
we think we have finished. So our dear little ones have to 
wait a long time. But oh, what a good thing it is that you 
have a kind grandma to take care of you and find you a home ! 
The Lord does not let you want for any good thing. He 
sends you plenty of food to eat and nice clean clothes to put 
on and a nice bed to sleep in, just the same as though you 
were with us. Do you ever think about this, and thank Him 
for all His kindness? I hope you do, and that you try to 
please Him by being a very good boy. And the better you 
are the more quickly the time will slip away and the sooner 
you will come to us. 

" Well, it won't be long now before you come. So try to 
learn as fast as ever you can, and let us see how much you 
have learned since we left you. And then when you get here 
papa and I will take you with us on to the cliffs and show you 
the great and beautiful sea. In fact, you will perhaps live just 
opposite to it, where you can see the ships and the boats out 
of your nursery window. Won't that be nice ! You can show 
them to Ballington, Katie, and Baby, and tell them the names 
of the ships as they sail past. 

" I often wish very much that you were here. I am quite 
tired of being without you all, and sometimes I cannot help 
crying about it. But then I try to remember that the Lord 
knows best. Do you ever pray so? I hope you do ; and if you 
do, I am sure the Lord will not let you wait much longer. 

" By-the-bye, this is Katie's birthday— dear little girl! It is 

letter to 
her sou. 


the LorcVs 


The beau- 
tiful sea. 






1861, just three years to-day since the Lord sent her to us, a dear 
Age 32. little tiny baby ! I wish I could give her a birthday kiss. 
But as I am so far away you must give her one for me — a real 
bumper, right on her sweet little cheek, and tell her how 
much mama loves her, and that she must be a very good girl. 
I hope, too, that you do not quarrel with Ballington now 
about the playthings. You must try to remember that he is 
much younger than you, and always give way to him and try 
to teach him to be good. Tell him all about what I have told 
you in this letter, and all about going to see the great water 
and the ships. 
Talk to " I wonder how the dear baby is getting on. Do you think 
^"^^' she has forgotten me? I hope not. You must talk to her 
every day about papa and mama, and try to make her under- 
stand that she is coming to see us. Bless her little heart ! I 
hope her brother Willie is very kind and gentle with her, now 
she has no mama there to love her. Give my kind love to 
grandma, grandpa, and Mary, and always remember me as 
your loving 


Writing to her mother about Willie's studies, Mrs. 
Booth says : 
BonH " I am glad to hear that Willie does not feel happy unless 

make it a -^q knows his spelling, but I would not have the book made a 

bore to him for a hundred pounds. I have no doubt he will 

take to it by-and-bye. Don't discourage him. If his memory 
is bad he is to be pitied. He cannot help it, and it will not 
mend it to discourage him. If his governess scolds him I 
would rather he did not learn anything at all. This would 
be enough to set any child against his books. Let him do a 
little at a time, and he will like it better than being forced to 
pore over it long together. And if his governess does not 
know that you had better tell her. 
Exercise " I am glad Ballington likes to say his lesson. Bless him ! 
aut onfy. y^^ ^^^ ^-^^ most perseverance of them all, and I have no 
doubt will make something out in the world. Exercise all 
the authority over them that you see to be needful. I commit 
them to your discipline entirely, while they are with you." 

.4 long re- Meanwhile the services were carried on with en- 
nvai. couraging success. Indeed, as if to reassure Mr. and 



Mrs. Booth in regard to the painful step they had re- 
cently taken, the results surpassed any of their pre- 
vious experience, so that their stay in Cornwall, which 
was originally intended to have lasted but six or 
seven weeks, was ultimately extended over a period 
of eighteen months, which proved to be one long, 
continuous revival. 

Writing to her parents on September 2d, Mrs. Booth 

" They are most impatient for us to go to St. Ives, but we 
think of staying here another week. The work gets better 
and better. The whole place is roused. On Saturday night 
the Wesleyan superintendent sent one of the circuit stewards, 
offering the loan of their chapel for Sunday and Wednesday 
evenings. We accepted it, and accordingly William preached 
last night in the Wesleyan chapel, crammed to suffocation, 
and I in the New Connexion, well filled, even though I was 
not announced. We had a glorious prayer-meeting in both 
chapels, about thirty cases in the Wesleyan and twenty with 
us, some of them the most precious ones I ever witnessed. 
1 could fill sheets with the account of one gentleman which 
would thrill you with interest, and make you shout the praises 
of God. There was much new material last night at the 
Wesleyan chapel. Hundreds went away convicted. If the 
Wesleyans would open their two chapels and invite us to 
labour in them, there is no telling what the work would rise 
to. We are both very much exhausted this morning, espec- 
ially myself. I shall not do so much again. The prayer- 
meeting was very heavy. I was drenched in perspiration. 
But it is wonderful how God brings me through." 

A few days later she writes again : 

" I have attended two meetings to-day, one at ten in the 
morning and a children's meeting at half-past five this after- 
noon. So I am stopping at home to-night, feeling I ought 
not to do any more. We had the chapel nearly full of children, 
and several very sweet cases of penitence and two of conver- 
sion. The work is altogether a very remarkable one. I wish 
you could come and see it. 

Age 32. 






dmi 's 




Age 32. 

A stirring 

" On Wednesday night William preached in the largest 
Wesleyan chapel, about half a mile from the other. It was 
crammed out into the street. I should think there were 1,800 
people inside, and I never witnessed such a scene in my life 
as the prayer-meeting presented. The rail was filled in a 
few minutes with great strong men, who cried aloud for 
mercy, some of them as though the pains of hell had factually 
got hold of them ! Oh, it was a scene ! No one could be 
heard praying, and the cries and shouts of the penitents almost 
overpowered the singing. The gallery was half full and the 
bottom of the chapel crammed all the time, so that we could 
hardly move. We came away at ten o'clock, leaving them 
to finish. We spent the night at the house of a leading Wes- 
leyan close by, being too wet and fagged to walk home." 

Referring afterwards to this meeting, Mrs. Booth 
says : 

" This unusual noise and confusion was somewhat foreign 
to our notions and practices. William believed strongly in 
everything being done 'decently and in order.' Indeed, I 
think he somewhat mistook the application of this direction. 
How much more acceptable must be this apparent disorder, 
in the eyes of God and angels, and all holy beings who are 
alive to the importance of salvation and damnation, than the 
stoical indifference and Pharisaic propriety so common in 
propriety, places of worship ! How much better to have twenty people 
smiting their breasts and crying, 'God be merciful to me a 
sinner!' with its necessary consequent commotion, than a 
congregation of equally guilty sinners sitting with stiff pro- 
priety and in their own estimation "needing no repentance!' 
I must say that even then I thought the one far more philo- 
sophical and Scriptural than the other." 



" Sing 

ivheyi I 

say sing. 

However, the following night, before commencing 
his sermon, Mr. Booth thought it wise to speak 
plainly to the people on the subject, avoiding at the 
same time the severity which he had manifested on 
a previous occasion, and which had exercised a some- 
what discouraging influence upon the people. " I have 
come here," he said, "to help you to bring your 


friends and neighbours to God. If I am to be of any 1861, 
extensive and abiding service in this direction you ^^ ^^' 
must accept me as a leader and must follow out my 
directions. When I say 'Sing!' we must sing, and 
when I say 'Pray!' we must pray. And when I 
speak you must, as far as possible, listen. Should 
any one during the sermon be so far overpowered by 
their feelings, or by a sense of their danger, as to be 
unable to contain themselves, let them be taken into Go into 
the vestry, and let two or three praying men or 
women, as the case may be, show them the way of 
salvation, and pray with them there until the after 
meeting commences, while we go on with the preach- 
ing. It is the truth that makes people free, and if 
v;e are to go on spreading the work of salvation we 
must go on with the proclamation of the message of 
God." Mr. Booth then asked all who were willing 
to co-operate with him on these lines to hold up their 
hands. This request was unanimously responded to Aunani- 
and the arrangement entered into that night was 
faithfully adhered to, and consequently it was seldom 
that the meetings went beyond control afterwards. 

Many interesting and extraordinary cases of con- a woman 
version continued to take place. One of them was of trance. 
a peculiar character, similar to some of those remark- 
able manifestations recorded in connection with the 
Irish revival of 1859, and occurring occasionally in 
connection with the subsequent meetings of the Sal- 
vation Army. A young woman went off into a kind 
of trance, which lasted for about an hour, and while markaUe 
her friends watched her she appeared to be convers- 
ing with some beings whom they could not behold. 
Her face at times beamed with heavenly smiles, in- 
dicating that she was the subject of very choice emo- 
tions, and then she appeared to be speaking to some 



446 MRS. BOOTH. 

1861, one in faint tones. The bystanders heard her ask 
^^ ^^' questions and reply, as though she had received 
answers. At first it seemed to be her mother, who 
had been dead for some years, and then her father, 
and then a pious aunt, with whom she was conversing. 
There was also another relative after whom she en- 
quired, but without obtaining any satisfactory reply. 
She then asked hov/ long they would remain with 

^^uJs"*^' her, and the reply appeared to be "Ten minutes," for 
she repeated the words, whereupon one of those pre- 
sent looked at his watch. Tht; conversation continued 
for some little time, when the young woman said 
good-bye to her invisible communicants, waved her 
arms, and awoke from the trance exactly ten minutes 
to the second from the time she had first repeated the 

Signs and It was a Strange phenomenon, having no ap- 

won ers. ^^^.^^^ connection with the spiritual work that was 
then being carried on. But there can be little doubt 
that such special manifestations are permitted, in con- 
nection with powerful revivals, as part of the " signs 
and wonders" with which God has promised to accom- 
pany the outpourings of His Holy Spirit. It appears 
to have a parallel in Matthew xxvii. 51-53, where we 
are told that "the earth did quake, and the rocks rent, 
and the graves were opened, and many bodies of the 
saints which slept arose, and came out of the graves 
after His resurrection, and went into the holy city, 
and appeared unto many." While it would doubtless 

A mistake be a mistake to seek for such manifestations, or to 
them measure spiritual results by the frequency of their 
occurrence, nevertheless, when they do occur, they 
may be regarded as encouraging tokens of the Divine 
presence. We may not always have eyes to see the 
horses and chariots of fire that surround our Dothan, 


or the " ministering spirits" who are " sent forth to 1861, 
minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation," but ^^ ' 
that is no reason why we should not rejoice and take 
courage when the sight is occasionally granted. 

The reason, no doubt, for their comparative rareness 
is that undue importance is attached to them, and the 
special blessedness of those who have " not seen" and 
yet have "believed" is lost sight of. 

It would be difficult, indeed, to adequately describe The 
the Hayle revival. Each succeeding meeting appeared mw»i. 
to surpass in power and results all that had gone be- 
fore. The whole neighbourhood was moved. Salva- 
tion was the universal theme of conversation in the 
mines, on board the ships, on the wharves, in the 
factory, in the public-houses, by the wayside, and in 
almost every home. Not only was this the case in 
the town itself, but from the surrounding villages and 
hamlets it was usual for both the saved and unsaved 
to walk eight, ten, fifteen, and twenty miles to the 
meetings. Deputations came from the neighbouring ^^J^/^'^Yhe 
towns urging Mr. and Mrs. Booth to come and con- meetings. 
duct meetings, and assuring them of the heartiest co- 
operation. Indeed, the love of the people was very 
remarkable. They were hailed on all hands as mes- 
sengers from heaven, and their name with thousands 
became a household word . Thirty years have elapsed, 
and yet it is common to meet with the fruits of that 
revival in all quarters of the globe, and to receive 
letters from those who date their spiritual birth from 
these meetings. 

The services were brought to a close by a great The 

^ . , Towan.t. 

farewell festival. Near Hayle there is a large com- 
mon, called The Towans, on the cliff overhanging the 
sea. Here it was arranged to hold a monster picnic 
for one thousand people, this being reckoned to be a 

448 MRS. BOOTH. 

1861, large number for so small a town. It was calculated, 
^^ ^^' however, that no less than two thousand persons were 
actually present, all the available supplies which could 
be obtained from anywhere being rapidly disposed of. 
The tea being concluded, the congregation ad- 
journed to the large Wesleyan chapel, which was 
farewell crowdcd out, and congratulatory addresses were de- 
livered by various persons. On the following night 
Mr. Booth delivered his final farewell sermon which 
was followed by a powerful and touching scene, when 
more than sixty persons sought salvation ; it being 
necessary to throw open the school-room as well as 
the chapel for the anxious penitents, a large number 
of whom were men. 


From Hayle Mr. and Mrs. Booth proceeded to St. st. ives 

ctTxct its 

Ives, a thriving little town with a population of 7,000, pilchards 
chiefly famous for its pilchard fishery. The pilchard 
is a small fish, somewhat shorter and stouter than a 
herring. They swim in shoals, and annually visit 
the Cornish coasts, but are not always sufficiently 
obliging to enter the bay of St. Ives, so that the occupa- 
tion is a somewhat precarious one. Sometimes a few- 
miles up the channel, sometimes a few miles down, 
they constitute a tantalising spectacle for the fisher- 
men, who line the cliffs, or lounge about the shore, 
with their nets piled up in their boats, ready for ac- 
tion. All through the summer men are stationed to 
watch their movements on the surface of the sea. 

It so happened that some weeks after the meetings 4 ^^°"']; 

^^ ° stgnallea. 

had been commenced the arrival of a shoal was sig- 
nalled, when the boats were immediately put out, and 
in half an hour some thirty or forty million fish were 
captured, or, rather, enclosed in the nets, to be landed 
at leisure. Quite two-thirds of the entire population 
were employed in landing the fish, putting them into 
pickle, draining the oil from them and packing them 
in barrels, ready for transmission to the Mediterra- 
nean, where there is a large demand for them. The 
haul was valued at i^6,ooo, a not unprofitable return on 
the iJ"8o,ooo which was said to be embarked in the 

29 449 



Age 32. 

The Neiv 

A temper- 


The dis- 

As in the case of Hayle, so at St. Ives the invitation 
to visit the town came from the New Connexion con- 
gregation, and it was at their chapel that the revival 
services were commenced. The origin of both these 
societies was somewhat singular. 

Some years previously there had been a powerful 
awakening which commenced with the publication of 
the principles of total abstinence. Not only were the 
public-houses forsaken, but about one thousand per- 
sons professed conversion. In the meetings that were 
held it was only natural that prominence should be 
given to the temperance question. This gave offence 
to the members and seat-holders who were non-ab- 
stainers, and some of whom were personally con- 
nected with the traffic. To put an end to the disputes 
which ensued the Wesleyan Conference passed a gen- 
eral order prohibiting temperance meetings from be- 
ing held in their chapels. This gave serious offence 
to the teetotal party, who were indignant at the action 
of the Conference, and argued that a law should rather 
have been passed making total abstinence a compul- 
sory condition of membership. 

Finding that their protests were ineffectual they 
severed themselves from the Wesleyan body and 
formed the two societies with which Mr. and Mrs. 
Booth laboured at Hayle and St. Ives, and which had 
meanwhile amalgamated with the New Connexion. 
Why they should have done so rather than return to 
the Wesleyan church is not quite clear, since, as we 
have already seen, the New Connexion had them- 
selves adopted a policy of non-committal on the liquor 
question. But it was, perhaps, a case of Hobson's 
choice, as their continued isolation would probably 
have meant their ultimate extinction, and there was 
no church in which total abstinence was compulsory. 


It is sadly to be deplored that the progress of tern- 1861, 
perance principles within the borders of the Christian ^^ 
church has been so slow. Thirty years have passed rhr 
since the time of which we write, and yet there is Miind- 
scarcely a single denomination which has made teeto- ''""''*' 
talism compulsory even among its ministry! The 
Salvation Army is the sole religious organisation of 
the day which has boldly dared to make the subject 
an absolute test, not only for holding office, but even 
for membership, and in so doing it has doubtless led 
the way to a much-needed reform in which, s^on or 
later, the various churches will be bound to follow suit. 

It is a mournful fact that, in its criminal silence, ^^^trange 


its avowed neutrality, and in many instances in its 
deliberate association with the evil, the Christian 
church is one of the strongest bulwarks of the liquor 
traffic. Not another drop of the damnable article 
would be manufactured or sold, except for purely 
medicinal purposes, if the Christians of England 
would unitedly send forth their fiat to this effect. 
But, strange to say, morality and Christianity are for 
once arrayed on opposite sides. The curse which 
desolates the world enjoys the patronage of religion. 
And is it to be wondered at, that, with the Bible for 
his shield, the pastoral crook for his sword, and 
the pulpit for his artillery, the demon drink should 
defy the assault of those who seek his overthrow in , ^^^ , 

•' bulwark 

the highest interests of mankind? So far as the tem- «/ "'«' 


perance question is concerned, the battle of moral 
progress, in which the followers of Christ have ever 
led the van, is largely left to be fought out by those 
who have no higher motive than mere philanthropy, 
and the church becomes the safeguard of the pub- 
lican ! The Meroz of to-day refuses to come to the 
help of the Lord against the mighty ; Reuben abides 



Age 32. 


An elo- 

The flag 
of death. 

High trea- 
son to 

Joined by 


Home du- 

among the sheepfolds and listens in cold neutrality to 
the bleatings of the flocks ; Gilead seeks safety be- 
yond the Jordan of indifference ; Dan is a mere spec- 
tator from his ships, and Asher continues among his 
sea-shore fisheries. Few and far between are the 
modern Zebulons and Napthalis who jeopardise their 
lives unto the death in the high places of the field ! 

In speaking on this subject in one of her public ad- 
dresses, Mrs. Booth eloquently pleads: 

" Bv^ your peace of conscience on a dying bed, by the 
eternal destiny of your children, by your concern for the glory 
of God, by the love you owe your Saviour, I beseech you, 
banish the drink ! Banish it from your tables, banish it from 
your homes, and, above all, banish it from His house. Banish 
those who manufacture this distilled damnation ; those who 
rob man of his reason, woman of her virtue, and children of 
their patrimony and bread ! Cease to recognise, not only as 
Christians, but as men, those who feed on the weaknesses, 
wickedness, and sufferings of others. Hoist the flag of death 
over the breweries and dramshops. 

" Christians of England, the time is come when to remain 
silent on this drink question is high treason to Christ. Tell 
us no more of charity to brewers and publicans. Your false 
charity has consigned millions to hell. Such charity savours 
of the devil. Its speech betrayeth it. Arise and fight this 
foe; you will come off more than conqueror, for your God 
will fight for you." 

At St. Ives Mr. and Mrs. Booth were joined by the 
children. It was the longest absence from them which 
Mrs, Booth had hitherto experienced. Nor would she 
subsequently consent to any arrangement which in- 
volved a lengthened separation during their childhood. 
Indeed, nothing could induce her to neglect their 
highest interests, and, however loud might be the call 
for her services elsewhere, she would undertake noth- 
ing that clashed with the claims of her husband and 
children. Considering her delicate health, it was the 


more remarkable that public work of so onerous a 1861, 
character was made to harmonize with the continued ^^ ^^* 
pressure of domestic duties. 

How many are there who, while caring for the vine- Peril of 
yards of others, have neglected their own, and have ing. 
lived to reap the bitter consequences ! The more tal- 
ented the children the more disastrous will usually be 
the results. Misapplied genius seems an even stronger 
power for evil than well-directed ability is for good. 
The devastating flood appears to have a greater capac- Misdirect- 
ity for doing harm, and that in an incredibly short space ^'^ talents. 
of time, than the fertilising streams which roll peace- 
fully for ages within the limits of their well-regulated 
banks. And perhaps no evil is so deep-seated and so 
difficult to combat as that which has its source in a 
neglected or ill-trained childhood. Mrs. Booth foresaw 
this danger, and hence nothing could have exceeded 
the tender solicitude and faithful effort with which she 
reared her little ones. 

Mr. and Mrs. Booth had scarcely removed to St. a letter 
Ives when they received the following invitation to paimer. 
Liverpool from Mrs. Palmer, on whose behalf, it will 
be remembered, Mrs, Booth had taken up cudgels 
when publishing her pamphlet on " Female Ministry:" 

" My Dear Mrs. Booth : — Yours of several weeks since, 
announcing your decision to leave the New Connexion, was 
received. Pardon my long delay in answering it. 

" I do not doubt but the step that you and your excellent Following 
husband have taken will result in your both having a much closely. 
brighter crown to cast at the feet of the world's Redeemer. 
There is a danger of permitting earthly position and the fear 
of grieving friends whom we love, and who we know love us, 
to keep us from following on in the narrowest part of the nar- 
row way. Oh, may you ever be numbered with those who 
follow the Saviour closely ! I need not say that if you do this 
your path will sometimes lead through evil as well as good 



Age 32. 

Faitli for 



A revival 


An invi- 




A ivealthy 
Wesley an. 

report. But it is enough for the disciple that he be as his 

" We rejoice in what the Lord is doing by you. Glory 
be to the Triune Deity ! My faith grasps great blessings for 
you. I do not doubt but the Captain of the Armies of Israel 
will go out before you and permit you to see multitudes 

" Through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, we have been 
permitted to see between three and four thousand added to 
the household of faith during the past year. We are now in 
the midst of an extraordinary work.. We entered upon our 
labours here very unexpectedly. 

" My dear Dr. Palmer was taken so ill with a severe cold, 
which threatened to settle permanently on his lungs, that we 
had written to disengage ourselves from numerous places, 
and came here in view of being at the nearest point to 
America, or some more congenial climate. We, of course, did 
not intend to commence work here. But, owing to some 
peculiar circumstances, we have found ourselves again in the 
midst of our blissful toil of gathering sheaves for the heavenly 

" My object in writing to you now is to ask whether your 
devoted husband and yourself will be able to come and take 
our place. I have sometimes thought that we might in some 
way be permitted to work into each other's hands, and thus 
increase the revenue of praise to our Lord and make our union 
in heaven the sweeter. I have been deeply interested to 
hear how you have borne the consecrated cross, as a co- 
laborer with your excellent husband. 

" Doubtless the time hasteneth when truth, in relation to the 
gift of prophecy as entrusted to the daughters of the Lord 
Almighty, must triumph. Then, perhaps, those who have en- 
dured the crucifying process as pioneers in this work will not 
be forgotten. 

" But I must hasten to give some particulars in regard to the 
object of my writing just now. The gentleman with whom 
we are guests is a local preacher among the Wesleyans. He 
is wealthy, and is expending well-nigh all his available means 
in building chapels and supporting missionaries for the work- 
ing classes. He has lately lost his only child, and has recently 
expended the ^10,000 which would have been her fortune in 




Age 32. 

How it 


adding two or three new chapels, so that he has now six 
places of worship all owned by himself. 

" For two or three weeks after we came Dr. Palmer still 
continued too ill to labour, but I began in a small sort of a 
way to do what little good I could in one of these newly 
opened chapels. God began to revive His work, and several 
adults were saved, and a wonderful work commenced also 
among some of the children attached to the day school. 

" Dr. Palmer getting a little better, we concluded that we 
would be answerable for a few services the succeeding week 
at a more central place, Richmond Hall. Evening after even- 
ing we have continued our labours, and the work has in- 
creased in interest, till now the number of the subjects of the 
work is over three hundred. The ground, as you will ob- 
serve, is neutral. Our host is unwilling that we should leave 
until he may hear of another to take our place and carry on 
the work, as he is all devoted to its interest, and is hoping in 
God that it may go on with increasing power all the winter. 

" If you are able to come, we are assured that the Lord of 
the harvest will give to your united labours many souls. 
Please write as soon as possible. Dr. Palmer joins me in 
affectionate salutations to Mr. Booth and yourself. 

" Ever yours in Jesus, 

" Phoebe Palmer." 

It will be readily understood, however, that with 
the Cornish revival at its flood-tide, and with invita- 
tions pouring in upon them from all sides, Mr. and 
Mrs. Booth did not feel themselves at liberty to accept 
Mrs. Palmer's hearty invitation. 

Already the work in St. Ives was giving promise of AgioHous 
becoming as glorious in its character as any that had '^'^^^■ 
preceded it. Meetings were held in all the principal 
places of worship in the town, with the sole exception 
of the Established Church, the members of which, 
however, joined with the rest of the people in attend- 
ing the services. In fact, there were scarcelv anv ^''e^«sses 
adults in the place who did not at some time or other 
come to the meetings and li.sten while the claims of 

Unable to 




Age 33. 

God and the interests of their immortal souls were 
pressed upon their attention. The services com- 
menced on the 30th September and closed on the i8th 
January following. During this time no less than 
1,028 persons professed conversion, besides many 
children. Their ages were as follows: 

285 were above 14 and under 20 



















Twenty- The converts included twenty-eight captains of 

eight sea- ./or 

captains, vessels, two members of the Corporation, and three 
mine agents. 

Writing to Mrs. Mumford from vSt. Ives, Mrs. Booth 

" At my meeting last Sunday we had the chapel packed, 
while hundreds went away unable to get in. I enjoyed fair 
liberty, and have heard since that the people were very much 
pleased, and, I trust, profited. I have held morning meetings 
through the week. They have been well attended and much 
blessed. This morning there was a very gracious influence. 
I am to speak again next Sunday afternoon. I do wish you 
could both spend the day with us. It would be better than 
Reckington, I fancy! I did not know before that my dear 
father regarded that as the day of his decision for Jesus. Oh, 
how my heart swelled with gratitude when I read it ! Bless 
the Lord, O my soul ! How wonderful is His mercy an dhow 
marvellous are His works ! 

" The revival here is rolling on with much power. The 
chapel is well filled every night, and from twenty to forty 
names are taken. I am sorry there is nothing about it in the 
Wesleyati Times this week. But William never did so much 
correspondence as now. 

" We have also the pamphlet (Female Ministry) on the go. 

The work 
rolls on. 



I have finished the emendations for the new edition, but 
William has to complete the copying for me. There will be 
considerably more matter than before, and I think it is much 

" With all these things to do, together with morning meet- 
ings one day, children's meetings another, and the services 
at night, you will see we have enough on hand. I never was 
so busy in my life. I have to help Mary with the children, 
in dressing and undressing them to go out twice a day, and 
in washing them and putting them to bed at night. Willie 
goes with me to the children's meetings and likes them very 
much. He sadly wants to write to you, but I have not had 
time to superintend him, and it is such lovely weather that 
they are out most of their time. They go off directly after 
breakfast and stop till eleven o'clock on the sands, and then 
again from two till five. They each have a spade with which 
they dig tunnels, mountains, brooks, etc. They never had 
such fun in their lives before. You would be delighted to see 
them running away from the waves, and then back again to 
their rivers, which the retreating wave has filled with water ! 

" The Wesleyans are all very anxious to have William in 
their chapel. They have been so long, trustees, leaders, and 
people, without a dissentient, but the superintendent has 
stood in the way. They have a trustees' meeting to-night, 
however, to try and overcome his opposition and carry their 
point. If they should we shall probably stay here till the 
new year sets in. The people, of all denominations and of 
no denomination at all, are exceedingly anxious to keep us." 

Many striking cases of conversion occurred, and 
from among these we cull a few instances. A young 
man walked into the services from a village seven 
miles distant. He was deeply convicted, and after 
returning home he sent for a friend to pray with him, 
and at length found peace. His father and mother 
were so affected by the prayers and rejoicings of their 
son that they in turn sought and found salvation. 
Then an aged grandmother, seventy-nine years old, 
submitted herself to God, and finally the young man's 
three sisters were saved. Thus the service of that 

Age 33. 

Never so 

The chil- 

The Wes- 

A family 

458 MRS. BOOTH. 

1862, night was indirectly instrumental in the conversion of 
^^ ^^' this whole family. 
Adesprted Another remarkable case was that of a sailor who 
^mll. was a notorious drunkard. On reaching port he had 
gone as usual to the public-house, but to his amaze- 
ment he found it deserted. On inquiring after his 
old mates the landlady informed him that they had 
gone to the Wesleyan chapel, and that if the revival 
went on much longer her business would be ruined, 
as she had not drawn a quart of ale since morning. 
Not caring to get drunk alone, and curious to see what 
could have so attracted and transformed his compan- 
ions, the sailor started off for the chapel, was con- 
' vinced of sin, and cried out in the middle of the meet- 

'' Is there \^^„ "Preacher, is there mercy for such a wretch as 

mercy jor '^ ■' 

met' me?" On being assured that he, too, might be saved, 
he came forward to the communion rail, professed to 
find salvation, and became an earnest and consistent 
Christian, attending the services in other towns, and 
delivering his testimony with thrilling power. 

One of the converted sea-captains was the means of 

the conversion of his entire creiv. 

Demons Another case was that of a man who was awakened 

firTdotmi under a sermon on the sin of quenching the Spirit. 

histhroat. fjg returned home without coming to a decision, 

and dreamed during the night that he was surrounded 

by demons who were endeavouring to force fire down 

his throat, but were prevented from doing so by the 

Saviour, who held them back and assured the dreamer 

that he would be safe if he trusted in Him. 

Crying At this poiut, alarmed by his outcries, his wife 

mercy, awoke him. He at once got out of bed, fell upon his 

knees and cried to the Lord to have mercy upon his 

soul. His wife hurried on her clothes, and went out 

and fetched two or three praying men, who were only 


too glad to come and point him to the Lamb of God. 1862, 
After a long struggle, which lasted until five in the ^^ ^ ' 
morning, he at length found peace, and was able to 
give a joyful testimony as to the saving power of 

Sometimes, in trying to escape from the powerful ^^"^^^ 
influence of these meetings, people would fall down the aisles. 
in the aisles, in the lobbies, in their houses, or in the 
mines, and would shriek aloud for mercy as though 
they were falling into hell, so intensely vivid were 
their realisations of the truths to which they had lis- 
tened. Many of these cases were no less satisfactory 
and permanent than those of a quieter character. Nature's 

, , -. ■ 1 -, TVT , 1 J • contradic- 

And why should it not be so? Nature abounds m tions. 
contradictions of the kind. The storm is as natural 

,1 r i.1 i. The storm 

as the calm, and, much as we may prefer the one to and calm. 
the other, we are obliged to accept nature as it is. 
The means, mere manifestations, provided they be 
not sinful, matter little. It is the accomplishment of 
the great end we have in view that must form the 
ultimate measure of our success or failure. In rescu- 
ing a drowning man we soon forget the splutter that 
he made in the joy of seeing him restored to life. A 
burning building may become for the time being a 
very pandemonium of shriekery, but if the hapless 
victims can be delivered from the flames the noise and 
confusion are soon forgotten. 

As to the finality and permanence of the results ac- Perma- 
complished during the excitement of revival services, Tel^lts 
it is sufficient to say that they will compare favourably 
with the results of the ordinary ministerial routine. 
Moreover, there are countless numbers, all over the 
world, who trace their conversion to such seasons of 
spiritual upheaval, and multitudes of such have doubt- 
less held fast their hope to the end and have finished 

46o MRS. BOOTH. 

1862, their earthly course triumphantly. The very exist- 
ence of the Salvation Army is an unanswerable refuta- 
tion of the old calumny as to the evanescent nature 
of revival work. Born and cradled in a revival, it is, 
so to speak, a permanent embodiment of the revival 
spirit, and seeks to carry on continuously what once 
seemed only possible by fits and starts. 


St. Just stood next upon the programme, and here st. Just 
the revival is graphically described and the use of the '"^^*'^"*- 
penitent form ably defended in a series of letters 
written by Mr. Booth to a friend and published in the 
Wesley an Times and other revival newspapers. Lack 
of space makes it impossible to more than summarise 
these interesting records of the work. 

"On Friday, January 25th, with unfeigned regret 
we bid farewell to our very kind friends at St. Ives, 
where about a thousand persons were gathered into 
membership with the different churches, and came 
on to this town. St. Just is situated about seven miles 

Descrip ■ 

beyond Penzance and five from Land's End. The pop- tion of the 
ulation in and around amounts to about ten thousand 
souls. Most of the people are employed in mining. 
There are two Episcopal and two Wesleyan churches, 
together with Bible Christian, Methodist Free Church, 
and New Connexion chapels, with an aggregate mem- 
bership of about 1,700 persons. 

" Of one of the Episcopal churches, that at Pendeen, Rev. 
the celebrated Rev. Robert Aitken is minister. Aitken. 
Some years ago he withdrew from the Church and 
devoted himself to the work of an evangelist with 
marvellous success. I am constantly meeting with 
persons of eminent piety and usefulness who were 
converted through his instrumentality. After travel- 
ling for many years and leading thousands to the 




Age 33. 

churh in 

Visited &i/ 



ninq luith 
the Bible 

Cross, he returned to the Church, settled in Pen- 
deen, built the sanctuary in which he now preaches, 
gathered out of the world a society of three hundred 
members, and although in a contracted sphere, con- 
sidering his remarkable powers, is still carrying on 
a great work for the Lord Jesus. 

"You will see, therefore, that St. Just is highly 
favoured with the presence and labours of various 
evangelical churches, and that an unusually large 
proportion of its inhabitants are already avowed fol- 
lowers of the Lord Jesus. From time to time it has 
been the stibject of powerful revivals. So long ago 
as 1743 it was visited by John Wesley, and in later 
years by his brother Charles. It was during one of 
the meetings held by the latter that a remarkable in- 
cident occurred. A country squire of the name of 
Eustick drove a pack of hounds among the congrega- 
tion and caused them to disperse. This mode of an- 
noyance had been repeatedly practised. On this oc- 
casion a number of the people retired to a spacious 
kitchen, where a prayer meeting was held. It was a 
season of extraordinary power, such as none present 
had ever experienced. At the close of the service 
Mr. Wesley stood up and said, with impressive solem- 
nity, 'The man who has troubled you this day shall 
trouble you no more for ever. ' Shortly afterwards 
Eustick died in a state of raving madness. 

"On Sunday, the 26th, we commenced our services 
here in the Bible Christian chapel. At night the 
place was literall}* besieged with people, and it was 
calculated that some two thousand were turned away 
unable to gain admission. I never witnessed any- 
thing like the crowd. Some time before the service 
hundreds were coming away, every available space 
within the chapel being literally choked with people. 


The meeting was a powerful one, and five souls re- 1862, 
sponded to the invitation to come out and proclaim ^^ 
themselves on the Lord's side. On the following 
nights the work continued in a very hopeful manner, The old 
save that our method of inviting sinners to come for- versy. 
ward to the communion rail met with considerable op- 
position. This controversy took off attention from 
the main question and postponed the success. Many 
were powerfully convicted of their sinfulness, but 
when asked to come forward replied, 'Cannot we be 
saved here? Is not God as willing to do it here as 
there?' To these and similar questions we gave the 
following reply. 

" We admitted that no particular merit attached to no par- 
this, or to any other method of approaching the Sav- merit. 
iour ; that in the abstract God is as willing to save in 
one place as another ; that it is not the position of the 
body, but the condition of the soul; not the sinner's 
attitude, or the locality in which he prays, but his 
state of mind in drawing near to God ; not where he 
is, but how he feels; in short, it is not the prostration ucart 
of the body in any given place, but the submission of 
the heart, which fits him for the reception of mercy. 
The communion rail or penitent form, we admitted, 
like all other 'bodily exercise, ' is of no profit except so 
far as it assists the soul in reaching a certain state of 
feeling, and as an indication of such a state when once 
it has been attained. 

" Nevertheless, in the first place we adopted it as a fon 
a convenience, affording opportunity to administer 
counsel to anxious enquirers. The question, 'What 
must I do to be saved?' can here be calmly answered 
by those most conversant with the way of salvation. 
Difficulties which more or less exist in all minds at 
this momentous period can be heard and removed, 



1 862, 
Age 33. 

The. old 



while at the same time the public service can proceed, 
helped rather than hindered by the presence, pray- 
ers, and salvation of the penitents. 

" I think you will see at a glance the superiority of 
this plan over the method which has long prevailed 
in this part of the country. At former revivals, in 
whatever spot of the building an individual mani- 

Rev. Robert Aitken. 

fested concern about his soul a little group would 
gather round the penitent, praying, counselling, and 
singing with him, while a large number would be 
looking on out of mere curiosity. Imagine a dozen of 
these groups in different parts of the same chapel, and 
you will readily conceive the Babel of confusion they 
would create. Of course, anything like rational 
worship by the congregation at large would be im- 


"Then, again, I regard it as a valuable help to 1862, 
decision. With how many is there wanting but one ^^ 
step, and that the all-important one of decision ! a help to 
They know about the subject — have been educated ^<'^^°'^- 
from childhood in its leading principles. Taught by 
the fireside and from the pulpit, they have become 
familiar with the various solemn motives by which 
God seeks to bring them to Himself. There have 
been, no doubt, periods of special visitation, when 
with more than ordinary power the mighty truths 
that relate to their eternal destiny have come home 
to their hearts, and when with more than usual dis- 
tinctness they hear the blessed Master whispering, ^^poiiow 
'Follow Me.' But they hesitate. The difficulties "^^•" 
which a religious life presents are magnified. They 
know not exactly what to do next. 

" In the third place I find this method very useful a test of 
as a test of submission. The complete submission of missu 
the sinner must precede his conversion. Until he 
surrenders unconditionally Christ cannot save him. 
Now, if he be really willing to submit to God and to 
accept the salvation of the Gospel, he will be ready at 
once publicly to manifest his decision, and, were the 
opportunity offered, to confess Christ before heaven 
and earth and hell. Almost the last, if not the very 
last thing the sinner will do, is to make knotvn the Making 
convictions of guilt and danger that are struggling in 
his breast, or to proclaim the desires for mercy of 
which he is the subject. He will read and weep and 
pray in secret, but to let the church and the world 
know that he is penitent — never ! He shudders at the 
very thought. True, he has not been ashamed to sin 
against a loving God, to tread the offers of His grace 
beneath his feet with contempt and indifference ; but 
now, to turn round and trample on his pride, and to 


knoivn his 

466 MRS. BOOTH. 

1862, go out bearing the cross and telling men that he takes 
ge 33. ^j^^^ hitherto despised Christ as his everlasting por- 
tion, this is what he cannot and will not do until he 
fully submits to God. 

Humiiiat- " Now this method makes evident, to the penitent's 
pride, own heart and to those around him, whether he does 
thus truly and fully submit. Nothing is more com- 
mon than deception on this subject. When under 
the influence of the arguments and persuasions of 
Christian truth many imagine that the}^ are willing at 
once to forsake their sins and accept the Saviour. 
But try them with this test — ask them to come out 
and avow their decision to serve God — and their pride 
will rise and rebel against such a humiliating step, 
and they will prove that they are far from that com- 
plete submission without which salvation is an impos- 

What will " In most cases the last battle prior to emancipation 

the world ^ ^ 

say? from hell's thraldom is fought over the question, 
' What will the world say ? ' By this bugbear Satan has 
prevented thousands for a considerable period, and 
many, it is to be feared, for ever, from closing with 
Christ, when every other snare has been broken and 
Cutting every other sin has lost its charm. The penitent 
^rootl^^ form cuts at the root of this temptation. Only per- 
suade the halting one to come out and confess the 
Lord, and the devil retires from the conflict, shame 
and pride are given to the winds, all the restraints with 
which the heart has so long been bound are rent 
asunder, and, like the returning humbled prodigal, 
the soul is welcomed by his loving Father and blessed 
with all the blessings of the Gospel of Peace. 
The " But to return from this diversion to that portion 

struggle. . . , . , . . ^ , ., 

01 my narrative which gave rise to it. I was describ- 
ing the struggle which took place at the commence- 


ment of the work. For myself I had no doubt as to 1862, 
the ultimate result. But some began to fear that ^^ ^^' 
their expectations would be cut off and that the long 
desired revival would not come. On Thursday much 
prayer had been offered, and at half-past nine that 
night the answer came. The windows of Heaven a sudden 
were opened and a shower of blessed influence de- 
scended upon us. The effect was electrical. It was 
sudden and overpowering. The sinners could re- 
strain themselves no longer. Hearts were breaking, 
or broken, in every direction. The chapel was filled 
with the glory. The meeting was continued until 
midnight, and numbers found peace. The tidings 
spread with astonishing rapidity throughout the 
neighbourhood, and the people rejoiced in all direc- 
tions to hear that the revival had begun in real 

" On the following Sunday, as I walked to the a bright 
chapel, I was met by a young woman, who, with up- '^"'^^' 
lifted hands, her face beaming with exultant joy, was 
shouting the praises of God. She had just found 
Jesus, and was calling on every one she met to join 
her in thanksgiving and to taste and see for them- 
selves that the Lord is gracious. In some parts of the 
country this would have been looked upon as a very 
strange proceeding, and the church and the world 
would have combined in terming it wild excitement, if 
not insanity. But not so here. In this county, anyway 
in this part of it, the church and the w^orld alike ex- 
pect that when aroused to a sense of guilt and danger 
men shall be in earnest in seeking deliverance, and seeking in 
when the consciousness of safety and the assurance of ^'*''"*"*^- 
the Divine favour have been obtained they very 
rationally expect that, as the soul's distress was in 
some degree proportionate to the imminence of its 

468 MRS. BOOTH. 

1862, peril, so the gladness and thanksgiving shall be in like 
^ proportion to the deliverance. 

A " We found a large congregation assembled in the 

^tumult chapel and souls already at the communion rail groan- 
ing to be delivered. When about half-way through 
our discourse some simple remarks we made touched 
chords in the hearts of the newly saved, and oh, what 
a response was there! My voice was overpowered 
with the shouts of glory and the ascription of praise. 
We gave out and sang, 

'Praise God for what He's done for me !' 

thinking it might calm the excitement and hush the 
An unfin- glorious tumult, and so give the opportunity to con- 


sermon, clude our addrcss. But it only added fuel to the 
flame, and we closed the Book, left the pulpit, invited 
the penitents to Jesus, and held a prayer meeting at 
which souls were saved. Some, I presume, would 
deem this irregular and disorderly, and so it was. 
But it was a glorious irregularity and a piece of 
Heaven's own order. It was such irregularity and 
such disorder as the people w^ould gladly hail in many 
a church and congregation where all has been regular 
and orderly sadly too long ! 
A gale of "At night we had a gale of saving grace. About 

^^race. 1 1 o'clock the forms in the centre of the chapel, as 
well as the communion rails, were filled with peni- 
tents. The meeting did not finally close until three 
in the morning, and the chapel was open the greater 
part of the following day. So far as I could ascertain, 
about seventy-five persons, exclusive of juveniles, 
found the Saviour on this precious Sabbath day. 

St. Ives "The following day found us at St. Ives. It was 
the anniversary of their Temperance Society. They 
had informed me that some of the new converts had 


already been turned back by the moderate use of 1862, 
liquor, and that it was to be feared many others were ^^® ^'^' 
in danger of making shipwreck on the same fatal rock. 
We could not, therefore, refuse the opportunity for 
speaking plainly on the subject: Many of those who 
mingled in the happy throng and even took part in 
the public proceedings had previously been miserable 
slaves to the drink. At the close of the meeting one 
hundred and fifty-seven signed the pledge." 

Writing from St. Just a short time afterwards, Mr. 
Booth says : 

"I can scarcely believe that three weeks have Aeon- 
elapsed since I last wrote to you. When the mind is ^^"*"'- ^^' 
absorbed m a congenial occupation time flies quickly. 
And what employment so agreeable so fascinating, 
as that in which, by the good providence of God, we 
find ourselves just now engaged to the utmost limits 
of our time and capacity? Not only can we say with 
John Smith, 'Soul-saving is my business— God hath smnersin 
given me a heart for it,' but we can add that God has "'<^«'''' 
granted us the desires of our heart in giving us a "''"'''''^^• 
most prosperous and successful business. It has been 
reported in Penzance that all the sinners in this town 
have been converted save sixty ! Although this is far 
from true, yet events and influences seem to be rapid- 
ly shaping in that direction, and the signs of the 
times indicate the possible realisation of such a happy 


"On Wednesday, 5th, the services were trans- The 
ferred to the Methodist Free Church, and this led to '''''''^ 

))} HSt 

a temporary check in the progress of the work. The ^'^'^^^ 
prayer meetings were heavy and dull, and scarcely 
any penitents came forward during the first few 
nights. The church was dull, and held aloof from 
personal pleading with the people. Herein lies one 

4;o MRS. BOOTH. 

1862, secret of the success of our work. During the first 
^^ ^^' weelc of any considerable effort we generally find the 
greatest difficulty in persuading any, even the leaders 
of the society, to go and plead with sinners in their 
pews. But when the work has been in progress for 
some days we find that Christians require restraining 
rather than urging in the inviting of their friends to 
come and be reconciled to God. 
Holding <' ^^d thus it was in the present instance, although 
the two chapels were only a few yards distant from 
each olher. During the previous night, no sooner 
had the after-meeting commenced than some twenty 
or thirty of the members were passing from pew to 
pew, inviting the sinners present to come and share 
the blessings they enjoyed. But here all were dif- 
fident and quiet. Instead of coming up to the other 
chapel and assisting in the services that had there 
been held they had been conducting meetings on 
Catching their own account, and had thus failed to catch the 
the spirit, gpjj.^^ g^j^^ influences of the revival. During the next 
four days it was much the same, but on the Sabbath 
night at about 9: 30 the clouds began to break, and 
the powers of darkness yielded in all directions, and 
by midnight a multitude had been saved. 
Leaving " On the following day four men left their work in 
t emme. ^-^^ mine and went to the chapel and sought salvation. 
When we arrived at seven o'clock, in time for the 
meeting, we found them in the midst of a sympa- 
thetic congregation, with extended arms telling the 
people that they had found Jesus to the unutterable 
joy of their hearts. 
The pray- " I cannot describe the service that followed this 

ing host. rr ■ -, ■ mn -1 a 1 J 

affectmg mtroduction. The praymg host, flushed 
with the triumph of the previous day and night, were 
like giants refreshed with wine. They carried all 


before them, and the people yielded to their faith and 1862, 
prayers in all directions. 

" The last three days have been days of uninter- Day 
rupted triumph. By nine o'clock in the morning "^^^ ^^^S'*- 
souls in distress have found their way to the school- 
room. One morning nine men came out of one mine, 
and seven from another, unable to work for anguish 
of spirit. These day-meetings are continued without 
interruption until about six in the evening. Half -^"j^^"^^*^^ 
an hour later the people assemble for the night service, where. 
Last night the chapel and school-room were, full, al- 
though services were held in the Wesleyan and Bible 
Christian chapels at the same time, in all of which 
men and women, youths, maidens, and little children 
were turning from sin to righteousness, and from 
Satan to the living God. 

"When I sav that the whole place is moved, I The town 

■' 1 • 1 -I moved. 

mean that nearly every individual in the neighbour- 
hood is more or less interested in the subject of re- 
ligion. Little else is talked about, and in many in- 
stances little else besides soul-saving work is done. 
A gentleman informed me yesterday that a great 
number of the miners are too absorbed either with '^%^^^^^' 
their own salvation or with that of others to do much ^ork. 
work. Many of the agents of the mines had ex- 
pressed their willingness to allow the men to leave 
their work, only too glad that they should be con- 
verted. Whether saved or not themselves, they 
know that Christianity will bring about a reformation 
of character only too desirable in many instances. 

" The Inspector of Police says that last Saturday what the 

^ -^ police 

night was the best night he has had since he came thought 
into the place, the. Saturday night prior to the com- 
mencement of the work having been the worst. In- 
deed, some of the vilest characters in the town are be- 

472 MRS. BOOTH. 

1862, ing saved. One poor fellow, who has been in the 
^^ ^^* hands of the police times without number, cried out 
in the school-room on Wednesday afternoon, 'He has 
The saved me, the very worst of sinners. In that corner 
comer. I found the blessing. I shall never forget that cor- 
ner. ' This spot henceforth became quite popular 
with the penitents. As one steps out of it, rejoicing, 
another throws himself into it, so that it has become 
quite a sacred place. 
Deserted " Couviction is spreading in every direction, and it 
houses, must be so. Everywhere the newly saved, their 
hearts glowing with the love of Christ, are publishing 
His praises. The public-houses are deserted. A 
friend said last night that during the day he had been 
The soli- ^o three of them, the entire customers of them all 
^"'^iord^^ consisting of two travelling chimney-sweeps. One 
parlour in the most frequented of these houses, usually 
too well furnished with guests, was on this occasion 
tenanted by its solitary landlord. 
Make the " You will gather from this that we are in the midst 


think of a real religious excitement. But you will not, like 
their some good people here, be alarmed at it. As for our- 
selves, we rejoice concerning it exceedingly. Is it 
not what we wish to see brought about everywhere? 
What ! Would not the Christians of your great city 
rejoice if they could only make the truths of the 
Bible the topic of conversation in every house? This 
is one of the foundation principles that govern our 
practice. We believe that if we can only make the 
people think about these truths it will lead to their 
salvation. Thousands around us are being absorbed 
and carried away by the excitements of business, 
ambition, and pleasure. It is only by means of a 
counter-excitement such as this that we find it possi- 
ble to successfully arrest their attention." 




Booth'' s 



One for 




In the marvellous meetings of the St. Just campaign 
Mrs. Booth played a very prominent part. Her Sun- 
day afternoon meetings were seasons of exceptional 
demonstration and power. The people walked in for 
miles round in order to be present at the one service. 
Numbers would start on the previous night, bringing 
their refreshments with them, although this involved 
returning as soon as the meeting was over, and walk- 
ing all night in order to get to their daily work by 
Monday morning. 

It was in this town that Mrs. Booth held her first 
meeting for women only. These services subsequently 
became a special feature in her life-work, invariably 
attracting large and select gatherings, and by their 
practical and convincing character revolutionising the 
homes and lives of multitudes. A few extracts will 
serve to illustrate the pointed nature of these dis- 

In dealing with the question of fashion she has 
said : 

" Do not consider fashion when you are settling how you 
ought to order your household, but plan for the highest good 
of your children and those around you, and for your greatest 
usefulness in the world. Never mind fashion. 

" In this day. when chaplains of prisons and reformatories a 
tell us that gaudy, flashy dressing leads as many young girls to ''^^If^^'^ 
destruction as drink, it behoves every true woman to settle 


Booth on 



Age 33. 


The dif- 

before God in her closet what kind of dress she ought to 
wear, and to resolve to wear it in spite of fashion. If all 
professedly Christian ladies would do this what a salvation 
this one reform alone would work in the world! You young 
people here, resolve that you will be original, natural human 
beings, as God would have you; resolve that you won't be 
squozen into this mould, or into that, to please anybody ; that 
you will be an independent woman, educated and refined by 
intercourse with God; but be yourself, and do not aim to be 
anybody else. Set fashion at naught. If people would do 
this what different households they would have! What 
different children! What different friends! What different 
results they would produce in the world, and how differently 
they would feel when they were dying ! Oh, what wasted 
lives ! What beautiful forms, and beautiful minds, and beauti- 
ful intellects are prostrated and ruined at the shrine of the 
god of fashion ! May God deliver us from this idol ! " 

Adopting j^ advocating the adoption of poor and neglected 
children by those who were in a position to do so, 
Mrs. Booth remarks: 

"I have many times said what I here deliberately repeat : 
that if I were dying, and leaving a family of helpless children, 
I would leave it as my last request that they might be 
divided — one here, and another there — amongst any poor but 
really godly families who would receive them, rather than 
they should be got into the most highly trumpeted orphanage 
with which I am acquainted ; for I should infinitely prefer that 
their bodies should lack necessary food and attention, rather 
than that their poor little hearts and souls should be crushed 
and famished for want of love, both human and Divine. 
Children brought up without love are like plants brought up 
without the sun. How blessed a way would it be of serving 
God and your generation, by taking some such children 
yourselves and bringing them up with all the love and care 
with which you bring up your own, or would have done so 
had God granted you the privilege. It will be a happy day 
for England when Christian ladies transfer their sympathies 
from poodles and terriers to destitute and starving children ! " 

When encouraging her audience to overcome their 

instead of 


sense of timidity and weakness, and to embark forth- 1862, 
with in a life of consecrated service, she says: 


"Weakness, my dear sister! We are of little use m any timidity. 
department of the vineyard until we have been made to realize 
our own weakness. The weaker we feel ourselves to be, the 
better. It is not a question of our strength, but of our faith, a quen- 
'Why look ye so earnestly on us (said Peter to those who ''^^"7// 
marvelled at the miracle wrought on the lame), as though by 
our own power or holiness we had made this man to 
walk? . . . Faith in the name of Jesus has made this man 
strong, whom ye see and know.' God does not call us to any 
work in our own strength; He bids us go and do it in His. 
'Give ye them to eat,' said He to the^disciples, but He knew 
who must supply the bread ; so now He requires us to break 
the Bread of Life to the multitude, trusting in Him for the 

" No matter how simple the words, or how tremulous the Can't be 
voice, if v^f^ blesses, then it shall be blessed. The 'Does you ^00 simple. 
love God?' of a little child, accompanied by the 'demonstra- 
tion of the Spirit and of power, ' will do more for Christ and 
souls than the most talented and eloquent sermon without it ; 
for 'it is not by might nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith 
the Lord of Hosts. 

Returning to the pioneer occasion in St. Just, the 
spacious Wesleyan chapel was crowded with women. 
It was calculated that some 2,500 were present. 

Mr. Alfred Chenhalls, then popularly known in the Mr. chen- 

. halls. 

neighbourhood as " the kmg of the Wesleyans, being 
a gentleman of wealth and a prominent Christian 
worker, gives an interesting account of this meeting. 
" It was a Good Friday, and Mr. Booth had asked 
me," says Mr. Chenhalls, "to go over with him to 
Pendeen, to hear the Rev. Robert Aitken preach. 
After the service we lingered behind and spoke to Mr. 
Aitken, On our way home we learned to our surprise 
that Mrs. Booth's special service for women was not yet 4 ^^'2"," 

J^ -' derful 

over. My wife met me, saying 'Oh, Alfred, we /lave meeting. 



Age 33. 


The first- 

An old 

m an 



had a time! There never was such a sight seen in 
St. Just before. Mrs. Booth talked with such Divine 
power that it seemed to me as if every person in the 
chapel who was not right with God must at once con- 
secrate themselves to His service. I never witnessed 
such a scene in my life. Oh that you had been 
there!' I went off to the chapel and found that the 
meeting was only just breaking up, and from what I 
gathered I firmly believe that there was no single ser- 
vice which produced such wonderful results. Many 
of those who had up to this time resisted Mr. Booth's 
powerful appeals w^re brought in on this occasion. 

"We were very much affected by Mrs. Booth's do- 
mestic graces as well as by her public gifts. I re- 
member calling upon her one day and finding her 
busy ironing, with all the dexterity and confidence of 
an experienced hand." 

The subsequent progress of the revival is described 
by Mr. Booth in the following letters: 

" Since I wrote to you last, one of the first-fruits of 
the revival has been gathered by the loving hand of 
our Heavenly Father and safely lodged in the Paradise 
above. I was one morning seeking for the residence 
of a sick man and asked at a cottage if they could 
direct me. An old man volunteered at once to be my 
guide. It was only a few yards, and as we walked 
together I asked him whether he were converted, 
and on his replying in the negative I urged him to 
avail himself of the services to secure the salvation 
of his soul. He promised to attend the chapel and to 
think about the matter. On the following Sunday he 
was at the meeting, came forward, and realised the 
pardon of his sins. On the following Thursday, 
while he sat at the tea-table, he suddenly expired 
without speaking a word. As they carried him to his 


grave, followed by a long train of mourning friends 1862, 
chanting the solemn death-song, I thanked God that ^ 
he was safely landed, and exulted in the thought that 
the revival was already reported before the Throne. 

" A dav or two previously a very different incident a solemn 

•' warning. 

took place. A Christian brother exhorted an uncon- 
verted man to go and hear the stranger preach. He 
replied that he would rather go to the public-house. 
Finding that his exhortations were useless, our friend 
remarked that as the tree fell so it would lie. The 
man repeated the words, and said he supposed it 
would. He then went his way to the public-house, 
where some one treated him with sixteen glasses of ale, 
which he drank. He then went home and retired to 
bed. The next morning he rose, but was too ill to 
sit up. He lay down again and almost immediately 
expired. This has been a solemn warning to the 

"On Sabbath, February 23d, we transferred our The Wes- 
meetings from the Bible Christian to the Wesleyan chapel. 
chapel. It is a large structure, capable of seating 
about two thousand persons. Instead of the usual 
pulpit it has a capacious platform, and altogether 
speaks highly for the liberal and enterprising spirit 
of the people who have erected it. Mr. Hobson, the ns 
Superintendent of this circuit, is a veteran in the i^fgnaent. 
ministry, having 'travelled' fifty-one years, during 
nearly twenty of which he has been chairman of the 
Cornish district. He and his two colleagues met me 
with the greatest cordiality and the fullest assurance 
of co-operation and sympathy. 

" The first week's services exceeded our most san- ^ break 

ana a 

guine expectations. Night after night numbers pause. 
sought the Saviour. This continued for a month, and 
then the power appeared in a large measure to leave 

478 MUS. BOOTH. 

1862, us, and the work dragged heavily. I have often 
Age 33. j^Q|-j(_>gf| these pauses in the onward flow of revival in- 
fluences and prosperity. There is doubtless a ten- 
dency in success to lead to glory unduly in the la- 
bourers. Success is looked for as a matter of course. 
Humiliation, prayer, faith, and all that travailing in 
birth for souls exercised at the commencement of the 
work are no longer deemed necessary. The direct 
operation of the Spirit is overlooked, and perhaps be- 
fore she is aware the church goes forth to the conflict 
in her own strength, and, forsaken by the God of 
battles, she is worsted in the strife. 
What "On Sunday, i6th March, we met together in 'the 

revival f moming, conscious of these truths. Introductory to 
the discourse, I remarked that everybody was asking, 
'What about the revival?' Our own hearts had asked 
the question a hundred times. Many present had 
asked it. During the last six weeks some seven hun- 
dred had sought mercy. Of this number at least six 
hundred had obtained salvation and had now united 
with the various churches in the neighbourhood. 
Hundreds more were the subjects of serious impres- 
sions, but, alas! the power to secure their submission 
Is it over? was wanting. It appeared to slip away on the pre- 
vious Sabbath, and now angels, devils, and men, the 
saved and unsaved, asked 'Is the revival over?' On 
the answer to this question the eternal destiny of 
numbers depended. It appeared to us that, unless 
something coiild be done to bring down more holy 
influence, the revival would be at an end. There was 
plenty of light. We wanted power. How were we 
to get it? There was one way as yet but partially 
tried. Let the church rise up and consecrate herself 
afresh and fully to the Lord. We must come to this. 
" After preaching on holiness, we invited those 


who would make the entire consecration of all to Jesus, 1862, 
and take Him as a complete Saviour, to come forward. ^^ ^^' 
Many of the principal Christians led the way, and a call to 
within a few minutes more than a hundred persons ^"^fon!''*' 
were bowed in tears and prayer, waiting for the bap- 
tism of the Holy Ghost. And the Holy Spirit de- 
scended; cleansing the polluted, and signifying the 
acceptance of the many whole-hearted sacrifices here 
laid on the altar. 

" Never shall I forget that scene. All who wit- -^ »eor 

1 • 11-1 11 1-1 approach 

nessed it were well-nigh overwhelmed with a sense of to Pente- 
the Divine presence. It was the nearest approach to 
the descent of the mighty rushing wind on the day of 
Pentecost to anything in my experience, or in that 
of those present. That Sabbath morning will be 
hallowed in the recollection of St. Just for many 
years to come. 

" The work now assumed more formidable propor- a revival 
tions. It widened as well as deepened. Afternoon 
and evening similar outpourings of the Spirit were 
realised, and during the succeeding week as many as 
forty, fifty, and sixty sought the Saviour day by day. 
The revival is everywhere the engrossing theme. 

" Last Wednesday the Cornish Telegraph announced The Voi- 
that the drill of the Rifle Corps had been suspended, drmlus- 
and that business generally was at a standstill in con- v^'^^^^- 
sequence of the revival. The motto of the county 
arms is 'One and all,' and this is a true characteristic 
of the people. A friend told me the other day that in 
passing one evening through a hamlet containing 
some dozen houses, he was accosted by a man who One and 

■^ all. 

told him that all the adult population were gone to a 
distant chapel to a revival service, leaving him as the 
sole guard and protector of their children and pro- 
perty, so that he was going from house to house look- 



Age 33. 

Mr. Hob- 
son'' s sym- 

ing after all. I was also informed three weeks ago 
that at Truthwells, a village about